0 Up votes0 Down votes

143 views8 pagesn

Dec 04, 2013

© Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

DOCX, PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd

n

Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

143 views

n

Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

- Synchronous Generators
- IEEE Reliability Test System
- Cooper Bussmann Short Circuit and Voltage Drop Calculation
- USER´S MANUAL Power Factory
- EL-4650, EMTP APLICATION GUIDE
- Basic of Generator
- Calculation for Short Circuit Current Calculation using IEC / IEEE Standard
- Transmission Line Parameter Calculation
- Dynamic Line Rating in the world - Overview
- Thermal Power Plants
- Lecture02 Tranmission Line Theory
- N11830 - Line Parameters Calculation
- Synchronous Machines
- EMTP simul(6)
- Losses in Transmission Lines
- TechRef Overhead Line Models[1]
- Applications of Line Model of Emtp
- Synchronous Generators
- Electrical System Studies for Large Projects Executed at Multiple Engineering Centres
- TechRef_CableConstants[1].pdf

You are on page 1of 8

Fig. 1: Resistive Loss on a Al transmission line as a function of radius as a percentage loss over 1000km.

Introduction

According to the Department of Energy, California lost about 19.7 x 109 kWh of electrical energy through transmission/distribution in 2008. [1] This amount of energy loss was equal to 6.8% of total amount of electricity used in the state throughout that year. At the 2008 average retail price of $0.1248/kWh, this amounts to a loss of about $2.4B worth of electricity in California, and a $24B loss nationally. [1] This report looks to explain and quantify the two major sources of loss in high voltage AC transmission lines: resistive loss and corona loss. The former occurs because of the non-zero resistance found wire's metal. Corona loss is an ionization of the air that occurs when the electric fields around a conductor exceed a specific value.

Although the conductors in a transmission line have extremely low resistivity, they are not perfect. This section seeks to quantify that loss through computation of the skin depth and power attenuation factors.

Theory The amount of resistive loss in a system can be found estimated by using corona-free transmission line equations to find the amount of power delivered to any point along the wire and subtracting the initial amount of power. The equations for doing so are below: [2]

In the above equation, c is the speed of light and L, the inductance per unit length of the transmission line is given as:

Fig. 2: Corona loss in kilowatts lost per kilometer of wire as a function of radius. An Al 3 phase 765kV transmission line and Peek's formula were used to generate this graph.

The equations for calculating Rl, the resistance per unit length, can be shown below. It includes the formula for finding the wire's skin depth (&delta), which shows how far into the conductor 90% of the power is carried by current. [3]

IB in this equation is correction factor found by using the first two Bessel I functions. Using the above equations, the total amount of power lost due to resistance is equal to the power at a given distance minus the inital power. Since the amount of loss as a percentage is a fixed amount regardless of initial power, the results listed are written as a percentage of total power. The parameters listed above and summaries of the results of these equations can be found in Table 1. In it, there are estimated losses of a typical US power line made of aluminum (case 1), a European power line at 50Hz (case 2), and a line made out of silver (case 3). A comparison of cases 1 and 3 show that building a long transmission cable can save in resistance loss (about $19M/year), but would cost significantly more to build ($18.5B) at 2010 market prices.

Parameter d a L f IB &delta Rl &alpha 0 c Line Separation Conductor Radius Inductance Per Meter Frequency Conductivity of the Metal Bessel Correction Factor Skin Depth Resistance per Meter attenuation factor Permeability of Free Space Speed of Light %PRloss (1km) %PRloss (1000km) 37.2 ppm 3.66% 60 Hz 3.82 x 107 S/m (Al) 1.1 10.5 mm 29.1 /m 18.6 x 10-9/m Case 1 Case 2 10 m 0.015m 2.6uH/m 50 Hz 3.82 x 107S/m 1.1 11.5 mm 26.5 /m 17.0 x 10-9/m 4 x 10-7 H/m 3 x 108 m/sec 34.0 ppm 3.34% 29.3ppm 2.89% 60 Hz 6.17 x 107S/m (Ag) 1.1 8.3 mm 22.9 /m 14.7 x 10-9/m Case 3

Table 1: Resistive loss values using sample parameters and the formulas listed above.

