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Loesses in Louisiana

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Vicksbu rg# M iss iss ipp i
by
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B. j. Miller, G. C. Lewis, J. j . Alford, am VI. j. Day
Guidebook for the Friends of the Pleistocene Field Trip,
APril 12, 13, am 14, 1984
Agronomy Dept.
La. Agri. Exp. Sta.
LSU Agricultural Center
La. Stat e Univ. and A & M
Baton Rouge, La.
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2. Dept. of Plant and Soil
Uhiversity of I daho
Moscow, Idaho
Sciences 3. Geography Dept.
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Western Il l onois Univ.
Macomb, Illonois
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ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
It is unfortunate that any attempt to acknowledge all who in some way
have provided assistance in the studies of loess in Louisiana, the preparation
of this guidebook, and planning and coordination of the Field Trip is fraught
with omissions. therefore, wish to express our thanks and appreciation
to all 'lTho gave ass is tance.
The contribution of Dr. Scott Burns at Louisiana Tech University has been
tremendous. Without his cooperation and efforts, the Field Trip would have
been next to impossible. We especially want to thank him for handling all
correspondence and coordination for the meeting. Similarily, Dr. Wayne Hudnall
in the LSU Agronomy Department has provided invaluable help in logistics for
the field trip and in coordinating access to sites. Others whose special
contribution is appreciated include Max Baer, K. L. Latiolais, B. A. Lindsay,
M. E. Sweeley, C. M. Corkern, and K. M. Curtis.
Special thanks are due to Ms. Dianne Beeson, Ms. Lisa Landry, Ms. Pamela
Latimer and Ms. Lorraine Crawford for cooperation, tolerance and special
efforts in typing and printing the guidebook.
The Field investigations have been conducted In conjunction with the Coop-
erative Soil Survey Program in Louisiana. The support, cooperation and assist-
ance of the many soil scientists with the USDA-Soil Conservation Service is
especially appreciated. A partial listing of those involved includes R. B.
Daniels, B. A. Touchet, W. L. E.T. Allen, B. J. Fleming, C. E. Martin,
P. G. Hartin, S. D. Matthews, D. R. McDaniel, C. T. Midkiff, L. Morris, K. E.
Murphy, B. E. Spicer, L. Trahan, D. F. Slusher, E. Reynolds, and T. A. Weems.
TABLF. OF CONTENTS
INTRODUCTION . ..•. 0 •••••••• It •••••••••• It It ••••••••••••••••• III a •••••••
LOESS IN LOUISIANA ..
Historical Overview.
Lithology •.•.•••••.•.
Source and Distribution Patterns •..••
Geographic and Landscape Settings .••
Basal Mixed Zones.
Other Features •.••
Depth of leaching •.
Color •.••••••••..
Pedogenic sands •.
Buried soils ••
Stratigraphy ••.••
Twenty Questions .................. .
Page
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Modern Soils Developed in the Loesses............................ 22
MATERIAL S AND METHODS ••..••••• It • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 28
FIELD TRIP SITES
Site 1..
Site 2 •••
Site 3 ••
Site 4 ••
Site 5 ••
Site 6 •••
Site 7.
Site R •••
Site 9 .•
• ••••••••••••• II' •••••••••••
REFERENCES • .•.. 0 • '" •• '" ••••••• e ••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••
31
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59
68
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121
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II
LIST OF FIGURES
Figure 1. Approximate location of completed transects in study of Loess in'
Louisiana ..................... ............................ III iii •• iii • iii .. • • 2
Figure 2. Approximate thickness and distribution of Pre-Peoria loess in
Louisiana .... . . . ... . . . . ... ... . . . . . . . .... . . . . . . . .. . .. . . . . .... . .. .. . . 4
Figure 3. Approximate thickness and distribution of Peoria loess in
Louisiana .. 0 • • •• • ••• • • • • •• • •••• • • • ••• ••• • • • • • • • •• •• •• • •• • •••• • •• • • • • 5
Figure 4.' Approximate thickness and distribution of loess in
• • • • • • • • • • • . • • • • • • . • • • • • • • • • • . • • • • • . • • • • . • • • • . • • . • • • • • • • . • 6
Figure 5. Clay-free particle size distribution in the silt-size fraction from
two soils developed in Peoria loess in Louisiana ••••• -. • • • ••• . •• • • • • • 8
Figure 6. Thickness of loess and the zone of mixing in loess overlying sandy
Coastal Plain deposits along an east-west transect in Southeastern
Louisiana (Source: Spicer, 1969; Miller, B. J. unpublished data) ••• 11
Figure 7. Loess thickness and thickness of the zone of mixing along an
east-west transect in Franklin Parish, Louisiana (Source: Rehage,
1980)........................................................... .. .. 12
Figure 8. Relationships among loesses identified and correlated at six
locations in the Lower Mississippi Valley ••••••••••••••••••••••••••• 16
Figure 9. Clay-free particle size distribution (Coulter Counter and sieve) in
a Memphis soil and underlying Paleosol on the Prairie Terrace in
East Baten Rouge Parish, Louisiana .•....•.•..••.......•..•.•....•.•. 34
Figure 10. Clay-free particle size distribution (Coulter Counter and sieve) in
an Olivier soil and underlying Paleosols on the Irene Terrace in
East Baton Rouge Parish, Louisiana •••••.•••••••••••••••••••••••••••• 44
Figure 11. Loess thickness and distribution observed in an east-west transect
in Lafayette Parish. Louisiana ••.•.•••.....•••....•......•...... 50
Figure 12. Schematic of relationships between modern soils and loess thickness
on the Prairie Terrace in the Lafayette-Crowley area in Louisiana ••. 51
Figure 13. Clay-free particle size distribution (Coulter Counter and sieve) in
a Memphis soil and underlying Paleosol on the Prairie Terrace in
Lafayette Parish, Louisiana .. 0 o. I) It 0 It.o.o ••••• o. CII ••••••••• 0." •• " I)" •• ". 54
14. Alluvium-Loess - Terrace formation relationships in the vicinity of
.Lafayette, Louisiana ................................ III •• " ••• II " • III • • • • • • 60
Figure 15. Clay-free particle size distribution (Coulter Counter and sieve) in
a Baldwin soil unit inclusion and underlying Paleosols on the
Hulocene Mississippi River alluvial plain in Lafayette Parish,
Lou is ia na ........ •... III It eo " 0 • '" 0 e 0 eo 0 41 0 •• 0 • 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 • 0 0 0 0 It 0 0 0 0 0 I) " I) • B eo e 63
III
Figure 16. Clay-free particle size distribution (Coulter Counter and sieve) in
a Duralde soil taxadjunct and underlying Paleosol on the Montgomery
Terrace in Evangeline Parish, Louisiana............................. 72
Figure 17. Some relationships between sediments, landscapes, and modern soils
in areas with thick loess deposits on the Macon Ridge in Louisiana •. 78·
Figure 18. Some relationships between sediments, landscapes. and modern soils
in areas with moderately thick loess deposits on the Macon Ridge in
Louisiana ... " ...... "............................................... 79
Figure 19. Some relationships between sediments, landscapes, and modern soils
in areas with thin loess deposits on the Macon Ridge in Louisiana.. 80
Figure 20. Some relationships between sediments, landscapes, and modern soils
in areas lacking identifiable loess deposits on the Macon Ridge in
Louisiana ............. It 0 ............... OJ ........................ 3 8... 81
Figure 21. Distribution of loess and other sediments on an east-west
transverse across the Macon Ridge from Louisiana Highway 4 bridge
at the Boeuf River to vicinity of Old Church in Franklin Parish,
Louisiana" .............. It 0 • • • •• • • • • • • • • •• •• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • ... •• • • • • • • 82
Figure 22. Clay-free particle size distribution (Coulter Counter and sieve) in
a Dexter soil on the Macon Ridge in Franklin Parish, Louisiana..... 85
Figure 23. General relationships among geologic materials in the Sicily Island
Hills area in Louisiana ................................ " ...... eo. • • 89
Figure 24. Clay-free particle size distribution (Coulter Counter and sieve) in
a Memphis soil and underlying Paleosols on Sicily Island in
Figure
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L-J.
Catahoula Parish, Louisiana........................................ 93
Soil-Landscape-Parent Material relationships in Morehouse Parish,
Louis iana .. .. ijo .. w iii ...... ill .. 0;; G G .. " ;:; iii> $ ill ill ;; G G G ¢> Q Q ::> ::I ::> ::> e = eo eo e ::I ::I ::I = eo ::I = ., " e '" ., ., « O!) • ., • @I '" • 99
Figure 26. Clay-free particle size distribution (Coulter Counter and sieve) in
a Memphis soil and underlying Paleosol on the Macon Ridge in
Franklin Parish, Louisiana......................................... 102
Figure 27. Mississippi S t a n d a I ~ Loess Section showing approximate position of
material dated by C and TL methods............................... 108
Figure 28. Clay-free Particle-size Distribution (Coulter Counter and Sieve) in
a Memphis Soil and Underlying Paleosols in Vicksburg, Mississippi •. 112
IV
Table 1.
Table 2.
LIST OF TABLES
14
Significant C and Thermoluminesence Dates Relating to the Loess
Stratigraphy in the Lower Mississippi Valley ••••••••••••••••••••••••
Major Soils Identified in Louisiana that Developed in Peoria Loess
Deposits Thicker Than 1.25 to 1 ~ 5 0 meters •••••••••••••••••••••••••••
Table 3. Major Soils Identified in Louisiana that Developed in Peoria Loess
Deposits Less Than 1.25 to 1.59 Meters Thick and Contain an Admixture
15
23
of the Underlying Material Throughout ••• ~ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
Table 4. Major Soils Identified in Louisiana that Developed in Pre-Peoria
Loess Deposits More Than 1.25 to 1.50 Meters Thick.................. 25
Table 5. Major Soils Identified in Louisiana that Developed in Pre-Peoria
Loess Deposits Less Than 1.25 to 1.50 Meters Thick and Contain an
Admixture of the Underlying Material Throughout..................... 26
Table 6. Comparative Differences Between Modern Soils Developed in Peoria and
Pre-Peoria Loess in Louisiana and Having Similar Landscape and
Internal Soil,Drainage Characteristics.............................. 27
Table 7. Particle Size Distribution in Memphis Soil and Underlying Paleosol
on the Prairie Terrace in East Baton Rouge Parish, Louisiana........ 35
Table 8. Profile Distribution Trends of Phyllosilicates in the Clay-size
Fraction of a Memphis Soil and Underlying Paleosol on the Prairie
Terrace in East Baton Rouge Parish, Louisiana....................... 36
Table 9. Selected Chemical Characteristics of a Memphis Soil and Underlying
Paleosol on the Prairie Terrace in East Baton Rouge Parish,
Louisiana........................................................... 37
Table 10. Whole-soil Composition of Nine Elements and Ti/Zr Ratios in a
Memphis Soil and Underlying Paleosol on the Prairie Terrace in East
Baton Rouge p'arish. Louisiana........................................ 38
Table 11. Particle Size Distribution in an Olivier Soil and Underlying
Paleosols on the Irene Terrace in East Baton Rouge Parish.
Louisiana . ..... 0 ••••••••••••••••• e ••••••••• 0 8 • ~ • "" • 8 e e 0 III eo " " c c e c:I C :: 0 " = 0 ;) 45
Table 12. Profile Distribution Trends of Phyllosilicates in an Olivier Soil
and Underlying Paleosols on the Irene Terrace in East Baton Rouge
Parish, Louisianao .. ~ .... D •• It •••••••• II ",.0 •• 'I' o. 0 0 0"" G G I) 9 9 •••••••• " III e" 46
Table 13. Selected Chemical Characteristics of an Olivier Soil and Underlying
Paleosols on the Irene Terrace in East Baton Rouge Parish,
Louisiana ...... .• 0 •••••••• eo" 'II •• '0 G ...... 'II ••••••• 0 • 0 •••••••••• ~ 'I' ••• " I') • 47
Table 14. Whole-soil Composition of Nine Elements and Ti/Zr Ratio in an
Olivier soil and underlying Paleosols on the Irene Terrace in East
Baton Rouge Parish. Louisiana....................................... 48
v
Table 15. Particle-size Distribution in a Memphis Soil and Underlying Paleosol
on the Prairie Terrace in Lafayette Parish. Louisiana •.... , .....•.. , 55
Table 16. Profile Distribution Trends of Phyllosilicates in the Clay-size
Fraction of a Memphis Soil and Underlying Paleosol on the Pr&irie
Terrace in Lafayette Parish, Louisiana.............................. 56
Table 17. Selected Chemical Characteristics of a Memphis Soil and Underlying
Paleosol on the Prairie Terrace in Lafayette Parish, Louisiana...... 57
Table 18. Whole-soil Composition of Nine Elements and Ti/Zr Ratio in a Memphis
Soil and Underlying Paleosol on the Prairie Terrace in Lafayette
Parish, Louisianalll ........ o •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• " ........ 00... 58
Table 19. Particle-size Distribution in a Baldwin Soil Unit Inclusion and
Underlying Paleosols on the Holocene Mississippi River Alluvial
Plain in Lafayette Parish, Louisiana................................ 64
Table 20. Profile Distribution Trends of Phyllosilicates in the Clay-size
Fraction of a Baldwin Soil Unit Inclusion and Underlying Paleosols
on the Holocene Mississippi RiVer Alluvial Plain in Lafayette
Parish, Louisiana ... III ••••••••••••• lit •••• II' ••••••••••••••••• " ••••• 110 •• /I • 65
Table 21. Selected Chemical Characteristics of a Baldwin Soil Unit Inclusion
and Underlying Paleosols on the Holocene Mississippi River Alluvial
Plain in Lafayette Parish, Louisiana................................ 66
Table 22. Whole-soil Composition of Nine Elements in a Baldwin Soil Unit
Inclusion and Underlying Paleosols on the Holocene Mississippi River
Alluvial Plain in Lafayette Parish. Louisiana....................... 67
Table 23. Particle-size Distribution in a Duralde Soil and Underlying Paleosol
on the Montgomery Terrace in Evangeline Parish, Louisiana........... 73
Table 24. Profile Distribution Trends of Phyllosilicates in a Duralde Soil and
Underlying Paleosol on the Montgomery Terrace in Evangeline Parish,
Louisiana.e ... " .................... e ••••••• "'e •••••••••••••••••••• 0 ••• 74
Table 25. Selected Chemical Characteristics of a Duralde Soil and Underlying
Paleosol on the Montgomery Terrace in Evangeline Parish. Louisiana., 75
Table 26. While-Soil Composition of Nine Elements and Ti/Zr Ratio in a Duralde
Soil and Underlying Paleosol on the Montgomery Terrace in Evangeline
Parish, Louis iana. (I 0 •• III •• " & •• e eo. " ••• 0 .. It 110 ....... 0 It •• <ill •• II • III •• It 1'1 •• II Go • III • 76
Table 27. Particle-size Distribution in a Dexter Soil on the Macon Ridge in
Franklin Parish, Louisiana .. It ••••••••••••• It •••••••••••••••••••• It •• ID. 86
Table 28. Profile Distribution Trends of Phyllosilicates in the Clay-size
Fraction of a Dexter Soil on the Macon Ridge in Franklin Parish,
Louisiana ..................... It •••••••• It ••••••••••••••••••• • It • • • • • • • 86
Table 29. Selected Chemical Characteristics of a Dexter Soil on the Macon
Ridge in Franklin Parish. Louisiana .•...•••• 0 .. 0................... .87
VI
Table 30. Whole-soil Composition and Ti/Zr Ratio in a Dexter Soil on the Macon
Ridge in Franklin Parish, Louisiana................................. 87
Table 31. Particle-size Distribution in a Memphis Soil and Underlying
Paleosols on Sicily Island in Catahoula Parish, Louisiana........... 94
Table 32. Profile Distribution Trends of Phyllosilicates in the Clay-size
Fraction ·of a Memphis Soil and Underlying Paleosols on Sicily Island
in Catahoula Parish, Louisiana...................................... 95
Table 33. Selected Chemical Characteristics of a Memphis Soil and Underlying
Paleosols on Sicily Island in Catahoula Parish, Louisiana........... 96
Table 34. Whole-soil Composition of Nine Elements and Ti/Zr Ration in a
Memphis Soil and Underlying Paleosols on Sicily Island in Catahoula
Parish, Louisiana................................................... 97
. -
Table 35. Particle-size Distribution in a Memphis Soil and Underlying Paleosol
on the Macon Ridge in Franklin Parish, Louisiana •••••••••••••••••••• 103
Table 36. Profile Distribution Trends of Phyllosilicates in the Clay-size
Fraction of a Memphis Soil and Underlying Paleosol on the Macon
Ridge in Franklin Parish, Louisiana ••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• 104
Table 37. Selected Chemical Characteristics of a Memphis Soil and Underlying
Paleosol on the Macon Ridge in Franklin Parish, Louisiana ••••••••••• 105
Table 38. Whole-soil Composition of Nine Elements and Ti/Zr Ration in a
Memphis Soil and Underlying Paleosol on the Macon Ridge in Franklin
Parish, Louisiana ...................................... 0" •••••• " • • • • 106
Table 39. Particle-size Distribution in a Memphis Soil and Underlying
PaleosolS in Vicksburg, Mississippi................................. 114
Table 40. Profile Distribution Trends of Phyllosilicates in the Clay-size
Fraction of a Memphis Soil and Underlying Paleosols in Vicksburg,
Mississippi.... ... . . . . . . ... . . ... .. .. . . . .. .. . .. . .. . .. .. . . . . . . . . .. . . .. 116
Table 41. Selected Chemical Characteristics of a Memphis Soil and Underlying
Paleosols in Vicksburg, Mississippi ••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• 117
Table 42. Whole-soil Composition of Nine Elements and Ti/Zr Ration in a
Memphis Soil and Underlying Paleosols in Vicksburg. Mississippi ••••• 119
INTRODUCTION
There has not been a comprehensive regional study of the extensive loess
deposits in the Southern Mississippi Valley. This field guide summarizes the
results of investigations of the loesses in Louisiana and the Vicksburg,
Mississippi area conducted by the authors and other workers. The included
information and interpretations are based large1y on; characterization data
from approximately 200 pedons of soils developed in loess in Louisiana;
field-study transects (Figure 1) to determine the thickness, distribution and
other characteristics of the loesses; data included in the field guide and
similar data from selected sites on the transects and at other locations;
and on information generated by other workers.
The field sites, supporting descriptions and analytical data have been
selected to illustrate important features of the loesses and to show
relationships among them. A number of key relationships with respect to the
underlying units are also demonstrated at the various sites.
LOESS DEPOSITS IN LOUISIANA
Historical Overview
The earliest known report of loess in Louisiana is Charles Lyell's (1847)
description of loess bluffs facing the Mississippi River near Port Hudson in
East Baton Rouge Parish. He believed these deposits had a fluvial origin and
noted their similarity to loess of the Rhine Valley. Loess has since been
reported in the state by a number of workers. Emerson (1918) described
thickness and distribution of most of the loess deposits now recognized
throughout Louisiana. He considered them to be aeolian in origin with the
Mississippi River floodplain the major source. Russell (1944) attributed the.
deposits to in situ formation through loessification. a specific weathering
process in alluvium. Wascher and coworkers (1947) identified three superposed
loesses in the Southern Mississippi Valley. They recognized calcareous and
leached noncalcareous loess and identified both in Louisiana. Like Emerson
(918), they considered the loess aeolian in origin from a Mississippi River
floodplain source. Leighton and Willman (1950) showed loess covering
Pre-Holocene surfaces near the Mississippi River floodplain in Louisiana.
Daniels and Young (1968) described a loess deposit overlying the Prairie
Terrace and on the west side of the Mississippi River floodplain in South
Central Louisiana. They showed a continuous east to west thinning pattern for
the loess. Spicer (1969) obtained data from two east-west transects in East
and West Feliciana Parishes, Louisiana and showed a marked west to east
thinning pattern. Touchet and Daniels (1970) described a post-Montgomery
Pre-Prairie age loess in the area immediately west of the Mississippi River in
Central Louisiana and showed a distinct east to west thinning pattern for the
deposit. A Pre-Peoria loess was identified on the Bastrop Hills in
Northeastern Louisiana in areas west of the Peoria loess mantle by Rehage
(1980). He mapped the thickness and distribution of this loess and of the
Peoria loess to the east on the Macon Ridge in Louisiana. Miller and
coworkers (1982) prepared a loess thickness and distribution map for Louisiana
based on a number of study transects. They identified one loess on the
Prairie Terrace and two on older surfaces. Their map shows loess thickness
decreasing in directions normal to the Mississippi River floodplain and
suggests that the older loess is more extensive than the younger. The
thickness and distribution of the two loesses identified in Louisiana (Miller,
1
2
~ :1
~ , i: ~ ~ .1
~ ~ "
"
VI
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..
1982) are shown in Figures 1 and 2. Figure 3 shows the combined thickness and
distribution of loesses in Louisiana. The recent Geologic Map of Louisiana
(Snead and McCulloh, 1984) identifies areas having loess greater than one
meter thick. These areas correspond approximately to the distribution of
loess greater than one meter thick shown by Miller and coworkers (1982).
Lithology
A fresh. moist exposure of the unweathered loess r ~ v e a l s a massive,
coherent but friable yellowish brown (10YR 5/4) to light yellowish brown (10YR
6/4) calcareous silt. Secondary carbonate concretions and pulmonate gastropod
shells are present in places. The unweathered loess is less than 10 percent
clay «2 .0 micron). 85 to 95 percent silt (2-50 micron) and less than 10
percent sand (50-200 micron). The sand present is almost entirely very fine
sand (50-100 micron). A distinctive distribution pattern of partjcles within
the silt-size fraction (Figure 5) is characteristic of the loess (Lewis et
a1., 1984).
Carbonate content of the loess. as CaC0
3
equivalent and exclusive of
secondary concretions and calcareous fossils, is about 20 percent at most
sites and ranges between approximately 15 and 30 percent. Both calcite and
dolomite are present in relative amounts that are yet to be established in
Louisiana. Snowden (1966) found dolomite more abundant than calcite in the
unweathered loess at Vicksburg, Mississippi. Calcite is the indurating agent
in the secondary concretions which expel very little, if any, of the
surrounding matrix but concentrate certain elements such as Ba and S during
formation (Qualls, 1984).
The noncarbonate clay-size fraction is almost entirely smectite (60-75
percent), micaceous minerals (20-25 percent) and kaolinite (10-20 percent)
with trace amounts of vermiculite, chlorite, feldspars, and quartz. The silt
and sand size fractions are comprised almost entirely of quartz (80-90+
percent). K-feldspars (5-10 percent) plagioclase feldspars (1-3 percent), mica
(l-2 percent) and lesser amounts of amphiboles, epidote, pyroxenes,
tourmaline, garnet. and zircon. Magnetite. ilmenite, rutile. goethite, and
hematite may also be present (Snowden, 1966; Otvos, 1975; Miller, 1984
unpublished) •
Weathering, soil development. and mixing zones near loess-nonloess
contacts can and do result in characteristics that differ appreciably from
those of the unweathered loess.
Sec tions containing unweathered loess are restricted to parts of Sicily
Island in Northeastern Louisiana. to that part of West Feliciana Parish lying
north and west of St. Francisville and to isolated areas near the Mississippi
River floodplain in South Central Louisiana. In these areas, the thickest
loess deposits together with the steepest topography and consequent greater
runoff and erosion have resulted in preservation of unweathered loess at
depths of less than 2 meters in many upland areas.
Source and Distribution Patterns
The Mississippi River floodplain served as the source of the loess during
periods of glaciation in the mid-continent area drained by the river and its
3
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tributary streams. Several lines of evidence support this conclusion. Loess
deposits in Louisiana and Mississippi are restricted to preloess surfaces that
form relatively narrow north-south bands on the east and west sides of the
Mississippi River floodplain. Thickness of these deposits decrease at
predictable rates as a function of distance normal to the floodplain (Wascher
et al.. 1948; Spicer, 1969; Rehage. 1980; Miller et aI., 1982). A loess
component cannot be identified on the more stable preloess surfaces in
locations that can be predicted only in terms of distance from the floodplain.
The suite of minerals identified in the unweathered loess is consistent with a
Mississippi River sediment source during periods of active glaciation in areas
drained by the river and that contain limestones and dolomites among the
various rock types (Snowden, 1966; Otvos, 1975). There is a decrease in sand
and an increase in clay-size particles in the loess as a function of distance
from the floodplain. Within the silt-size fraction coarse silt decreases and
fine silt increases with distance from the floodplain (Figure 5). Finally,
thickness of the zone of pedogenic m1x1ng of loess with the underlying
materials is inversely related to distance normal to the floodplain (Spicer,
1969; Rehage, 1980) reflecting relative rates of loess accumulation on
pedogenically active landscapes.
In the North Louisiana area, maximum thickness of the Peoria loess is
greatest on the east side of the Mississippi River floodplain with more than
12 meters accumulation at Vicksburg in Mississippi. This compares with 3 to 4
meters along the eastern edge of the Macon Ridge in Louisiana which lies
across the floodplain west of Vicksburg. A reversal of this relationship
southward is illustrated by comparing maximum thicknesses of 4 and 6+ meters,
respectively. in the Baton Rouge area east of the floodplain and the Lafayette
areas west of the floodplain in South Louisiana.
Thickness of the Pre-Peoria loess is greater on the west than on the east
side of the floodplain in Louisiana and adjacent parts of Mississippi with the
exception of the Sicily Island Hills in Louisiana. This exception is
discussed in a section that follows. Maximum thickness on the west side of
the floodplain increase southward from about 4 meters at the
Arkansas-Louisiana state line to more than 9 meters at its southern limit.
Observed IMximum thicknesses on the east side increase slightly southward from
almost 4 meters in the Vicksburg, Mississippi area to about 5 meters at its
southern limit. The described thickness relationships in both loesses may be
due, at ] east in part. to increasing proximity of the Gulf of Mexico from
north to south and the consequent influence of the Gulf on weather patterns,
especially wind direction (Emerson, 1918). In view of the great width of the
Mississippi River floodplain throughout Louisiana, it is also possible that
potential sources of loess may have been considerably nearer the west than the
east edge of the valley during deposition of both the Peoria and Pre-Peoria
loesses.
The Peoria and Pre-Peoria loess deposits both appear anomalously thick on
the Sicily Island Hills which lie near the southwestern edge of the Macon
Ridge in northeastern Louisiana, For example, the Peoria loess deposits on
the Macon Ridge thin from about 4 meters along the eastern edge to less than 2
meters near the hills then increase abruptly to 4 meters farther westward at
the higher elevations on the hills. Two main factors are believed to cause
the thicker deposits. First, the hills are a relatively small area
(approximately 8 x 10 km) lying eastward of other upland areas having
7
8
0-18 cm. depth at 200 meters
normal to Mississippi River flood plain
IB
Particle Size (microns)
!J'20
sa
. ·1
0-20 cm. depth at 4.3 kilometers
normal to Mississippi River flood plain
I=:l t """""
1: -=========:::::::::"' __

IX 11 IX
NNro..JlrldaJ
Particle Size (microns)
Figure 5. Clay-free particle size distribution by Coulter, Counter
technique. in the silt-size fraction from two soils
Peori? loess in Louisiana.
comparable elevations. They are approximately 70 meters higher than
surrounding areas on the Macon Ridge and Mississippi and Ouachita River
floodplains. Their position is such that northerly. easterly or southerly
winds could transport loess into the area from lower-lying potential sources.
Second, changes in energies of winds from the lower potential source areas to
the higher elevations may have contributed to the thicker deposits. Similar
relationships between loess thicknesses and elevation have been observed in
other loess mantled areas.
Geographic and Landscape Settings
The geographic and landscape distribution patterns of the loesses are a
predictable consequence of their areas of deposition and subsequent erosion
together with alluviation in the Mississippi River floodplain and along the
Gulf Coast. Only the Peoria loess has been definitely identified on the
Prairie Terrace and younger Pre"'Peoria surfaces . including the braided-stream
Terrace comprising the Macon Ridge in northeastern Louisiana. Throughout its
area of deposition on these surfaces erosion has been minimal and continuous
loess deposits cover essentially the entire area. Post-loess alluvial
deposits are absent and the loess deposits form the channel walls along most
streams draining these areas. In places floodplain and/or gulf interfacing
margins of the loess on the younger surfaces are buried by more recent
alluvial deposits (Figure 3). Interrelated factors believed to have
contributed to this 'alluvial drowning' include rising sea level at the end of
the Pleistocene, landmass subsidence, and alluviation in the Mississippi River
floodplain and along the Gulf Coast. Locally. one result of the 'alluvial
drowning' is the presence. at the surface, of loess deposits occurring as
outliers surrounded completely by more recent alluvium. Investigations show
that these outliers represent areas with slightly higher elevations on a
continuous loess mantled surface now partially covered by the more recent
sediments.
The absence of the Prairie Terrace and younger surfaces at the time of
deposition of the Pre-Peoria loess prevented their receiving these deposits
(Figures 2, 3, 4). It is not known to what extent loess mantling the
Pre-Prairie (Montgomery) Terrace extended southward before deposition of the
coastwise component of the Prairie Terrace. Similarly. the eastward and/or
westward extent of Pre-Peoria surfaces into areas now occupled by the Prairie
Terrace and younger surfaces along the Mississippi River Valley is not known.
Comparison of the thickness and distribution patterns of the Peoria and
Pre--Peoria loesses (Figure 2, 3 and 4) is sufficient to demonstrate that the
Pre-Peoria is the more extensive of the two in the lower part of the Southern
Mississippi Valley.
There is an apparant increase in the eastward and westward extent of both
the Peoria and Pre-Peoria loess deposits near their southern limits of
exposure at the surface. Possible explanations include wind directions,
frequencies and energies and, possibly, more extensive loess source areas at
the gulf coast-floodplain interface.
Land surfaces older than the Prairie Terrace could have received both
Peoria and Pre-Peoria loess deposits. Surfaces older than the Intermediate
Terraces of Snead and McCulloh (I 984) are generally the most dissected in
9
10
Louisiana. On these the landscape distribution patterns are somewhat
analogous whether one or both loesses are present. Prairie age stream
terraces are covered with Peoria loess --while most younger fluvial deposits
la.ck a loess mantle. There is evidence that a loess covered Post-Prairie
Terrace exists and received Peoria loess deposits (see Site 4). Pre-Prairie
stream terraces and essentially the entire uplands are loess-covered in areas
where the deposits are thickest. Traversing in the direction of thinning
loess the underlying materials are first evident at the surface on the lower
slope positions of the steepest landscapes. Continuing in this direction, the
underlying materials are exposed at progressively higher slope positions and
on less sloping landscapes. Only erosional remnants of loess may occupy the
highest and/or most gently sloping landscape positions in loess covered areas
most distant from the source.
Landscape distribution patterns on the Intermediate Terraces are quite
analogous to those on the older surfaces. The effects of erosion in removing
loess from these less dissected and more gently sloping surface are less
pronounced and, of course, the age of stream terraces determines which, if
either loess deposit is present on a particular terrace.
Basal Mixed Zones
Processes operative during and after loess deposition have resulted in a
diffuse, gradational contact between the loess and the underlying unit. Thus,
with increasing depth near the contact, the loess contains increasing
quantities of an admixture incorporated from the underlying material. Useful
criteria for identifying this mixed zone include color, structure, particle
size distribution, element compositions, and kind and distribution of minerals
in sand and/or silt and/or clay size fractions. Thickness of the mixed zone
is inversely related to loess thickness (Figures 6, 7). The thinnest zones of
mixing are thus beneath the thick loess deposits near the Mississippi River
floodplain. The zones thickness increases with distance from the floodplain
so that those deposits thinner than about 1.25 to 1.50 meters contain
admixtures of the underlying material throughout.
The mixed zone is attributed to pedogenic processes, mostly bioturbation,
active during and after loess deposition. The progressive thickening of the
zones as the loess mantle becomes thinner reflects concomitant s l o w ~ r rates of
deposition on a pedogenically active surface. The absence of distinct A and E
horizons in soils buried by the loess can be attributed to their incorporation
into the basal component of the loess.
Three general relationships are consistent with the presence of the mixed
zone and continued thinning of the loess at depths of less than 1.25-1.50
meters; the apparant thickness of the mixed zone gradually decreases. the
relative contribution of the underlying unit increases, and identification of
the loess component is increasingly difficult.
The described basal mixed zone relationships have been demonstrated
regardless of the nature of the unconsolidated underlying materials. The
relationships are difficult to demonstrate in the field when another loess is
the underlying unit but are readily apparant from mineralogical analyses (see
data, Sites 2, 6 and 9).
500
450
400
U)
!....-
2 350
<l.l
E
~ 300
c
<l.l
u 250
c
........
U) 200
U)
<l.l
~ 150
u
.........
~ 100
50
0
0 5
U)
U)
<l.l
o
-l
D
(I)
X
...-I
E
c
:=)
10 15 20 25
Distance in Kilometers
30
0)
c
.......
x
.......