Measured Values In a paper from the American Electric Power (AEP) company published in 1969, the authors make an estimate that the amount of power loss from non-corona based effects is about 4MW over 100 miles in a 1GW transmission system. [7] Converting to metric units, this gives a loss of about 25MW or 2.5% over a 1000km transmission line. This number is consistent with the resistive loss given in a contemporary, selfpublished report from the AEP. [11] In this report, the resistive loss was listed as between 3.1MW/100 miles and 4.4MW/100 miles, depending on the wiring configuration. This corresponds to between a 1.9% and 2.8% power loss over 1000km.

Corona Loss

Corona loss is the other major type of power loss in transmission lines. Essentially, corona loss is caused by the ionization of air molecules near the transmission line conductors. These coronas do not spark across lines, but rather carry current (hence the loss) in the air along the wire. Corona discharge in transmission lines can lead to hissing/cackling noises, a glow, and the smell of ozone (generated from the breakdown and recombination of O2 molecules). The color and distribution of this glow depends on the phrase of the AC signal at any given moment in time. Positive coronas are smooth and blue in color, while negative coronas are red and spotty. [5] Corona loss only occurs when the line to line voltage exceeds the corona threshold. Unlike resistive loss which where amount of power lost was a fixed percentage of input, the percentage of power lost due to corona is a function of the signal's voltage. Corona discharge power losses are also highly dependent on the weather and temperature. Theory The corona factor equation was empirically derived by F.W. Peek and published in 1911.[4] In a later publication, he modified the original equation and he showed that the total amount of power loss in a wire due to the corona effect was equal to the equation below: [5]

For examples of these values and their meaning, please refer to Table 2.

Parameter k0 g0 kd a d f ki V0 Fixed constant Disruptive Gradient in Air Normalized Air Density Factor 1 (25 C, 76 cm pressure) Radius of Conductor Conductor Spacing Frequency Wire Irregularity Factor Line Voltage to Neutral (1/1.73 x Voltage Between Conductors) Disruptive Critical Voltage (g0 ki a kd ln(d/a)) Corona Loss kW/km/line Corona Loss % (1000km line at 2.25 GW)

Sample Value 241 21.1 kv/cm 1 3.5 cm (see Fig. 2) 1000 cm 60 Hz 0.95 (weathered wires) 442 kV (765 kV/1.73) 397 kv 25kW/km 3.3%

As can be seen in Fig. 2, the radius of the conductor has a large effect on the total amount of corona loss. One way of getting lines with a larger effective radius is through the use of bundles, where 2-6 separate, but close lines are kept at the same voltage via intermittent connectors. This reduces the amount of metal needed to achieve a given radius and corona loss. Transient calculations of corona loss can be found in reference [10].

Me asu red Val ues In ref ere nce [6], the aut Fig. 3: Total loss of a 2.25 GWm 3 phase 765 kV transmission line as a function of radius. hor s measured the corona loss of a 765kV, 3 phase, and bundled transmission line to be about 1.87kW/km in fair weather. This amounts to only about a 0.083% loss over a 1000km line. In bad weather, however, the authors measured the loss to be 84.3kW/km, or about a 3.7% loss. Using these numbers and the average price of electricity, a day long rainstorm on a 100km stretch of 765kV wires costs an electric company about $25,000. Looking at voltages greater than 765kV, the Hydro-Quebec Institute of Research measured the amount of corona loss at voltages up to 1200 kV. [8] They found that the corona loss of a 6 and 8 conductor bundles were 22.7 kW/km and 6.2 kW/km, respectively. These numbers were measured in "heavy artificial rain". The discrepancies between [6] and [8] probably stemmed from different radii and conductor spacing. Finally, researches in Finland measured the amount of corona loss in transmission lines under frost conditions. [9] This paper also shows the large reduction in corona loss from bundling wires: about 2.5-5x for each conductor added between 1-3. Under frost conditions, they show that the loss of the lines is about 21 kW for a 2 conductor bundle of a 400kV three phase transmission line.

Fig. 4: Cost of a 2.25 GWm 3 phase 765 kV transmission line as a function of radius. The cost of a transmission line was found by taking the total wire volume and multiplying by the 2010 market price of aluminum ($1.14 per pound).