4-
o
<l.l
C
o
N
35
Figure 6, Thickness of loess and the zone of mixing in loess overlying sandy Coastal
Plain deposits along an East-West transect in southeaStern Louisiana.
(Source: data by Spicer (1968) and Miller (Unpublished data».
......
......
,,-...
:::E
u
'-'"
U)
U)
UJ
::z:

u
-
JC
I-
U)
U)
L.U
0
-l
500., DISTANCE
(KM)
400 0
19
300 1
200
100
I fJi I XED ZONE
5
MIXED ZONE DEPTH TO TOP
THICKNESS OF MIXED ZONE
(CM) (CM)
22 378
79 0
BASE OF MIXED ZONE
Y = 109.3 - 695.9 LOG (X + 10)
R = 0.98
506.9
10 15 20 25 30
DISTANCE (KM)
FIGURE 7: LOESS THICKNESS AND THICKNESS OF ZONE OF MIXING ALONG AN
EAST-WEST TRANSECT IN FRANKLIN LOUISIANA.
(SOURCE: 1980)
to-'
N
Other Features
Leaching, weathering, pedogenic processes and other phenomona result in a
number of features not already discussed but which warrant mention. Soils
developed in the loess are discussed briefly in a separate section.
Depth of leaching
The depth of 'leaching of loess in the Southerri Mississippi
Valley typically refers to thickness of the zone lacking free carbonates
disseminated throughout the matrix. Wascher and coworkers (1947) reported
that loess is leached free, of carbonates to a depth of 20 feet in the region.
More thorough investigations have shown that depths of leaching are actually
quite variable depending on such factors as age, thickness and setting of the
loess among others. Depth of leaching of the Peoria loess ranges from less
than 1 to more than 16 meters in Louisiana and adjacent parts of Mississippi.
In areas of thick Peoria loess deposits on steeply sloping landscapes, runoff
and erosion rates have been such that calcareous loess at depths of 1 meter or
less is not uncommon. Areas east of the Mississippi River and near the
floodplain from Vicksburg, Mississippi to St. Francisville, Louisiana typify
this condition. In contrast, the Peoria loess is typically leached throughout
on nearly level topography. This condition is typified by most Peoria loess
deposits west of the Mississippi River in Louisiana as well as those on the
Prairie Terrace east of the river. In these areas only small isolated places,
mostly on steep escarpments, contain unleached loess at any depth.
The Pre-Peoria loess is leached throughout except on the Sicily Island
Hills in northeastern Louisiana. The depths of leaching exceed 9 meters near
its southern limits on the west side of the floodplain. On the Sicily Island
Hills in Louisiana approximately 4 meters of leached Peoria loess overlies 1.5
meters of leached Pre-Peoria loess that is calcareous at greater dep,ths.
Color
Color of the soil developed in the loess or of the weathered
loess beneath the solum are not reliable indicators of the age or nature of
the materials. Differences in the weathering and pedogenic environments
result in a wide range of colors in both the Peoria and loesses in
Louisiana. The Peoria loess may range from predominante1y light gray or light
brownish gray (10YR 6/1 to 6/2) in poorly drained areas to mostly brown
5/4) at the best drained locals. At most sites, the loess is mottled with
varying proportions of gray to brown. Colors in the Pre-Peoria loess are
similar except the best-drained sites may be predominantely red (2.5YR 4/6 to
5/6), especially in the upper part.
The basal transition zone beneath loess more than about 1.5 meters thick
is generally characterized by one of two color relationships that is commonly
associated with the nature of the underlying material. Where these underlying
materials are more clayey than the loess the lowermost 1/4 to 3/l 1 meters of
this transition zone is commonly grayer than the loess above. At sites ,,,here
the underlying units are less clayey a comparable zone is generally darker
(lower value and/or chroma) and may have redder hues when compared to the
material above. Differences in moisture regimes in this zone associated with
13
14
differences in the nature of the underlying materials are thought to be the
predominant factor responsible for these common color relationships.
Pedogenic Sands
Particle size distribution analyses of soils with restricted
drainage may show unusually high sand contents in A. E. or' Bk horizons
compared to the remainder of the material. Unaided eye through microscopic
examination of these sands reveal secondary sand-size concretions of Fe and Mn
or, in some soils, CaC0
3
• Particle size analyses following appropriate
chemical breakdown of the concretions give results lacking anomalous sand
contents.
Buried Soils
The loesses in Louisiana are underlain by readily recognizable
buried soils almost everywhere. Morphology together with physical, chemical,
and mineralogical data indicate that Paleo Ultisols, Alfisols, Inceptisols,
Entisols or Vertisols may occur depending on the age of the buried surface and
other soil determining characteristics of the Paleo environment. It is
evident from the discussion of the basal mixed zone that beyond some point in
the thinning loess two distinct units (loess over buried soil) separated by
the mixed zone can no longer be distinguished. In such areas, the loess
contains an admixture of the underlying material throughout. Here it is
recognized as a silty mantle that forms a continuum with the mixed zone
beneath the thicker loess deposits nearer the source. Even in most of these
areas mid- to lower B horizons of buried soils can be identified beneath the
more silty mixed zone.
Loess overlying stratified material having minimal or no soil development
has been recognized in two general areas in Louisiana. One such area is near
the southernmost limits of the exposed Peoria loess on the east' side of the
Mississippi River floodplain. Another is in the area on the west side of the
river corresponding to the loess covered terrace paralleling the floodplain
and at a lower elevation and eastward of the Prairie Terrace in southwestern
Louisiana. In both areas, the underlying materials are predominately clayey
deposits of undetermined thickness.
Stratigraphy
Selected 14C and Thermoluminescence dates relating to loess stratigraphy
in the lower Mississippi Valley are included in Table 1. The author's
interpretations of major relationships among loesses identified at Vicksburg.
Mississippi, on the Sicily Island Hills in Louisiana, Evangeline Parish in
West Central Louisiana. the Irene and Prairie Terraces in Louisiana, and on
Crowley's Ridge in Arkansas are summarized in Figure 8. Other major
stratigraphic relationships in Louisiana are illustrated at Sites 1 through 9.
The first major stratigraphic study of loess in the lower Mississippi
Valley was done by Wascher, Humbert, and Cady (1948). They recognized three
loesses in the region and correlated the youngest with the Peoria loess of the
upper Mississippi Valley. The intermediate unit was correlated with the 'Late
Sangamon Loess' of the Illinois River Valley. The oldest was not correlated
and was identified as the 'Third loess'.
15
TABLE 1
SIGNIFICANT 14C AND THERMOLUMINESCENCE OATES
RELATING TO THE LOESS STRATIGRAPHY IN THE LOWER MISSISSIPPI VALLEY
--- -----------. -.------------------ ----
Locat ion La b No. Date Mat. Significance Source
Vicksburg, Ms. 9,000 to loessl TL dates for Peor i a Johnson et a I .• 1984
21,000 soi I loess.
Vicks bu rg , Ms. 75,000 to soi II TL dates for Pre- Johnson et a 1. , 198/j
95,000 loess Peor i a loess of
Mi 11 er et a 1. ,
1982.
Vicksburg, Ms. 120,000 to soi 11 TL diltes for Loveland Johnson et a 1. , 198/j
135,000 loess (7) of Miller ·et
a 1., 1982.
Vicksburg, Ms. OX-185 17,850 +380 she 11 Li es above possible SnOl·,den and Priddy,
Jules Soi 1. 1968
Vicksburg, Ms. OX-18
1
1 19,200 ::.420 shell Li es below possible Snowden and Priddy,
Jules Soi 1. 1968
Vi cksburrj, Ms. 1-1681 22,600 ::.800 she 11 Lies below weak Snowden and Priddy,
paleosol but near 1968
top of Farmdale
Loess.
Vicksburg, Ms. 1-1386 25,300 ::'1,000 shell Li es near base of Snowden and Priddy,
Farmdale Loess. 1968
Vicksburg, Ms. .0X-I72 25,600 ::,1,000 wood From paleosol beneath Snowden and Priddy,
Farmdale Loess. 1968
Sic i 1 y Island GX-6483 27.500 ::,1 ,200 shell From base of Farmdale Miller, 1982
Hill s, La. Loess.
Tunica, La. UGa-836 20,690 ::,250 she II Oates upper loess in Otvos, 1975
S. E. Louisiana.
Tunica, La. UGa-8/1 21,570 ::.310 she II Oates upper loess in Otvos, 1975
S.E. Louisiana.
CIl
H
'Q)
-I-l
Q)
S
I=l
'M
,..c::
-I-l
0.
Q)
'0
Q)
-I-l

'M

a
H
0.

0_
5 -
10_
15_
Crowley's Ridge
in Ark.

ennu Ina Lorlns IoU
(YGat flit Gil •• 19110).
DI.. a"na lotp".
'IOU
III •• , ot 01., 1'101.

CnnlAlnl .... 104 •• n
Illeu 01 d., 1"01.
4th In •••
Au-t ell'pro tilt hnD
bam." on (teld ob •• tvo-
e artn lit .t tel d.ou pre-
.,.,"d by II.. , lUlU •••
ond rlold ond Iobou •• .,.
dAU with
L .... I III .r IIUh.
et &1 ••• ,.an
Contalne sail.
5th Jo •••
inti?rrretsthtill
b:1sed C'tll dau by Weu
(1978) ond •• tchg .n
CrlNh,', lUd.e, a mlB'lII-
Vf l-t r and land,. II're-
Pltlatot'"n. drpoeU.
hllrhd IIUU.
\
\
Vicksburg
area, Ms.
PecIC," IOf!J!
(Jo!ilnaoill $t mI., UI!I4a
111110. al., 1911,
BilOW •• , le"l R_ ••
ond fl.OIdy, nUl n ... lalot ...
• "d 11111.... , 1"01 W ••• loe.
ot d .. 1948).
V! C'aJlbUI'lL1!!!nll
ond-YvL"obuU.
1961).
Conulndl H.arhi. SoU
(IIUh. U d., IU2).
..
..


..


11Uno ion to !ar.!." !.ns-
.man Joe •• (Jollllilon at
er::-miJ. .
.
(Hillor ot 01 .. 19821.
POIIRlhl. PrlP-r"uria Uo.u.
1WiiitOR'and iii1 i;''''-
1950).
!2!!!I>lio 4th 100010 U"",,-
d •• , 11166).
Centa1'lIi lll'u, _.
BaDlI1 )ilmed 1.one

.. ___ d/8I
__ .. amDmeE __ ... .. uaam .. -,
Montgomery
Sicily Island Irene Terrace Prairie Terrace Terrace
Hills in La. Irene, La. Baton Rouge, La. Turkey Creek
I • iii ---
l!!r!U!'!!!!
Conteins Mlaaphi. Soil
IIIUI ... t d., I'UI.
... 01 Khud Zona (Ktllor
.t al •• 1982).
',.-'.orl.o 10 •••
C;;t;fnii-buri.ci -.011
(lilUo. 0& 01., 1982).
I J1l l!1!I.
iiiu In at .J., nU).
Cltronoll!..!!1 'OrNtion
ContOln. bll.I.T80i j_.
1111110. at 111.. 19821.
aUdio 1I10.n .. oln
lii.i. (Johnooii"ct'.i.,-·
iii4}.
Pre-roorl. 100,. OUII ••
OTii:·, ..
Loveland 10 .... (Snovdpn
;;iidTriddy .-i968: Snovd.n
19661 Lel,bloft and
WIll .... 1950) •
___
(IlrinUaeky 12M Turnbull.
nUl.
PMr" 1o •••
Ci..i.I ... · oil.,o. Doli
IIIUlu ot al.. ltl2).
.... t MI •• d Zone
iiiiil •• 01 01., 19GZ).
".-'l'Orl1 10.'.
C;;;;iiiini burl.d 11011.
IKUlo. ot 01 .. 1912)
1In•• 1 Hl ... d Zona
litiii •• ot 81 .. 1982) •
Ir .... Terrace
CtmrfttLnB bur ••• loll.
'"1110' oC al., 1982) •
ronrlft IDr ...
MOat-ble RuU.
IIIU1 •• oc al., nUl.
.;;.THi.;'d i;M- --
'jiiiiiOr"OiGr::-19U1 •
Prairte ronaatlon
Containe b"r1e4 .nU ••
IKU1 •• ot al., 1'82.
I

CIonl."" __ .. 11011
IPIllln, ItOi ........ U.'
dna).

n .... o .. I
To""Ito' ...... DII.. t"I.,
IU701 •
.... IIUmo4 Z-
liuUo., nil, __
U._ .... ul.