Summary

This report shows the how to estimate both corona and resistive losses in wire and also gives experimental results. Fig. 3 provides an estimate of the total amount of loss in a system as a function of the conductor radius. Looking at this figure, the amount of loss drops dramatically as the wire radius increases to about 4cm. If made of solid metal (as the formulas above assume), this would be a fairly unwieldy size. Because of this, power line companies bundle smaller lines to keep both building and loss costs as low as possible. Fig. 4 shows the total amount of theoretical power loss and cost of a 1000km high voltage transmission line. As the wire gets larger, the amount of loss decreases as about 1/r (resistive) and quadratically to 0 (corona). Larger wires also incur a quadratically larger cost, and eventually reach a break-even point where larger conductor radii do not make financial sense. It should be noted that this figure (wrongly) assumes a solid, homogeneous wire. Power lines, in addition to being bundled, also contain a cheaper steel core on the interior of the wire. This is because once past the skin depth into the wire, where 90% of the power is carried, the resistivity of the wire becomes less important. 2010 C. Harting. The author grants permission to copy, distribute and display this work in unaltered form, with attribution to the author, for noncommercial purposes only. All other rights, including commercial rights, are reserved to the author.

References

[1] M. Bowles, " State Electricity Profiles 2008," US Energy Information Administration, DOE/EIA 0348(01)/2, March 2010. [2] W. Hayt and J. Buck, Engineering Electromagnetics (Mcgraw-Hill, 2006), pp 346, 486. [3] F. Rachidi and S. Tkachenko, Electromagnetic Field Interaction with Transmission Lines From Classical Theory to HF Radiation Effects (WIT Press, 2008). [4] F. W. Peek, "The Law of the Corona and the Dielectric Strength of Air," Transactions of A.I.E.E. 30, 1889 (1911). [5] F. W. Peek, Dielectric Phenomena in High-Voltage Engineering (McGraw-Hill, 1929), pp 169-214. [6] N, Kolcio et al., "Radio-Influence and Corona-Loss Aspects of AEP 765-kV Lines" IEEE Transactions on Power Apparatus and Systems PAS-88, No.9, 1343 (1969). [7] G. S. Vassell and R. M. Maliszewski, "AEP 765-kV System: System Planning Considerations" IEEE Transactions on Power Apparatus and Systems PAS-88, 1320 (1969). [8] N. G. Trinh, P. S. Maruvada and B. Poirier, "A Comparative Study of the Corona Performance of Conductor Bundles for 1200 kV Transmission Lines," IEEE Transactions on Power Apparatus and Systems PAS-93,940 (1974). [9] K. Lahti, M. Lahtinen and K. Nousiainen, "Transmission Line Corona Losses Under Hoar Frost Conditions," IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery 12, 928 (1997). [10] X. Li, O. Malik and Z. Zhao, "Computation of Transmission line Transients Including Corona Effects," IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery 4, 1816 (1989). [11] " Transmission Facts," American Electric Power.

- Synchronous GeneratorsUploaded bySyed Muhammad Munavvar Hussain
- IEEE Reliability Test SystemUploaded bygforti
- Cooper Bussmann Short Circuit and Voltage Drop CalculationUploaded bycloobpsp
- USER´S MANUAL Power FactoryUploaded by马俊
- EL-4650, EMTP APLICATION GUIDEUploaded byivanhhn
- Basic of GeneratorUploaded bysrexpower
- Calculation for Short Circuit Current Calculation using IEC / IEEE StandardUploaded byibmmoiz
- Transmission Line Parameter CalculationUploaded byksg9731
- Dynamic Line Rating in the world - OverviewUploaded byDalibor Kladar
- Thermal Power PlantsUploaded bypayments8543
- Lecture02 Tranmission Line TheoryUploaded bySai Adarsh
- N11830 - Line Parameters CalculationUploaded byFalconegypt
- Synchronous MachinesUploaded byJones Bk Essuman
- EMTP simul(6)Uploaded bykjfen
- Losses in Transmission LinesUploaded byEr Ashish Baheti
- TechRef Overhead Line Models[1]Uploaded byLalo Pato
- Applications of Line Model of EmtpUploaded byMarin Rivera Granados
- Synchronous GeneratorsUploaded bychinnarao
- Electrical System Studies for Large Projects Executed at Multiple Engineering CentresUploaded bygtgreat
- TechRef_CableConstants[1].pdfUploaded byRafat Thong
- Electrical Substations Ais-gisUploaded byAndres Felipe Mendieta
- Transmission lossesUploaded by11751175
- Synchronous MachinesUploaded bynandhakumarme
- Transient Analysis Two Induction Motors StartingUploaded byMarko Istenic
- IEEE-TPC Tutorial Line Losses 26 July 2010 Final2Uploaded byDale Douglass
- Short Circuit Current Level ControlUploaded bymshahidshaukat
- Transmission Line and Distribution LossesUploaded byjaythakar8887
- Hell Opened to Christians - Pinamonti, Giovanni PietroUploaded byFrancisco J. Salinas B.
- TechRef_OverheadLineConstants[1].pdfUploaded byRafat Thong
- SubstationUploaded byKopi143