Contat •• \lurlM 1M"
IPIUlev, UBI, __
11'- .... t.).
Figure 8. Relationships among loesses identified
and correilated at six locations in the Lower Miss-
issippi Valley (compiled, 1984, by B. J. Miller from
sources referenced).
La.
I-'
()\
In a subsequent study, Leighton and Willman (1950) recognized the three
loesses identified by Wascher and coworkers and renamed the two lowermost
units. They correlated the intermediate unit as Farmdale and the lower unit
as the Loveland of the Illinoian glacial. They also tentatively identified
remnants of a Pre-Loveland loess.
Krinitzsky and Turnbull (1967) studied loess deposits in Mississippi and
agreed that there is more than one loess in the lower valley. They considered
it premature to try to precisely correlate these units with loesses of the
upper valley. They named the uppermost loess 'Vicksburg' and identified the
intermediate loess of earlier workers as an 'Intermediate transition zone'.
The lower loess was identified as the 'Pre-Vicksburg'. They tentatively
correlated the well developed Paleosol in the Pre-Vicksburg unit as a Sangamon
Soil.
Work in the Vicksburg, Mississippi area by Snowden (1966) and Snowden and
Priddy (1968) established that the upper loess is a of the Peoria
loess of the upper Mississippi Valley. They obtained C dates clearly
showing the bulk of it was deposited during Woodfordian time. They also
obtained C dates of 22,600 BP and 25,300 BP, respectively. on the upper and
basal components of the middle (Farmdale, Basal Transition Zone) loess. They
identified a Farmdale· soil in this component. They studied the dark bands
('bedding layers') evident in many fresh Peoria loess exposures and considered
them to be we1\ Paleosols. One such band in the Peoria loess at Vicksburg was
bracketed by C dates of 17.BOO ± BOO BP and 19.200 ± 420 BP These workers
also identified the well developed Paleosol in the Third (Sangamon,
Pre-Vicksburg) loess which they identified as Pre-Farmdale. They identified
yet another Paleosol beneath the one in the Pre-Farmdale loess and tentatively
considered it to have developed in loess.
In southwestern Louisiana Daniels and Young (1968) showed that a single
loess deposit overlies the Prairie Terrace west of the Mississ:1.ppi River.
They did not attempt to correlate the deposit with other loesses and assigned
it a Pre-late Holocene age.
Touchet and Daniels (1970) identified a Pre-Prairie Post-Montgomery loess
on the Montgomery Terrace north of the area on the Prairie Terrace studied by
Young and Daniels (1968). Superposed loesses were not identified because the
depositional pattern of the Post-Prairie loess is such that only a very thin
component would be expected locally on the Montgomery Terrace.
Otvos (1975) has used 14C dating to establish that
southeastern Louisiana is analogous to the Peoria
Mississippi.
the uppermost loess in
loess at Vicksburg,
Rehage (19BO). working in northeastern Louisiana identified and mapped a
Pre-Peoria loess westward of the Peoria loess band which he also mapped. He
identified multiple source areas for the Pre-Peoria loess which was
tentatively assigned to the Farmdalian substage. The Peoria loess was
considered to have a Mississippi River floodplain source.
Miller et a1. (1982) identified three distinct loesses at Vicksburg,
Mississippi and identified the uppermost as Peoria and correlative with the
youngest loess in Louisiana. They identified the intermediate loess
17
18
(Farmdale, Basal Transition Zone, Pre-Vicksburg, etc. of earlier workers) as a
zone of pedogenic mixing of Peoria loess with the underlying buried soil. The
second loess (Sangamon, Loveland, Pre-Farmdale of earlier workers) was
identified only as Pre-Peoria. They considered this loess \-lith
the Pre-Peoria loess they mapped in Louisiana and obtained a C date of
27,500 ± 1,200 years B. P. from gastropod shells near its base on the Sicily
Island Hills in Louisiana. The third loess identified at Vicksburg was
tentatively identified as Loveland (?) and contained a well-developed
Paleosol. This third loess was not definitely identified in Louisiana.
West (1978) and West, Rutledge and Barber (1980) studied loesses on
Crowley's Ridge in Arkansas. They identified three superposed loesses and
correlated, them top to bottom, as Peoria, Roxana, and Loveland. The senior
authors visits (1984) to sites studied by West, Rutledge and Barber (1980)
result in the observations that follow. Their Peoria loess is considered
correlative with the Peoria loess of Miller, et al. (1982) at Vicksburg,
Mississippi and in Louisiana. Their Roxana .1oess is either absent at
Vicksburg and in Louisiana or is present in amounts too small to exceed the
thickness of the relatively thin Pedogenically mixed basal transition zones.
Their Loveland loess is correlative with the Pre-Peoria loess identified at
Vicksburg and in Louisiana by Miller et al. (1982). Observations at their
field sites, study of data by West (1978) and comparison with data on the
Loveland (?) of Miller et al. (1982), and consideration of the setting atop
Crowley's Ridge (a gravelly to sandy Pre-Pleistocene formation), led to the
conclusion that a fourth loess is present which is correlative with the
L0\1e1and (?) loess (Miller et al., 1982) identified at Vicksburg. Data
published by West (1978) not only supports this conclusion but suggests the
possibility of yet another deeper (fifth?) loess not actually observed during
the field study.
Johnson and coworkers (1984) collected samples for thermo1uminesence
dating from near the Mississippi Standard loess section at Vicksburg. They
reported an upper Peoria loess sequence. witl1 dates ral1gillg from 9,000 to
21,000 BP. Their second loess (the Pre-Peoria of Miller et a1 •• (1982)) yield
Early to Middle Wisconsin dates of 75,000 to 95,000 years BP. Their third
loess (the Loveland (?) of Miller et aL (1982)) was considered Late Illinoian
or Early Sangamon with dates of 120,000 to 135,000 BP.
I

Twenty Questions
1. In regard to the High, Intermediate, Prairie, and Deweyville Terraces of
Snead and McCulloh (1984) in Louisiana, how many are present and what are
their ages; can at least remnants of the Roxana Loess of West, Rutledge
and Barber (1980), the Loveland (?) loess of Miller et al. (1982) and the
lowermost (5th) loess tentatively identified (Miller, 1984) on Crowley's
Ridge in Arkansas be identified in Louisiana and provide some of the
answers to these questions?
2. Is the Montgomery Terrace (an Intermediate Terrace of Snead and McCulloh,
1984) Sangamon. Yarmouth, or older; does the presence of buried soils in
its surface and the presence only of the Pre-Prairie and/or younger loess
(Miller et al.. 1982) provide part of the answer?
3. Is the Prairie Terrace in Louisiana Sangamon in age, or is it younger;
does the identification on its surface of only the Peoria loess above
buried soils having moderate development give any indication; is there a
component of the Roxana in the basal mixed zone beneath the Peoria loess;
does the minimal dissection of its surface and the presence of high base
status soils (some of which contain secondary CaC0
3
) argue for a younger
than Sangamon age or merely reflect the clayey nature of the deposits
together with high water tables and low elevations?
4. Is the Terrace comprising the Bastrop Hills in northeastern Louisiana
Prairie as mapped (Snead and McCulloh, 1984); if so what is the
explanation for the presence on its surface of the Pre-Peoria loess
(Miller et al.. 1982) and the absence of this loess from all other
Priarie Terraces shown in Louisiana by Snead and McCulloh (1980).
5. Is there a fluvial. and possibly coastwise terrace in Louisiana in which
late periods of deposition immediately preceeded or were contemperaneous
with early Peoria loess deposition as suggested by field evidence; if so.
is this the Deweyville Terrace, an Unnamed Farmdale Terrace. other?
6. Is the Loveland(?) loess of Miller et al. (1984) at Vicksburg present as
thin (mixed zone) remnants on the High Terraces of Snead and McCulloh
(1984) in Loulsiana as suggested by field observations at selected sites?
7. Which, if either, of the older loesses at Vicksburg (Pre-Prairie and
Loveland(?) of Miller et al. 1982) is correlative with the Loveland of
Iowa. Nebraska. Kansas, Missouri. etc. in the Midwest?
8. Whatever its midwest correlative, if any, what is the reason(s) for the
extensive distribution of the P r e ~ P e o r i a (Miller et al., 1982) loess in
the Southern Mississippi Valley compared to the Midwest?
9. Does solum development in the buried soil contained in Pre-Peoria (Miller
et al., 1982) loess that is comparable to development of modern soils in
Peoria loess argue for a younger than Sangamon age for the Pre-Peoria
loess?
19
20
10. What is the southernmost extent in the Lower Mississippi Valley of the
Roxana loess on Crowley's Ridge in Arkansas (West, Rutledge and Barber.
1980)?
11. Is there a component of the Roxana loess identified on Crowley's Ridge in
Arkansas (West, Rutledge and Barber, 1980) present at Vicksburg,
Mississippi but in amounts too small to exceed the thickness of the basal
mixed zone between the Peoria and Pre-Peoria loesses of Miller et al.,
1982?
12. What is the explanation for the minimal development of buried soils
within the Roxana loess throughout its distribution area: is it
everywhere truncated; is it a 'cumulative' soil (or a Welded soil of Ruhe
and Olson, 1980) that developed throughout the Roxana formation
contemporaneous with very slow deposition rates during most of Altonian
time and, if so, why is it not more developed in the lower Mississippi
Valley (Le. Crowley's Ridge in Arkansas); do characteristics of this
soil possibly indicate much cooler and drier paleoclimates during both
the Altonian and Farmdalian substages throughout the Mississippi Valley
when compared to the present; other?
13. Is Miller's interpretation that on Crowley's Ridge in Arkansas there are
two loesses beneath the Loveland of West, Rutledge and Barber (1980)
correct?
14. If there is(are) loess(es) on Crowley's Ridge in Arkansas older than the
Loveland of West, Rutledge and Barber (1980) what is its (their) age and
midwest correlative(s), if any?
15. In view of regional differences in climate, weathering, pedogenic
processes, etc., how does thickness and other characteristics of the
basal mixed zone in loess differ among regions?
16. Has the basal mixed zone between loess and the underlying unit possibly
been interpreted as a separate formation less than about 1.5 meters thick
by some workers?
17. If the thermoluminescence dates (Johnson et al., 1984) place the loesses
at Vicksburg in the correct time frame (Peoria loess at 9,000 to 21,000
years BP, an Early to Middle Wisconsin loess at 75,000 to 95,000 years
BP, and a Late-Illinoian to Early Sangamon loess at 120,000 to 135,000
years BP), is their Early to Middle Wisconsin loess (Pre-Peoria loess of
Miller et al. 1982) a Late Sangamon loess and, if so, does it have a
correlative loess in the midwest; is their Late-Illinoian to Early
Sangamon loess (Loveland(?) of Miller et al. 1982) interglacial or is it
indeed Loveland as suggested by Miller et al. (1982)?
18. What is the time zero control for thermoluminesence dates of unweathered
loess; time of transport andlor deposition only; some 'average I date of
the various components from various sources that comprise the loess; a
combination of the two; other?
19. What do thermoluminesence dates of buried soils and weathered loesses
reveal: time of transport and deposition of the parent material; time of
burial of the soil; time of soil development and formation of secondary
minerals; some combination of these; other?
20. What is the effect on thermoluminescence dates of b lending varying
proportions of similar materials that give appreciably different dates;
with proper proportions can a series of dates intermediate between the
two be obtained?
21
22
. . . .
MODERN SOILS DEVELOPED IN THE LOESSES
Nearly one-third of the land surface in Louisiana is comprised of soils
developed in thick loess deposits (>1.25 to l.50· meters) or in thinner
deposits containing an admixture of the underlying material throughout. The
more than 50 soil series represented are approximately equally divided between
those developed in Peoria and those in the Pre-Peoria loesses. Soils that
classify in the Alfisol, Inceptisol. MolHsol, . and Ultisol orders in Soil
Taxonomy (Soil Survey Staff, 1975) have developed in the loesses. Differences
in age of the materials and thickness of the deposits are the basis for the
four major groupings of soils in Tables 2, 3, 4 and 5.
Soils developed in the loesses have surface '(A) horizons with silt loam,
or in places, silt textures. All but the Natchez soil have easily identified
eluvial (E) horizons with textures comparable to the overlying A. The Natchez
soil (Typic Eutrochrept) lacks. an eluvial horizon and the horizon of secondary
accumulation of clay, argillic horizon, common to all the other soils. The
Natchez soil has developed in thick loess deposits on steeply sloping areas
where unweathered calcareous loess is present at shallow depths. Depth to the
top of the argillic horizon in the remaining soils is typically less than 0.5
meters. Textures in the argillic horizons are silty clay loam or silt loam.
. . ." .
Among the various soils, there is a wide range in color, organic matter
content, soil pH, structure, solum thickness and the kind and thickness of
subsurface horizons. Secondary accumulations of either CaC0
3
or high levels
of exchangeable Na, or both, may be present in some argillic norizons whereas,
others may contain fragipans and still others have add argillic horizons
lacking these features.
Comparisons of the soils developed in Peoria loess and their
classification (Tables 2 and 3) with those developed in the Pre-Peoria loess
(Tables 4 and 5) suggest important similarities and differences between the
two groups. Inceptisols, Alfisols and Ho1lisols have developed in the Peoria
whereas only Alfisols and Ultisols are identified in the Pre-Peoria loess.
The more weathered nature of soils developed in the Pre-Peoria loess is
likewise demonstrated by the predominance of . siliceous mineralogy classes in
contrast to the mixed mineralogy class of all soils in the Peoria loess. .
Field and laboratory· studies consistently· demonstrate a large number of
significant differences individual soils developed in the two loesses
and having analogous landscape positions and internal soil drainage
characteristics. Differences in time may be the major variable in pedogenesis
of such soils, although constancy with respect to climatic and biotic factors
during their formation has not been established •. Major differences between
such soils are summarized in Table 6 • Soil Survey reports (not included in
reference citations) that illustrate many of these differences include those
now published or in preparation for Acadia, Allen, Ascension, Avoyelles,
Catahoula, East Baton Rouge. Evangeline, Franklin, Iberia, Lafayette, LaSalle,
Morehouse, Ouachita; Rapides, St. Landry, St. Martin. St. Mary, qt. Tammany,
Tangipahoa, and West Carroll Parishes. Other works that illustrate these
differences include Landry et a1.. 1976; Fleming, 1984; Goh, 1984; Qualls,
1984; Rehage, 1980; Soil Survey Staff, 1979; Bartelli, 1973; Touchet and
Daniels, 1970; Spicer, 1969; Daniels and Young, 1968.
TABLE :2. MAJOR SOILS IDENTIFIED IN LOUISIANA THAT OEVELOPED
IN PEORIA LOESS DEPOSITS THICKER THAN 1.25 TO 1.50 METERS
ORDER SUBORDER GREAT GROUP SUB GROUP FAMILY CLASSIFICATiON
TEXTURE MINERALOGY
InceptisoJ Ochrept Eutrochrept Typic coarse-s i I ty mixed
Alfi sol Udalf Hapludalf Typic fine-silty mixed
Aquic fine-silty mixed
Glossaqulc fine-silty mixed
Fragiudalf Typic fine-silty mixed
fine-silty mixed
·f i ne-s i I ty mixed
Aquic fine-silty mixed
Glossaquic fine-silty mixed
Glossudalf Aquic fine-silty mixed
Aqualf Ochraqualf Aerie fine-silty mixed
fine-si Ity mixed
fine-s i lty .mixed
Glossaqualf Typic fine-s i Ity mixed
fine-silty mixed
fine-silty mixed
fine-silty mixed
Albaqualf A'er ic fine-silty mixed
Natraqualf Glossic fine-silty mixed
fine-silty mixed
fine-silty mixed
Albic Glossic fine-silty mixed
fine-sIlty mixed
Moll isol Aquoll Arg i ilqu,O 11 Typic fine-silty mixed
TEMPERATURE
thermic
thermic
thermic
thermic
thermi c
thermic
thermic
thermic
thermic
thermic
thermic
thermic
thermic
thermic
thermic
thermic
thermic
thermic
thermic
thermic
thermic
thermic
thermic
thermic
SOIL
SERIES
Natchez
Memphis
Fred
Coteau
Gjgger
Grenada
loring
01 ivier
Calloway
Egypt
Acy
Essen
PatoutviHe
Calhoun
Fountain
Frost
Gilbert
Springfield
Bonn
lafe
Verdun
Deerfcxl
Foley
./eanerette
N
W
TABLE 3. MAJCR SOILS IDENTIFIED iii LCUISIANA THAT DEVELCPED IN PEORIA LOESS DEPOSITS LESS THAN
1.25 TO 1.501 METERS THICK AND CONTAIN AN ADMIXTURE OF THE UNDERLYING MATERIAL THROUGHOUT.
ORDER SUBCRDER GREAT GOuR.,. SUB ~ : R O O P FAMILY CLASSIFICATICN
TEXTURE MINERALOGY TEMPERATURE
Alfisol Udalf PaleudaU Tllpic; fine-silty mixed thermic:
Hapludalif Ultic; fi ne-s it ty mixed thermic
F rag ii ud.;11 f T1IPic; fine-s 11 ty mixed thermic
G 1 oss.aqu i c: fine-silty mixed thermic
lSoil5 at most sites developed in ,!,reo-Peeda rather than F'eoria loess mixed zones and have siliceous mineralogy.
Soils are Ultisols at many_sites.
SCIL
SERIES
Lexington
1
Dexter
providence
Necessity
1
N
.J::--
TABLE 4. MA,IOR SOILS IDENTIFIED IN LOUISIANA THAT DEVELOPED IN
PRE-PEORIA LOESS DEPOSITS MORE THAN 1.25 TO 1.50 METERS THICK.
ORDER SUBORDER GREAT GROUP SUB GROUP FAMilY CLASSIFICATION
TEXTURE MINERALOGY
jld f.isol Udalf Pa 1 f lIypic fine-sitty siliceous
G)os:saquic fine-silty s i1 i ceous
Hapludalf Ultic mixed
Fragiudalf Typic fi ne-5 i 1 ty siliceous
Glo5sudalf HapTic fine-s i1 ty mixed
Fragl i c fine-silty mixed
J\quic fine-silt:y sil i ceous
Aqualf Albaqualf Aeric. fine-silty mixed
Glossaqualf lrypi c fine-silty s i1 i ceous
fine-silty mixed
fine-silty mixed
Ultisol Udult Pah!udult lrypic fine-s ilt:y 5i liceous
1Not all soils that classify in this :series contain a component of loess.
2Mos t pedons have si I iceous rather than mixed
TEMPERATURE
thermic
thermic
thermic
thermic
thermic
thermic
thermic
thermic
thermic
thermic
thermic
thermic
SOil
SERIES
Unnamed
Abita
Oossman
2
Bussy
Evangel ineZ
Duralde
2
Ti llou
Tenot
2
Caddo Z
Calhoun 1 2
.... rightsville '
Unnamed
N
V1
TABLE 5. MAJOR SOILS IDENTIFIED '" !LOUISIANA THAT DEVELOPED IN PRE-PEORIA LOESS DEPOSITS LESS THAN
1.25 TO 1.50 METERS THICK AND CDNTAIN AN ADMIXTURE OF THE UNDERLYING MATERIAL THROUGHOUT.
ORDER, SUBORDER GREAT GROUP SUIB GROUP
Alfl so I Udalf Fragiudalf Typic
Glc)ssaquic
GJossudalf Aquic
Aqualf Albaqualf Aerlc
G 1 ossaqua If Typic
Ultisol Udult Paleudult Typic
Pllntllic
PI iinthaquic
FragllJduH Typic
l Not 311 soi Is that classify in this seJries contain a component of loess.
ZMost pedons have siliceous rather than m'ixed mineralo9Y'
FAMILY CLASSIFICATION
TEXTURE MINERALOGY TEMPERATURE
fine-silty mixed thermic
fine-silty si I iceous thermic
fine-silty mixed thermic
fine,.silty siliceous thermic
. fi ne-s i I ty s i li ceous thermic
fine-si-lty s i 1 iceous thermic
f i ne-s i I ty mixed thermic
fine-silty mixed thermic
fine-loamy si I iceous thermic
fine-loamy siliceous thermic
fi ne-s i1 ty siliceous thermic
fine-s i I ty siliceous thermic
fine-silty siliceous thermic
fine-silty siliceous thermi c
fine-silty si I iceous thermic
SOIL
SERIES
Bude
2
Libuse
Providence
Z
Fluker
Frizzel
Mamou
1
Waller
Z
Unnamed
Z
Bowie'
Malbis'
Beauregard
1
Debute 1
Savannah
Tangi
Toula
N
""
Table 6. Comparative differences between modern soils developed in Peoria and
Pre-Peoria loess in Louisiana and having similar landscape and internal
soil drainage characteristics.
Soil Characteristic
Solum thickness
Thickness of A + E horizons
Color (Hue)
Maximum clay content in argillic
Total clay content in solum
Weatherable minerals in nonclay fraction
Amount of smectite clay
Amount of micaceous clay
Amount of kaolinite clay
Interlayering/interstratification of clay
Fe-oxide content .
CEC per unit of clay
Soil pH
pH-dependent CEC and acidity
Extractable acidity (BaCl -TEA)
Percent Al saturation (efrective CEC basis)
Percent base saturation (effective, NH
4
0Ac
at pH 7.0, summation of cations)
Exchangeable Ca/Mg ratio
Total and extractable P
Soil Parent Material
Peoria loess Pre-Peoria loess
least greatest
least greatest
least red reddest
least greatest
least greatest
greatest least
greatest least
greatest least
least greatest
l.east greatest
least greatest
greatest least
highest lowest
least greatest
least greatest
least greatest
greatest least
greatest least
greatest least
27
28
MATERIALS AND HETHODS
Study Transects and Loess Thickness and Distribution Map
Study transects to determine the thickness and distribution of loess were
completed in the approximate locations shown in figure 1. Each transect was
initiated in the thickest loess deposits and progressed, in the direction of
thinning, to a point where a loess increment could not be identified. Cores,
approximately 5 cm in diameter, were collected at frequent (1/8 to 2 ~ mile)
nonregular intervals in the most stable landscape positions along each
transect to the shallower of the base of the loess or 9 meters using the
Giddings hydraulic soil sampling unit. Data from these transects, together
with supplemental obsprvations in road cuts, mine excuvations, etc., are the
basis for the maps (Figures 2, 3 and 4) showing the approximate distribution
and maximum thickness ranges of loess in Louisiana.
Site Descriptions and Sample Collection
Site 9 was sampled and described to a depth of 12.95 meters from a road
cut under construction at the time. The material below 12.95 meters was sam-
pled and described from'three cores, approximately Scm in diameter, taken
with a Giddings hydraulic soil sampling unit. Site 6 was sampled and described
from the face of an abandoned gravel pit. The remaining sites (1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
7 and 8) were sampled and described from multiple cores, approximately 5 cm in
diameter, taken with a Giddings, hydraulic soil sampling unit.
Particle Size Analyses
Particle size analyses of the less than 2,000 micron fraction were done
by pipet and sieve (Day, 1965). The determinations were carried out under con-
trolled temperature conditions (72F ± 1.5). Organic matter and free carbonates
were not removed for the analyses.
Particle size analyses of the 2.0 to 50 micron fraction were also done by
Coulter Counter using the method described by Pennington and Lewis (1979). The
Coulter Counter TA II Automated Analyser was used for the analyses. Fifteen
particle size subdivisions were made over the 2.0 to 50 micron range for each
sample.
Clay Mineralogy
The profile distribution trends of Phyllosilicate minerals at each site
were determined from X-ray diffractograms of K and Mg-saturated clays. Al-
though profile' distribution trends of a given mineral are readily appaxent from
diffractograms, the relative quantities of each mineral in a given horizon can
be estimated with limited accuracy. This is especially true in those soil hor-
izons containing an appreciable component of interstratified and/or interlayered
Phyllosilicates. Additional analyses, now in progress, are designed to further
facilitate quantitative estimation of amounts of the various minerals' identified.
Thus, the relative amounts indicated in the tables represent preliminary and
tentative estimates that may be modified as additional data is generated.
The entire clay-size fraction was separated by siphon, after required
sedimentation time, from whole soil samples dispersed by treating with 0.125%
Na-hexametaphosphate solution followed by shaking overnight in a reciprocating
shaker. The separated clays were combined, then divided into two equal sub-
samples. One sUbsample was flocculated with KCl solution, the other with
MgC1
2
solution. The flocculated clays were washed free of salts by repeated
centrifugation and decantation. A mount of both the concentrated K- and Mg-
saturated clays was prepared and allowed to dry at laboratory conditions.
Diffractograms were made of the air dry Mg and K-saturated clays. The
Mg-saturated clays were then placed in ethylene glycol vapors at 80
0
C over-
night to provide for lattice expansion of any smectites present and a second
diffractogram made. The K-saturated air-dry clays were subsequently heated
to 300
0
C and 550
0
C for a minimum of four hours and diffractograms made after
':!(lch treatment. All diffractograms were made using Cu Koo radiation and a
Philips-Norelco vertical goniometer.
Elemental Composition
The content of 26 elements in the less ,than 2,000 micron fraction was
determined by Dr. S. E. Feagley, Agronomy Department, Louisiana State Univer-
sity. A method outlined by Bernas (1968) was modified for these analyses.
A 0.1000 g sample was digested with 3 ml concentrated HF and 0.5 ml aqua regia
(3:1 mixture concentrated HCl and RN03) in a stainless steel bomb with a tef-
lon insert for 2 hours at 140
o
c. The samples were cooled, transferred to 50
ml polypropylene volumetric flasks, br'ought to volume using a saturated boric
acid solution (6%), filtered, and the elements determined using an rcp Spectro-
photometer (ARL-3400). '
Chemical Characteristics
Reaction. All soil suspension pH values were measured electrometrically
using a pH meter. The pH values were measured in a 1:1 (weight basis) soil:
distilled water (H
7
0) , 1:1 soil:lN KCl (IN KCl) and 1:1 soil:0.01M CaC1
0
(CaC1
0
)
- L L
suspensions.
Exchangeable Ca, Mg, K, Na. Exchangeable bases (Ca, Mg, Na, and K) were
extracted by leaching with IN ammonium acetate buffered at pH seven as described
by Metson (42). Solution concentrations were determined by atomic absorption.
Standards were prepared in similar concentrations of ammonium acetate.
Exchangeable Al and H. Exchangeable H and exchangeable Al were determined
using the method of Yuan as described hy the Soil Survey Staff (75)., The ex-
tracting agent in this procedure is IN KCl. This determination was made on all
horizons having pH less than 7.0 in 1:1 soil:water suspension.
Extractable acidity BaClZ-TEA. The extractable acidity at pH 8.0 was de-
termined by the method described by ~ e e c h (1965). A 1:10 soil:BaC1
2
-TEA sus-
pension is prepared and allowed to stand overnight (the initial BaCr -TEA
solution is buffered at pH 8.0). The suspension i ~ then filtered a n ~ residue
washed with an equal volume of the BaC1
2
-TEA reagent. The filtrate is then
titrated with 0.500N HCl to determine the change in the buffer capacity of the
BaC1
2
-TEA solution. Extractable acidity is determined by difference between
buffer strength of the leachate and an equal volume of unused BaC1
2
-TEA reagent.
29
30
Cation exchange capacity:
Effective CEC = exchangeable (AI + H) in IN KClextract + exchange-
able (Ca + Mg + K + Na) measured in neutral normal
NH
4
0Ac soil leachate.
Sununation of
Saturation
cations CEC = exchangeable (Ca + Mg + K + Na) deter-
mined by the NHHOAcmethod + extractable acidity
determined by the BaCI
2
-TEA procedure.
Soil used forexchangeableCa, Mg, K, and Na mea-
surements is washed free of excess NH with ethyl
. alcohol. Sorbed NH4 is then by leaching
with acidified 10% NaCI solution. The leachate is
made alkaline with O.lN NaOH and the NH4 distilled
into a 2% boric acid trap. The trapped ammonia is
titrated with standard acid and CEC calculated on
basis of acid required in the titration.
% Al saturation exchangeable Al x 100
effective CEC
% H saturati.on = exchangeableH x 100
effective CEe:;
% base saturation = exchangeable (Ca + Mg + K + Na) x 100
sum of cations CEC
Total carbonate as percent CaC0
3
• Samples having a soil suspension pH
(in water) of 7.0 or greater were analyzed for total carbonates as CaC0
3
equiv-
alent by the HCl digestion method described by the Soil Survey Staff (1972).
Free Fe. Free iron determinations were made according to the method des-
cribed by Kilmer. In this method a sodium dithionite extraction is made on the
whole soil. Reduction to ferrous iron is accomplished with stannous chloride.
Solution concentration of Fe is determined by Atomic Absorption spectrophotometry.
Phosphorus. Phosphorus was determined by the Bray II method as outlined
by Brupbacher, et al. (1968). The Bray II extracting solution is O.lN HCI and
0.03N NH
4
F.
SITE 1
This stop is located approximately 0.8 east northeast of the Slee
represented by the morphological description and supporting data. The original
site is now beneath the new Agronomy Department Building .on campus. In com-
parison, this alternate site does not overlook the escarpment from the loess
mantled Prairie Terrace to the Mississippi River floodplain, is about 1 meter
lower in elevation, and internal soil drainage is more restricted in and below
the lower solum.
The Prairie Terrace is the most extensive and best preserved of the
Pleistocene age terraces in Louisiana (Fisk and McFarlan, 1955). It lies
about 7 meters above the adjacent Mississippi River Floodplain. Local relief
in areas away from the escarpment is commonly less than 3 meters and regional
slope is to the south at about 1 foot per mile (Kupfer, 1964). Streams drain-
ing the terrace flow into Lakes Maurepas and Pontchartrain, rather than the
adjacent Mississippi River. Post-depositional erosion of the surface has been
minimal and relict geomorphic features reflecting its origin are well pre-
served and not entirely masked by the loess mantle on its surface. Locally
such features include abandoned channels of an ancestral Mississippi and asso-
ciated natural levees and backswamp areas (Durham. 1964, Durham, 1967).
Most workers consider the Prairie Terrace a Sangamon interglacial stage
deposit subsequently exposed during advancing Altonian glaciation (Saucier,
1974. 1976).' This places it at an appropriate age and time of subareal ex-
posure to have received Roxana loess deposits which have not been definitely
identified on its surface. Existing information indicates a marked thinning
of the. Roxana loess in the Lower Mississippi Valley south of Crowley's Ridge
in Arkansas. Further research is needed to determine if a small increment
of this loess is present, but incorporated into the basal mixed zone of the
Peoria workers at from section
to old for L. datJ.ng (Otvos, 1980, A.L:t;ord and Kolb, 1983). Other's have
considered the Prairie Terrace younger, Altonian through Farmdalian. Indi-
cators supporting interpretations of a post-Sangamon age interpretation include:
the high degree of preservation of depositional geomorphic features, moderate
development of the buried soils it contains, high base status of modern soils
developed in its surface. and recovery of datable 14C material from upper parts
of the section by some investigators (Alford and Kolb, 1983). In addition,
the surface mapped as a fluvial Prairie Terrace by Fisk (1938) has been ident-
ified as T2 by Delcort and Delcort (1977). Otvos (1980), and Alford and Kolb
(1983) •
Cores taken at the site indicate a Memphis soil (Typic Hapludalf) with
more restricted internal drainage than modal for the series. The local
occurence of the Memphis soil is restrictred almost entirely to small, generally
elongqte areas a wide adjacent to and paralleling the natural drainage
ways or the escarpment to the lower Mississippi River alluvial plain. Their
local occurence is one illustration of the "brown edge" effect
that results from the improved internal drainage associated with these local
differences in relief. Loring and Olivier soils (Typic and Aquic Fragiudalfs.
respectively) occur locally at the site in areas that are wetter for longer
periods and at shallower depths. Olivier and Calhoun (a Typic Glossaqualf) are
the predominant soils developed in loess in the general area. Other associated
soils developed in thick loess deposits include Deerford (Albic Glossic Natra-
qual£). Jeaneret,te (Typic Argioquoll). and Verdun and Bonn (Glossic Natraqualfs).
The Dexter (Ultic Hapludalf) and Providence (Typic Fragiudalf) soils occur in
areas where thin loess deposits contain an admixture of the underlying material
throughout.
31
32
SITE 1
Prairie Terrace
Memphis Soil (fine-silty, mixed, thermic Typic Hapludalf)
Location: Baton Rouge, Louisiana on Louisiana State University Campus 90
meters South Southwest of junction of Highland Road and Tower
Drive (elevation: approximately 12.5 meters).
The Memphis series is comprised of well-drained, moderately. permeable
soils formed in Peoria loess deposits greater than approximately 1.25
meters thick.
Formation
Soil
Horizon
Ap
Btl
Bt2
Bt3
Bt4
Depth
(meters)
0.00-0.18
0.18-0.25
0 .• 25-0.51
0.51-0.91
0.91-1.32
Morphology
Brown (10YR 5/3)· silt; weak, fine
and medium granular structure; friable;
many medium and fine roots; many fine
pores; slightly acid; abrupt smooth
boundary.
Yellowish brown (10YR 5/4) silt loam;
weak, fine and medium subangular blocky
structure; friable; clay films on some
peds and in pores; many fine roots; many
medium and fine pores; medium acid;
clear smooth boundary.
Dark brown (7.5YR 4/4) silt loam;
moderate, medium and . fine subangular
blocky structure; firm; slightly sticky,
plastic;. many fine roots; many fine to
medium pores; continuous clay films
(10YR 4/3) on peds; strongly acid;
gradual smooth boundary.
Dark brown (7.5YR 4/4) silt loam;
moderate, medium subangular
structure; friable; slightly
slightly plastic; common fine
thin discontinuous clay films
surfaces; very strongly acid;
smooth
blocky
sticky;
roots;
on ped
gradual
Dark brown (7.5YR 4/4) silt loam; weak,
medium subangular blocky structure;
friable; slightly sticky; slightly
plastic; few fine roots ; common medium
and fine pores; thin discontinuous clay
films on some peds; common, light gray
Bw 1. 32-1. 60
C1 1. 60-2.62
C2 2.62-3.38
C3 3.38-4.17
2Bt1b 4.17-4.42
2Bt2b 4.42-4.90
(10YR 7/2) silt coatings on many
vertical ped faces; strongly acid; clear
smooth boundary.
Dark brown (7.5YR 4/4) silt loam; weak,
medium and coarse, sub angular blocky
structure; friable; few fine roots; few
medium and fine pores; few thin
discontinuous clay films on some peds.
Common light gray (10YR 7/2) silt
coatings on many vertical ped faces;
strongly acid; gradual smooth boundary.
Yellowish brown (10YR 5/4) silt;
weak, coarse, subangu1ar blocky to
prismatic structure; friable; common
medium and fine pores; light gray (10YR
7/2) silt coatings on vertical faces of
some peds; strongly acid; diffuse smooth
boundary.
Yellowish brown (10YR 5/4) silt loam to
2.87 meters; silt below 2.87 meters;
weak, coarse, sub angular blocky to
prismatic structure; friable; common
medium and fine pores; common light
yellowish brown (10YR 6/4) silt loam
bodies; clay content increases slightly
with depth in lower one-half; strongly
acid gradual smooth boundary.
Pale brown (10YR 6/3) silt loam; common,
medium and fine, brownish yellow (lOYR
6/6) mottles. Weak to moderate. coarse
subangu1ar blocky structure; friable;
common medium and fine pores; strongly
acid; clear smooth boundary.
Pale brown (10YR 6/3) silt loam; many,
coarse, medium and fine brownish yellow
(lOYR 6/6) mottles; weak to moderate,
medium subangular blocky structure,.
friable; common medium and fine pores;
strongly acid; clear smooth boundary.
Pale brown (10YR 6/3) and brownish
yellow (10YR 6/6) silty clay loam;
moderate medium sub angular blocky
structure; firm; sticky; plastic; common
medium and fine pores; strongly acid.
33
34
SITE 1
Depth
(meters) I
0.00-0. 18.-----/ I
0.51-0.91
1013
1m 1. 32-1. 60
sa
70
60
-
0)
sa
.-
ttl
u 413
V')
~
3:11
221
ud
-B-1
Horizon
____ AP
-_Btl
--Bt2
--Bt3
~ - - B W
'----- Cl
Formation
I
~
'r-
o
Vl
I::
s-
O)
"'0
o
E
0)
I::
.....
I::
'r-
ttl
....,
I::
o
U
Vl
Vl
0)
o
ttl
'r-
s-
o
0)
0---
-0
0)
<1).,.-
u s,..
ttl ::::::r
~ . . C !
~
<1)0)
1-1::
'r- r-
0)1::0
or- or- U1
S-ttlO
''- ...., <1)
n:! t::.--
S-Ottl
0... U 0...
Figure 9' Clay-free particle size distribution (Coulter Counter and sieve) in a
Memphis soil and underlying Paleosol on the Prairie Terrace in East
Baton Rouge Parish, Louisiana.
o.
O.
O.
O.
O.
1.
1.
1.
2.
2.
2.
2.
3.
3.
3.
4.
4.
4.
Table 7 ~ Particle size distribution in a Memphis soil and underlying paleosol on the Prairie Terrace in East Baton
Rouge Parish, Louisiana.
L Size Class and Particle Diameter (mm)
Depth
Horizonf Total
Sand
-
I
I
I
Silt
Sand
Silt I Very Sand
(2.0-
I
i Clay Coarse Coarse Medium Fine Very fine
Tex-
tural
(meters 0.05)
'I (0.05-
0.002) 1«0.002) 2.0-LO) (1.0-0.5)
(0.5-0.25) (0.25-0.1 ) (0.1-0.05 ) class
00-0.18 liP
I
6.7
I
84.5
1
8.8
18-0.25 Btl
!
4.8 79.1 16.1 ,
i
25-0. 51 1 Bt2 I 4.6 68.6 26.8
51-0.91 Bt3
:
4.6 70.6
I
24.8 , !
91-1.32 Bt4
,
6.3 73.9 19.8 I
32-1. 60 Bw
,
8.2 78.4 13.4
60-1. 85 Cl 6.6 81.4 12.0
85-2.11 8.0 80.3 11.7
11-2.36
6.1 84.7 9.2
36-2.62 5.8 83.3 10.9
I
62-2.87 : C2 6.9 80.8 12.3
i
87-3.12! 6.0
I
83.6 10.4
12-3.38 : 5.6
I
83.0 11.4 I
38-3.66 C3 5.6 81.9 12.5
66-4.17
13.3 66.1 20.6
17-4.42 2Btlb 12.7 61.4 25.9
42-4.67 2Bt2b 14.0 57.5
I
28.5
67-4.90 1'1.2 53.8 31.0
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
j
Pet. of "- 2 , ~
I
0.1 0.3 0.5
0.0 0.1 0.2
,
0.1 0.1 0.1
I
0.0 0.1 0.1
I
0.0 0.1 0.1
0.0 0.0 0.1
0.1 0.1 0.1
0.0 0.1 0.1
0.0 0.0 0.1
0.0 0.1 0.1
0.1 0.1 0.1
0.0 0.1 0.1
0.0 0.0 0.1
0.1 0.1 0.1
0.5 0.3 0.1
0.1 0.2 0.1
0.1 0.2 0.1
0.0 0.1 0.1
I
0.4 5.4
0.3 4.3
0.3 4.1
0.4 4.2
0.1 6.1
0.1 8.1
0.1 6.4
0.2 7.8
0.1 6.0
0.1 5.6
0.2 6.6
0.1 5.7
0.1 5.4
0.5 5.0
3.2 9.1
3.4 8.9
3.9 9.7
4.6 10.5
,
\
I
i
I
I
I
i
I
12.6
16.5
14.9
15.3
11. 7
9.6
12.3
10.0
13.9
14.4
11. 7
13.9
14.8
14.6
5.0
4.8
4.1
3.5
w
V1
36
Table 8. Profile distribution trends of Phyllosilicates in the clay-size
fraction of a Memphis soil and underlying paleosol on the Prairie
Terrace in East Baton Rouge Parish, Louisiana.
Mineral ComEonent
Inter-
stratified
Depth Soil Vermiculite and
(meters) Horizon Kaolinite Micaceous Smectite (Eedogenic) inter layered
0.00-0.18 Ap XXXXXXy xxxx: Xy'" .- xxx xxx
0.18-0.25 Btl
0.25-0.51 Bt2 xxxxxx xxxx. XXXYX xx xxx
0.51-0.91 Bt3 xxxxxx xxx' xXXxxxx x xxx
0.91-1.32 Bt4 xxxxxx xxxx XXXXxxx x xx
1.32-1.60 Cl xxxxxx xxxx X X X X x x ~ : x xx
1.60-1.85 xxxxxx xxxx xxXxxxx x xx
1.85-2.11 xxxxx xxxx' xXXXxxxx x xx
2.11-2.36 xxxxx xxxx xxxXxxxx x xx
2.36-2.62 xxxxx xxxx. xXXXXXXx x xx
2.62-2.81 C2 xxxxx xxxxx XXXXXlcc: xx
2.81-3.12 xxxxx xxxxx: XXXXXXxx xx
3.12-3.38 xxxxx xxxxx. xxxx:x:xxx xx
3.38-3.66 C3 ·xxxxx XXXX xxxxx:lO{xx xx
3.66-4.17 xxxx xxx;><:: xxxxxxxxxxx xx
4.17-4.42 2Btlb xxxx xxx: xxxxxxxxxx xxx
4.42-4.67 2Bt2b xxxx xxx xxxxxxxxxx xxx
4.67-4.90 xxxx xx xxxxxxxxxxx xxx'
Depth
(meters)
0.00-0.18
0.18-0.25
0.25-0.51
0.51-0.91
0.91-1. 32
1. 32-1. 60
1.60-1.85
1. 85-2.11
2.11-2.36
2.36-2.62
2.62-2.87
2.87-3.12
3.12-3.38
3.38-3.66
3.66-4.17
4.17-4.42
4.42-4.67
1.67-4.90
Horizon
Ap
Btl
Bt2
Bt3
Bt4
Bw
C1
C2
C3
2Btlb
2Bt2b
pH
In 1:1