- PSSE Sample ReportsUploaded byThakur Yogendra
- 2075 LeavesUploaded byThakur Yogendra
- Google BookUploaded byThakur Yogendra
- trio75tloutdUploaded byThakur Yogendra
- Arc HydroUploaded byThakur Yogendra
- Interview of NEA MD Mukesh Kafle March-1-2015Uploaded byThakur Yogendra
- ReadmeUploaded byBol Cao
- Meter 6adke FormUploaded byThakur Yogendra
- Albert EinsteinUploaded byThakur Yogendra
- Wiring Designs yogiUploaded byThakur Yogendra
- Arc Hydro Tools 2.0 - OverviewUploaded byPiara Guadalupe Arroyo Castillo
- PS3_28Uploaded bygolsang
- Toefeel BookUploaded byThakur Yogendra
- San CharUploaded byThakur Yogendra
- How to Open Nfo FilesUploaded byThakur Yogendra
- Ieee in DetailsUploaded byThakur Yogendra
- Letter FormatUploaded byThakur Yogendra
- LicenseUploaded byThakur Yogendra
- EnvironmentUploaded byKarki2
- How to Open Nfo FilesUploaded byali
- Analysis Report PsseUploaded byThakur Yogendra
- Tax Issues OnUploaded byThakur Yogendra
- USANDO FreeHand MXUploaded byisau Menjivar
- Readme!Uploaded byThakur Yogendra
- E-Sewa FAQUploaded byThakur Yogendra
- A CsrUploaded bymanohargud
- New Text DocumentUploaded byThakur Yogendra

- Presentation on Internal AlignmentUploaded byAman Kaur
- ISO 9001 Quality Manual QM-06 PlanningUploaded byRaju.Pal
- last-na-toUploaded byrussel sabilla
- The 7 habits of highly effective peopleUploaded byNaresh Prasad Shrestha
- CEG TEUploaded byBryan Lee Jun Han
- x431-v-x431-pro-user-manual.pdfUploaded byJorge Amigo G.
- Pulsarns150as150.pdfUploaded byBihan Fernando
- Static Pressure and Pressure Head in FluidsUploaded byyarzar17
- LogUploaded byakula_rupesh
- BA Elmasonic S EnUploaded byRazvan Preda
- ChemcUploaded bySaniha Aysha Ajith
- Ankit Shah - Cirruculum Vitae.Uploaded byAnkit Shah
- Target Publoication Std 12 Model Question PapersUploaded bycolorado wilderness
- Briggs StrattonUploaded byterry2783
- chocolateUploaded byasranzara
- Turbocharger Matching.pdfUploaded byGomathi Sankar
- kekona begonia - riUploaded byapi-377854628
- Jamaica: Montego Bay Urban ProfileUploaded byUnited Nations Human Settlements Programme (UN-HABITAT)
- Tips for Writing Your Research ProposalUploaded byNyeko Francis
- Analysing Tithi Pravesh Chakra IUploaded byHoracio Tackanoo
- 2018 Sea Cswip Course Exam FeeUploaded byAmar Mohammed
- Stops and PupilsUploaded byNahush Bapat
- FormulasUploaded byYarlagadda Harsha Vardhan
- UCN Suggested PackagesUploaded bySudhanshu Sakhare
- Advanced Smart GridUploaded byJohn Khiangte
- Otc 21575Uploaded byMintu Choudhury
- 1956-Arnold-The Growth and Properties of Metal WhiskersUploaded byIndu Karn
- art 1 oil pastel landscape rubricUploaded byapi-244578825
- ch02.pptUploaded bymuhendis_8900
- Swing CheckUploaded bySuresh Ramanujalu

## Much more than documents.

Discover everything Scribd has to offer, including books and audiobooks from major publishers.

Cancel anytime.