H2 0 ll.NKCl
6.4
5.9
5.5
5.0
5.1
5.2
5.2
5.2
5.2
5.2
5.3
5.3
5.4
5.5
5.4
5.3
5.3
5.2
5.8
5.6
5.1
4.5
4.6
4.6
4.6
4.6
4.6
4.6
4.8
4.9
5.0
5.1
5.0
4.9
4.9
4.9
5.2
5.0
4.4
3.9
3.9
4.0
4,,0
4.0
4.0
4,.0
4.1
4.1
4.2
4.2
4.2
4.1
4.1
4.1
Ca
Table 9
Selected chemical characteristics of a Memphis soil and
underlyin9 Paleosol on the Prairie Terrace in East Baton
Rouge Parlsh, Louisiana
Exchangeable
Mg I KINa Al H
I I I
Extract":
able
acidity ca
DaC1 2- effec- urn of
TEA Itive ations
Saturation
Ai IH Fases
·-------:---milliequivalents!lOO grarn9----------
,
---7.--
3.4
6.1
6.2
5.5
4.3
4.5
4.7
3.8
4.8
4.8
4.7
4.9
5.4
6.8
9.8
10.1
12.2
0.8
2.8
2.6
2.2
1.8
1.8
2.0
1.6
2.0
2.2
2.0
2.2
2.2
3.1
3.8
3.8
4.4
0.4
1.0
0.4
0.2
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.2
0.2
0.2
0.2
0.2
0.2
1),11 0.0
0.0
0.2 0.2
0.2 1.0
0.4 0.8
0.4 0.6
0.4 0.6
0.4. 0.6
1.2 0.4
1.1 0.2
1.0 0.0
1.2 0.0
0.9 0.0
0.5 0.0
0.2 0.0
0.2 0.0
0.2 0.0
0.3 0.0
0.2
0.2
0.2
0.3
0.1
0.2
0.1
0.2
0.2
0.2
0.2
O. :2
0.2
0.2
O

.<-
0.2
0.2
O
'I
.f-
2.1
7.1
7.1
7.2
6.1
4.1
3.6
3.1
3.1
3.6
3.1
6.7
2.1
2.5
3.6
3.1
3.6
4.9
10.5
10.7
9.2
7.4
7.5
8.0
7.3
8.4
8.3
8.2
8.4
8.5
10.5
14.2
15.5
17.3
5.81
11.7
11.6
10.4
8.2
8.3
8.2
7.7
7.8
8.1
7.6
8.4
9.4
13.2
14.6
17.0
18.8
6.9
17.2
16.5
15.5
12.7
10.9
10.8
9.8
11.1
11.7
11.1
14.9
10.4
12.8
17.6
18.4
20.7
o
o
2 2
9 3
8 1
8 2
8 1
7 2
5 2
2 2
o 2
o 2
o 2
o 2
o 1
o 1
o 1
o 1
68
58
56
53
51
62
66
68
72
69
72
55
79
80
79
83
82
I
I Ca/Nf, _ '[,tr.
:(Exchan!;e- Organic free ,-
i able) C COl Fe ·(!lr.,·.1 i
4.2
2.2
2.3
2.5
2.3
2.5
2.3
2.3
2.4
2.1
2.3
2.2
2.4
2.1
2.5
2.6
2.7
---_ .. _---
0.41
i 1. 23 I,
1. 42
'1.68
0.96 .
1.00
0.87
98 '
0.76 '
0.79
0.75 '
'0.76 .
0.76 '
iO.34
0.40 I
0 .. 39
0.30
222
170
130
132
185
265
292
300
295
282
290
315
294
320
100
85
47
40
LV
-...J
Table 10. Whole-soil composition of nine elements and Ti/Zr ratio in a Memphis soil and underlying
paleosols on the Prairie terrace in East Baton Rouge Parish, Louisiana.
I
,.
Depth Element Ratio
(meters) Horizon
Ca I Mg I K] Al L Fe.1 Si
P

Ti Izr rri/Zr
I
--------------------%------ -------------
--..----,.---
0.00-0.18 AP 0,,10
! 0.01 I 1.21 2.44 0.95 27.96 802 2484 388 6.40
0.18-0.25 Btl
0.25-0.51 Bt2 0,,07 0.07 1.53 4.52 2.76 26.76 1186
3127 534 5.86
0.51-0.91 B"t3 0.08 0.08 1.44 4.25 2.69 24.43 1180
2789 556 5.02
0.91-1.32 B;t4 0.10 0.03 1.38 4.04 2.28 25.26 864
2672 365 7.32
1. 32-1.60 Bw 0.33 0.29 1.60 4.70 2.47 29.81 1042
2885 374 7.71
1.60-1.85 Cl 0.35 0.34 1.57 I 4.53 2.35 29.55 1038
2883 396 7.28
1. 85-2.11 0.40 0.32 1.56
I 4.59 2.28 29.40 945 3032 399 7.60
2.11-2.36 0.42 0.32 1.54 4.45 2.32 29.08 1000
2960 428 6.92
2.36-2.62 0.40 0.31 1.65 4.63 2".40 29.86 970
3145 429 7.33
2.62-2.87 C2 0 .. 52 0.38 1.64 4.68 2.26 28.97 917
422 7.05
2.87-3.12 0.09 0.02 1.34 3.14 1.82 24.59 717 2406 342 7.03
3.12-3.38 0.08 0.01 1.39 3.30 1. 76 24.36 659 .
331 6.89
3.38-3.66 C3 0.07 0.01 1.40 3.42 1.90 25.97 738 377 6.32
3.66-4.17
,
0.11 0.01 0.77 3.00 1.48 27.09 321 342 7.49
4.17-4.42 2Bt1b 0.15 0.01 0.57 3.47 1.61 27.84 242
n55 309 8.92
4.42-4.67 2Bt2b 0 .. 13 10.01 0.33 3.63 1.80 29.20 293 3161 311 0.16
4.67-4.90 0.25
I 10.11
0.54 4.77 2.10 35.44 317 3775 322 1.72
I
I
!
I
I I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
i
,
i
i
I
I
i
\
w
00
SITE 2
This stop is approximately 50 meters from the site represented by the
accompanying morphological description and supporting data. The site is on
the Intermediate Terraces of Snead and McCulloh (1984). Its is about
10 meters higher than that of the Prairie Terrace, visible to the south from
the site. Local relief is greater than on the Prairie Terrace and regional
slope is to the south at about 5 feet per mile (Kupfer, 1964). Locally, most
of the drainage from its surface is to the Mississippi River by way. ot the
trending Bayou Baton Rouge and Cooper Bayou. Cypress Bayou to the
east drains parts of the area into Lake Maurepas.
The Intermediate Terrace (Snead and McCulloh, 1984) identification is pre-
ceded by Irene (Durham et al., 1967), Montgomery (Russell and Morgan, 1964;
Fisk, 1940). Oberlin (Doering, 1956) and Second Terrace (Fisk et al.,1938).
The Yarmouth interglacial is the time of deposition most frequently indicated
for the terrace. Saucier (1974) discussed regional distribution and character-
istics of the Montgomery Terrace and considered it to be Yarmouth in age. He
recognized the apparent inconsistency between the degree of preservation of the
surface and the long time period since its presumed deposition. Fisk and
McFar1an (1955) considered it to be a Sangamon age deposit. Discussionqby
Durham (1967) and Rosen (1969) emphasize the importance of faulting in landform
development. Structural movement along faults in the area and the effect on
erosion and deposition may have influenced its position and landscape on the
terrace.
Peoria and Pre-Peoria loess, each burying identifiable paleosols, occur
on the terrace surface. Thus, it has been subareally exposed longer than the
Prairie Terrace which only has the Peoria loess. The Pre-Peoria loess was de-
posited on a surface containing distinct soil profiles. The time of depositidn
of the Pre-Peoria loess has not yet been established.
Major soils on the terrace are Olivier and Loring (Fragiudalfs) , Calhoun
and Frost (Glossaqualfs) and Deerford and Verdun (Natraqualfs). Olivier is by
far the predominate soil near the site. The better drained Loring soils occupy
relatively small areas on the highest, convex and best drained sites. Calhoun
and Zachary (Typic Albaqualf) soils are on the larger flats and in slightly
depressional areas.
Buntley et al. (1977) indicated that fragipans form at the Roxana-Peoria
loess contact zone in soils developed in thick loess deposits in West Tennessee.
In Arkansas, West.et al. (1977) described similar fragipans in soils developed
entirely in Peoria loess. In Louisiana, soils formed in thick loess deposits
and having fragipans appear to have developed in a single loess deposits. How-
ever, they also form at many loess-loess and loess-nonloess contact zones in
thinner loess deposits. Fragipan formation in deposits lacking loess is also
common.
The fragipan in the Olivier soil has cross sectional area and dimensions
of the brown brittle bodies that are near the minimum allowed by definition.
This is believed to reflect on advanced rather than incipient stage in frag:i,pan
development.
39
40
SITE 2.
Irene -Terrace
Olivier Soil (fine-silty, mixed, thermic Aquic Fragiuda1f)
Location: East Baton Rouge Parish, Louisiana; East of highway 61 and
south of Barnett Road in SW!t;, SW!t;, NE!t;, Survey No. 79; T5S; R1W
(elevation: approximately 26.8 meters).
The Olivier series is comprised of somewhat poorly drained, slowly
permeable soils formed in Peoria loess deposits more than approximately
1.25 meters thick or where Peoria loess deposits overlie older (Roxana?)
loess deposits at depths within the modern soil solum.
Formation
r-I
• ,-j
a
rn
Soil
Horizon
Ap
E
Btl
Bt2
Depth
(meters)
0.00-0.20
0.20-0.38
0.38-0.58
0.58-0.81
Morphology
Grayish brown (10YR 5/2) silt; weak
medium granular structure to
structure1ess; friable; common medium
and· fine roots; common med ium and fine
black and brown concretions; slightly
acid; abrupt smooth boundary •
Pale brown (10YR 6/3) silty loam; few
fine faint yellowish brown (10YR 5/4)
and grayish brown (10YR 5/2) mottles;
weak mediumsubangu1ar blocky structure;
friable; common fine roots; coronion fine
and medium pores; few medium and fine
black and brown concretions; very
strongly acid; clear smooth boundary.
Yellowish brown (10YR 5/4) silt loam;
moderate medium subandu1ar blocky
-structure; friable; few fine roots;
common fine and medium pores; some pores
coated with clay films, some with black
stains; thin discontinuous clay films on
p e d ~ ; black coatings on some ped faces;
thin discontinuous silt coatings on some
ped faces; fe\y medium and fine black,
brown. and yellowish red concretions;
very strongly acid; clear wavy boundary.
Yellowish brown (10YR 5/6) silt loam;
few to common medium and fine distinct
yel19wish red (5YR 4/6). grayish brown
(10YR 5/2), and brown (10YR 4/3)
mottles; moderate medium subangu1ar
blocky structure; firm; few fine roots;
common fine and medium pores coated with
0.81-1.07
Bx2 1.07-1.42
Bx3 1.42-1.91
Bw1 1.91-2.41
thin clay films and black stains; thin
discontinuous clay films and black
stains on peds; thin silt coatings on
many peds; common medium and fine black,
brown and yellowish red concretions;
very strongly acid; clear wavy boundary.
Yellowish brown (iOYR 5/4) silt loam;
common fine and medium faint grayish
brown and brown mottles; moderate medium
and coarse subangular blocky structure;
Bx portion is firm and brittle; E'
portion is friable; few fine roots along
Bx ped faces; common fine and medium
pores coated with clay films and black
stains in Bx part; thin discontinuous
clay films and black stains on ped
faces; common medium faint light
brownish gray (lOYR 6/2) silty seams;
few medium and . fine black. brown and
yellowish red concretions; very strongly
acid; clear irregular boundary. .
Yellowish brown (10YR 5/4) silt loam;
common fine distinct grayish brown and
light gray mottles; moderate coarse
subangular blocky structure; very firm
and brittle in about 75 percent of the
horizontal cross section, remainder is
friable; few fine roots between prisms;
common fine and medium pores in peds
coated with clay films and black stains;
thin discontinuous clay films and black
stains on peds; thin discontinuous silt
coats. and
(lOYR 6/2)
thick light
silty clay
brownish gray
loam vertical
seams between prisms; common medium
black and brown concretions; very
strongly acid; diffuse irregular
boundary.
Yellowish brown (10YR 5/6) silt loam;
common medium distinct gray (5Y 6/1)
silty clay loam vertical seams between
peds; weak very coarse subangular blocky
structure; firm; common fine pores
coated with light gray clay films; few
medium black concretions; strongly acid;
gradual wavy boundary.
Light yellowish brown (10YR 6/4) silt
loam few fine faint yellowish brown
(lORY 5/8) and light brownish gray (10YR
6/2) mottles; weak coarse subangular
41
42
Bw2
2Bt1b
2Bt2b
2Bt3b
2Bwb
2.41-2.90
2.90-3.38
3.38-4.17
4.17-5.03
5.03-6.15
blocky structure; friable; common
vertical light brownish gray (10YR 6/2)
silt seams; common medium and fine black
and brown concretions; strongly acid;
diffuse wavy boundary.
Yellowish brown (10YR 5/6) silt loam;
otherwise same as Bw1 at 1.90-2.41
meters.
Brownish yellow (10YR 6/6) silty clay
loam; moderate medium sub angular blocky
structure; firm; peds coated with
yellowish brown (10YR 5/6) clay films;
few fine and medium distinct strong
brown (7.5YR 5/6) mottles; few thin
light brownish gray (10YR 6/2) vertical,
gray silt seams; strongly acid; gradual
smooth boundary.
Brownish yellow (lOYR 6/6) silty clay
loam to 3.63 meters; silt loam below
3.63 meters; moderate medium subangular
blocky structure; firm, reddish yellow
(7.5YR 6/6) clay films on many ped
suri'aces and in pores; common
medium light brownish gray (lOYR 6/2)
and few fine and medium prominant red
4/6) mottles; few fine and medium
black and brown concretions; strongly
acid; gradual smooth boundary.
Light brownish gray (10YR 6/2) and
brownish yellow (10YR 6/6) loam;.
moderate to weak medium sub angular
blocky structure; firm; thin
discontinuous reddish yellow (7.5YR 6/6)
clay films on peds and in pores; common
distinct strong brown (7.5YR 5/8)
mottles; strongly acid; gradual smooth
boundary.
Brownish yellow (10YR 6/6) to reddish
yellow (7.5YR 6/6) silty clay loam;
moderate to weak medium subangular
blocky structure; firm; common medium
and fine light brownish gray (10YR 7/1)
mottles; thin discontinuous clay films
on some peds and in pores; black
coatings on some peds; few small and
medium black and brown concretions;
strongly acid; clear smooth boundary.
3Btb 6.15-6.80 Light bro'Ymish gray (lOYR 6/2 to 2. 5Y
6/2) silty clqy loam; common, medium and
fine strong brown (7.5YR 5/6) mottles;
moderate, medium sub angular blocky
structure; very firm; strongly acid.
43
44
1l1li
911
l1li
78
£III
Q)
r-

rc!
U
V)

I; J
.1
SITE 2·
0.38-0.
0.81-1.07
1. 42-1. 73
1.91-2.16
2.41-2.64
2. -./
6.
6.45-6.'"'-'--___
tl
t2
X/E'
X2
X3
wl
2Bt 1 b
3Btb
Formation
s:::
S-
Q)
""C
0
E
0'>
s:::
'r-
s:::
'0-
ttl
+->
s:::
0
u
VI
VI
Q)
0
ttl
'r- •
s...-
o ....
Q)O
0... VI
c-
o
VI
o
Q)
ftl
0...
-0
VI Q)
Vl·'-
Q) S-
0:::1
r- ..0
ttl 0'>
'r- s:::
s-.r-
os:::
W'r-
n.- fO
I +'
(1)1:::
$..0
0.. U
'r-
s...
(1):::1
U ..0
ttl
S-O'>
S- I::: •
QJ -..- r--
----' I- s::: 0
',- VI
(I) ttl 0
s::: +-> (I)
(l)S:::.-
S-Oftl
...... U 0..
Figure ]0 Cldy-free particle size distribution (Coulter Counter and sieve) in an
Olivier soil and underlying Paleosols on the Irene Terrace in East
Baton Rouqe Parish. Louisiana
Table 11. Particle size distribution in an Olivier soil ,,'-TId underlying paleosols on the Irene Terrace in East Baton
Rouge Parish, Louisiana.
Depth
1 !
(meters
o . 00-0.201'
0.20-0.38
0.38-0.581
0.58-0.81,1
0.81-1.07
1.07-1. 42 1
1.42-1. 73'
1. 73-1. 91
1.91-2.16
2.16-2.L,l
I
2.41-2.64··
2.64-2.90
2.90-3.15
3.15-3.38
3.38-3.63
3.63-3.89
3.89-4.17
4.17-4.47
4.47-4.78
4.78-5.03
5.03-5.28
5.28-5. 54 1
5.54-5.84\
5.84-6.15 I
6.15-6.
45
1
6.45-6.81
I
AP
E
Btl
Bt2
Bx/Eli
; I
Bx2 .
Bx3 I
Bw1 I
Bw2
2Btlb
l
""
2Bt2b,
2Bt3b
2Bwb I
3Btb I
Sand
C2.0-
0.05)
10.2
4.1
3.2
3.5
4.4
4.2
4 ...,
• I
4.3
6.9
5.8
5.3
3.8
2.4
3.0
2.9
3.0
3.0
5.5
4.9
5.8
5.0
5.2
4.6
6.2
8.5
6.9
ToEa1
I I
I
I
Silt
(0.05-
I
Clay
I
10.002)
I
«0.002)
I
I
r
i
I I
83.4 I 6.4
74.6
i
21.3
I
70.2 26.6
76.5 20.0
I
74.5 21.1
76.8 19.0
76.1 19.2
80.2
I
15.5
I 76.1 17.0
I
75.8 18.4
I
76.5 18.2
75.5 21.7
66.7 30.9
67.8 29.2
69.9
I
27 .2
72.1 24.9
72.9 I 24.1
72.1
I
22.4
71.0 24.1
70.0 24.2
76.3 29.7
65.8 29.0
i
64.7 30.7
6.0.7
I
33.1
58.0
!
33.5
55.9 37.2
I
I
j
I
Size Class and Particle Diameter (rom)
Sand
,
I
I
Silt
I Sand Very Tex-
Coarse Coarse Medium Fine Very fine
I
tural
:2.0-l.0)I O . O- O,5) (0.5-0.25) (0.25-0.1) (0.1-0.05 ) class
Pct. of "- 2 lULU
0.4 0.6 1.8 1.4 6.0 8.2 s;
0.1 0.1 0.1 0.2 3.7 18.2 s;1
0.0 0.0 0.1 0.1 3.1 21. 9 s;l
0.0 0.1 0.1 0.2 3.2 21.8 s i 1
0.0 0.2 0.2 0.2 3.8 16.9 sil
0.0 0.1 0.2 0.2 3.7 18.3 sil
0.0 0.1 0.2 0.2 4.2 16.2 sil
0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 3.7 18.6 sil
0.7 0.5 0.5 0.6 4.6 11.0 sil
0.6 0.6 0.5 0.6 3.5 13.1 sil
0.3 0.4 0.4 0.6 3.6 14.4 5;1
0.1 0.1 0.2 0.5 3.0 19.9 s i1
0.0 0.0 0.1 0.3 2.0 27.8 si cl
0.0 0.0 0.1 0.2 2.7 22.6 sicl
0.0 0.1 0.1 0.2 2.6 I 24.0 si cl
0.0 0.1 0.1 0.2 2.7 I 24.0 sil
0.0 0.1 0.1 0.2 2.8 24.3 sil
0.0 0.1 0.1 0.4 5.0 13.1 sil
0.0 0.1 0.1 0.3 4.6 14.5 sil
0.1 0.1 0.1 0.3 5.3
\12.1
si1
0.0 0.0 0.1 0.2 4.8 13.1 sicl
0.0 0.0 0.1 0.3 4.9 12.6 sicl
0.0 0.0 0.1 0.2 4.4 14.1 S i cl
0.0 0.0 0.1 0.3 5.9 9.8 s; cl
0.0 0.1 0.1 0.4 8.1 6.8
s; cl
0.0 0.0 0.1 0.4 6.5 8.1 sicl
I
I
.,[:'-
I
\.Jl
Table 12. Profile distribution trends of Phyllosilicates in an Olivier soil and underlying Paleosols on
the Irene Terrace in East Baton Rouge Parish, Louisiana.
Mineral ComEonent
Interstratified
Depth Soil Vermiculite and
(meters) Horizon Kaolinite Micaceous Smectite (Eedogenic) interlayered
0.00-0.20 Ap xxxxxxxx xxx: xx xx xxxxx
0.20-0.38 E xxxxxxxx xxxx. xx x xxxxx
0.38-0.58 Btl xxxxxxx xxxx. xxx x xxxxx
0.58-0.81 Bt2 xxxxx xxxxxx: xxxx x xxxx
0.81-1.07 Bx/E' xxxxx xxxxxx xxxxx xxxx
1.07-1.42 Bx2 xxxx xxxxx xxxxxxx xxxx
1.42-1.73 Bx3 xxxxx xxxx· xxxxxxxx xxx
1.73-1.91 xxxxx xxxx: xxxxxxxx xxx
1.91-2.16 Bw1 xxxxx xxxx xxxxxxxx. xxx
2.16-2.41 xxxxxxxx xx xxxxxxx xxx
2.41-2.64 Bw2 xxxxxxxxxxx x xxxxx xxx
2.64-2.90 xxxxxxxxxxxx tr xxxxx xxx
2.90-3.15 2Bt1b xxxxxxxxxxxx tr xxxx xxxx
3.15-3.38 xxxxxxxxxxxxx tr xxx xxxx
3.38-3.63 2Bt2b xxxxxxxxxxx tr xxxxx xxxx
3.63-3.89 xxxxxxxxxx tr xxxxxx xxxx
3.89-4.17 xxxxxxxxxxx xxxxx xxxx
4.17-4.47 2Bt3b xxxxxxxxxx xxxx xxxx
4.47-4.78 xxxxxxxxxxxx xxxx xxxx
4.78-5.03 xxxxxxxxxxxxx xxx xxxx
5.03-5.28 2Bwb xxxxxxxxxxx tr xxxxx xxxx
5.28-5.54 xxxxxxxxx· tr xxxxxxx xxxx
5.54-5.84 xxxxxxxx tr xxxxxxxx xxxx
5.84-6.15 xxxxxxx x xxxxxxxx xxxx
6.15-6.45 3Btb xxxxx xx xxxxxxxxx xxxx
6.45-6.81 xxxxxx ·xx xxxxxxxx xxxx
-+'-
(J\
o
o
o
o
o
1
1
1
1
2
2
2
Z
3
3
3
:3
4
4
4
5
5
5
5
6
6
Depth
;) -
O'
8
8
:1
7
2
3
1
6
1
4
a
5
8
3
9
7
7
8
3
8
4
4
5
5
1
Horizon pH
In 1:1
suspension
H2 O
f-
aC1
2 NKC.l I
AP
6.3 5.8 5.1
E 14.9
4.4 3.9
Btl 4.9 4.2
3 -r
.1
Bt2 1 I 4.9 4.2
3 -r
.1
Bx/E 5 .. 0 4.3
3 -r
.1
Bx2 5.0 4.3 3.6
Bx3
5.1 4.5
3 -r
.1
5.2 4.6 3.8
BWl
5.3 4.8 3.9
5.4 4.8 4.0
8W2
5.3 4.8 4.0
5.3 4.8 4.1
2Btlb 5 1
. .- 5.0 4.1
5.4 5.0 4.2
2Bt2b
5.3 4.9 4.2
5.2 4.9 4.1
5.2 4.9 4·.2
2Bt3b 5.2 4.9
4 .,
.<-
5.3 5.0 4.3
5.3 5.0 4.2
2Bwb 5.3 5.0 4.2
5.5 5.2 4.1
5.2 5.1
4 ')
.<-
5.4 5.2 4.3
3Btb 5.3 5.3 4.4
5.4 5.3 4. : ~
Table 13 Selected chemical characteristics of an Oliver Soil and the underlying
Palesols on the Irene Terrace in East Baton Rouge Parish, Louisiana
j'Extract
Cation exchange
E;{changeable
I Mg I KINa I Al
I H
I
able
acidity I ~ - r ~ - ~ ~ J
3aC11- c< , ._. C
I TEA Itive
Saturation
um of- I
I
Cain,; '" ExCr.
(Exchange-IOrganlc I Fre'i's 'hQf'! i'-
Ca
2 .. 0 0.8
1.8 2.1
1.2 3.1
La 3.0
LO 3.0
1.1 4.0
3 .. 2 4.5
3.4 4.1
3.9 4.2
3.1 3.3
3.8 3.8
4.4 3.8
5.2 4.1
6.8 5.1
6.0 4.6
5.8 4.5
5.3 4.0
4.1 3.2
5.4 4.0
4.7 3.4
6.0 4.6
6.5 4.8
7.1 5.4
8.2 5.6
8.7 6.2
11.9 8.0
I
I
milliequivalents, /100 gramg---
0.1 0.1
0.1 0.2
0.2 0.3
0.2 0.3
0.1 0.3
0.2 0.4
0.1 0.5
0.1 0.9
0.1 0.4
0.1 0.3
0.1 0.4
0.1 0.4
0.1 0.4
0.1 0.7
0.1 0.4
0.1 0.5
0.1 0.4
0.1 0.4
0.1 0 .. 4
0.1 0 .. 5
0.1 0 .. 5
0.1 0,.4
0.1 0 .. 5
0.1 0 .. 4
0.1 0..4
0.2 0 .. 6
I
0.0 0.2
1.8 0.3
4.2 0.4
3.5 0.0
2.7 0.3
2.0 0.2
0.8 0.3
0.2 0.4
0.2 0.3
0.0 0.4
0.0 0.2
0.0 0.2
0.0 0.2
0.0 0.7
0.0 0.2
0.0 0.2
0.0 0.2
0.0 0.2
0.0 0.2
0.0 0.2
0.0 0.2
0.0 0.2
0.0 0.2
0.0 0.2
0.0 0.2
0.0 0.2
I 3.1
5.1
9.7
8.2
7.2
6.7
5.1
2.5
1.0
1.5
1.5
1.5
1.5
1.5
1.5
2.5
2.0
1.5
1.0
1.5
2.5
2.5
3.1
3.6
3.1
4.1
3.1
6.3
9.4
8.0
7.4
7.9
6.2
9.1
9.1
7.2
8.3
8.9
10.0
12.9
11. 3
11.1
10.0
8.0
10.1
8.9
11.4
12.0
13.3
14.5
15.6
20.9
ations Al H
i.
5.0 6.0 0 6
8.3 9.3 29 5
11.6 15.5 45 4
9.7 12.7 44 0
10.1 11. 6 36 4
9.8 12.4 25 3
11.0 13.4 8 5
10.3 11.0 2 4
9.9 9.6 2 3
9.4 8.3 0 6
9.5 9.6 a 2
9.4 10.2 0 2
11.5 11.3 0 2
12.0 14.2 0 2
12.4 12.6 0 2
11.8 13.4 0 2
9.6 ll.8 0 2
9.6 9.3 0 2
10.2 10.9 a 2
9.9 10.2 0 2
. 13.9 13.7 0 2
I 13.8 14.3 0 2
15.4 16.2 0 1
18.4 17.9 0
18.8 18.5 0 1
20.8 24.8 0 I 1
48
45
31
35
38
46
62
77
90
82
84
85
87
89
88
81
83
84
91
85
82
82
81
80
83
84
able) C ICO l 'Fe '(l1ril',ll',
i I
2.5
0.9
0.4
0.3
0.3
0.3
0.7
0.8
0.9
0.9
1.0
1.2
1.3
1.3
1.3
1.3
1.3
1.3
1.3
1.4
1.3
1.4
1.3
1.5
1.4
1.5
- - - - - - - ~ I
r;o"
0.22, 9
, 0.65 . 2
'0.78' 20
'0.81118
,0.80' 2
i 0.69 I 10
0.62: 31
iO.42; 42
0.21 28
:0.28: 16
iO.30, 15
'0.41110
0.62 I 2
; 0.68 I
0.42
; 0.21
: 0.44 I '
[
' 0.38'
,0.49 I
: 0.48 I
: 0.221 4
. 0.22 I 4
0.12 ! 1\
i 0.24 I 5
I
0.19 i 6
0.10 I 3
.p-
'-l
Table 14. Whole-soil composltion of nine elements and Ti/Zr ratio in an Olivier soil and underlying
paleosols on the Irene Terrace in East Baton Rouge Louisiana.
Depth r ---1
,
Element
Ratio
(meters) Horizo
I -----------------
K I Al L Fe I, Si

tri/Zr
---%------
I
, !
0.00-0.20 I lAP 0.11 0.08: 1
0.20-0.38 E 0.09 0.22 1
0.38-0.58 I Btl 0.05 0.27 1
0.58-0.81 I Bt20.06 0.19 1
0.81-1.07: Bx/E' 0.11 0.33 1
1.07-1.42 I Bx2 0.14 0.21 1
1.42-1.73 Bx3 0.16 0.17 1
1.73-1.91 0.30 0.271 1
1.91-2.16 Bw} 0.19 0.17 0
2.16-2.41 0.13 0.10 0
2.41-2.64 Bw2 0.07 0.07 0
2.64-2.90 0.04 0.05 0
2.90-3.15 2Bt1b 0.03 0.05 I 0
3.15-3.38 0.02 0.03 I 0
3.38-3.63 2Bt2b 0.04 0.03 0
3.63-3.89 0.10 0.10 0
3.89-4.17 0.02 0.02 0
4.14-4.47 2Bt3b 0.01 0.01 I 0
4.47-4.78 0.01 0.01 I 0
4.78-5.03 0.01 0.01 0
5.03-5.28 2Bwb 0.00 0.00 I 0
5.28-5.54 0.01 0.08 0
5.54-5.84 0.17 0.191 0
5.84-6.15 0.12 0.12 0
6.15-6.45 3Btb 0.18 0.20 " 0
6.45-6.81 0.26 0.35 0
I
I
I
,06 I 2.59 0.95 32.53
150' ;
2473 503 4.9
29 i
4.10 2.06 29.65 264 ;
2888 584 4.9 ,
30 4.80 2.80 27.19 467 :
i 3071 623 4.9
55 4.97 2.82 30.65 461 !
3197 651 4.9
Lf7 4.81 2.69 38.25 370 j
3106 655 4.7
32 4.43 I 2.31 26.13 398 ! : 2928
673 4.4
4.22 2.20 37.46 490 I
2956 791 3.7
I
31 4.22 1.85 29.71 342 i 3024 814 3.7
76 3.35 1.53 31.52 213 I 3295 787 4.2
59 3.22 1.38 31.65 184 !
3158 747 4.2
37 2.86 1.38 30.11
i
3584 807 4.4
181 I
18 3.03 1.59 30.64
182 I i 3746 820 4.6
10 3.62 2.13 28.18 184 I 3905 810 4.8
12 3.64 2.00 27.65 145 :
3899 758 5.1
28 3.23 1.68 27.52 H2 i
3464 736 4.7
26 3.40 1.37 30.30 125 i 3908 779 5.0
06 2.69 1.57 26.70 101 1 2975 593 5.0
00 2.29 1.28 27.01 67 I ' 2955
569 5.2
00 3.03 1.60 26.97 104
3202 595 5.4
I
1.61 27.59 128
2965 576
02 I 2.65
5.1
00 I 2.84 1.48 24.42 63
2939 492 6.0
02 I 3.43 1.33 28.43 123
3597 627 5.7
14 3.98 1.49 28.78 148 3836 677 5.7
19 \ 4.23 1.91 30.23 115 4044 697 5.8
27 ' 4.44 1.99 31:18 145
4024 605 6.7
52 5.23 2.07 28.15 214 3627 483 7.5
I
I
l
I
1
I
,

00
SITE 3
This stop is located approximately 15 Km north of the site represented
by the accompanying morphological description and supporting data. The original
site in Lafayette Louisiana is now a housing development area. Both sites are
situated on the eastern edge of the Prairie Terrace and overlook the escarpment
to the lower loess-covered surface and alluvial plain. The loess on the lower
surface will be observed at site 4. In comparsion, the alternate site 1s on a
more sloping landscape than the original (1 to 5 versus than 1 percent).
These sites are otherwise quite similar.
The loess-covered part of the Prairie Terrace west of the Mississippi
River can be subdivided into two zones (Bernard et al., 1965; Howe et al., 1933;
Saucier, 1974). The area at the is underlain by an upper deltaic plaJn or
lower alluvial plain of the Mississippi River. This zone corresponds approximately
to the region east of the Vermil ion River and Louisiana highway 182. The region
described is characterized by a distinctive north-south trending meander belt
topography in which a number of Prairie age Mississippi River courses are apparant.
West of this area is a reI ict deltaic plain of the Red River characterized by many
segments of southwest trending meander belts, extraordinarily flat topography, and
predominately clayey deposits. The relationship between thickness of the
on the Terrace and distance from the floodplain along one nearby transect is shown
in Figure 11. Important relationships between loess thickness and some of the
modern soils on the Terrace are illustrated in Figure 12.
The Memph is soi I (Typ i c Hap I uda I f) compr i ses a I arger port i on of the
Pra i r i e Terrace surface than a II other so i I s comb i ned in an area of severa I Km
2
in vicinity of the site. This area is unique'in that the Memphis soil occupies
extensive areas having 0 - 1 percent slopes in soil bodies that may be several
Km2 in size. Frost soils (Typic Glossaqualfs) occur in the wetter areas in asso-
ciation with Coteau (Glossaquic Hapludalf) in this same landscape.
Major soil association patterns in the area reflect the thickness
and distribution. For example, from east to west on the Terrace (in the direction
of thinning loess-Lafayette to Crowley, La.) one crosses five major soil association
areas that occur as relatively narrow elongate north-south trending bands and
enters a sixth and more extensive soil association. These are identified, from
east to west, as Memphis - Frost, Coteau - Frost, Patoutville - Frost, Patoutville -
Jeanerette, Jeanerette - Patoutville, associations developed in loess and the
Crowley - Midland association developed in the Prairie formation.
Soils containing fragipans are not mapped in the Peoria loess deposits on
the Terrace west of the Mississippi River. Small areas within bodies of
the Coteau soil may, in places, have horizons that meet the criteria for fragipans.
The Patoutville soil may also have a thin horizon that, although not a fragipan,
has some of the 'brittleness
'
characteristic associated with fragipans. Definitive
for the Coteau series in the presence of "Fragipan - like" bodies completely
surrounded by E horizon material and overlying a 8t horizon.
The Jeanerette soils are quite similar In appearance to Tjplc Argiaquolls
developed in parts of the midwestern United States; Depths to secondary carbonates
range from about 30 to 50 cm. Thickness of the zone containing carbonates is
typically about 40 cmo These soils occupy low and/or broad flat landscape
positions. The secondary carbonates form in the zone of fluctuation of the top of
a seasonal water table present from late November or early December through April
in most years (Qualls, 1984).
figure 11. Loess thickness and diistribution
observed in an East-West transect
in Lafayette Pa ris h, Louis iana.
Loess
Mixed /
Loess -non loess
--, .
_ ...
"..
.;'
."
..
. '
,
,
" I
1
I
I
8
~
FF'
r- F
,
rr-i j i ,
50 20 10.0 5.0
./
~
/
~ I '
, ,
1'0' • · 'u's 2.0
Distance in miles from 'Bluff' (log scalel
4
3
I
V)
~
CD
--
CD
S
V)
V)
CD
2 c:
~
~
.r=.
~
l-
V)
V)
CD
0
--'
~ l
~ O
V1
o
Figure 12. Schematic of relationships between modern soils and loess thickness on the Prairie Terrace
in the Lafayette-Crowley area in Louisiana.
Note: (1) Base of reference is apparent contact between loess and more clayey
Prairie Terrace formation.
(2) Loess thicknesses greater than 1 meter are based on data from transects;
thickness at lesser depths are extrapolations.
(3) Not shown is the small effect the admixed zone has in increasing
the apparent depth to the contact with the underlying material.
'4.0
III
I-<
Memphis, Coteau, Acy, etc.,
soils developed in thick
loess deposits
.3.0
Cro"l11ley, Mowat a , etc., soils
deve loped in Prairie Terrac,s
formation
Jeanerette, Patoutville,
etc., soils developed in
mixed loess-Prairie Terracel
deposits I
f
-. ........... .
..............
...........
.., ........... .
...............
.. "' ........... .
'Oo.... ................. ..
................
...................
'. . ................ ..
.. "' ........... .
.. 0 ........... ..
..............
.............

.0
<u

I:
....
.D
III
<u
a

{J
.....


III
ID
<u
LO ;3
... -.::.'::.-: :
;;;;;,-,-;;:-, •. :.-.... -; .• .. 0
45 3
1
5 36 T -10 15 fo 5
Distance in Kilometers from 'nluff'



,_i-

VI
f-'
52
SITE 3
Loess-Covered Prairie Terrace
Memphis soil (fine-silty, mixed, thermic Typic Hapludalfs)
Location: Lafayette Parish, Louisiana; SW!t;. NE!t;, NW!t;, NW!t; of E ~ of W ~ of
Survey No. III,T9S., R 5E.; in city of Lafayette, La.
(elevation: approximately 13 meters).
The Memphis series is comprised of well drained, moderately permeable
soils formed in Peoria loess deposits greater than approximately 1.25
meters thick.
Formation
rl
'M
0
Ul
I::l
H
(])
'"d
0
13
OJ)
I::l
'M
I::l
'M
til
.1-1
I::l
0
C)
(I)
Ul
(])
0
rl
til
• .-1
H
0
(])
P-t
Soil
Horizon
Ap
Btl
Bt2
Bt3
Bt4
Depth
(meters)
0.00-0.17
0.17-0.30
0.30-0.48
0.48-0.81
0.81-1.42
Morphology
Dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2) silt;
weak, fine granular structure; friable
many medium and fine roots; many fine
pores; common, brown to black
concretions; strongly acid; abrupt
smooth boundary.
Brown (7.5YR 5/4) silt loam; moderate,
medium subangular blocky structure;
firm; common fine roots; common fine·
pores; continuous clay films on most ped
surfaces; very strongly acid; clear
smooth boundary.
Dark brown (7.5YR 4/4) silty clay loam;
moderate, medium sub angular blocky
structure; firm; continuous clay films
on peds and in pores; common fine roots;
common fine pores; very strongly acid;
gradual smooth boundary.
Dark brown (7.5YR 4/4) silt loam;
moderate, medium subangular blocky
structure; firm; thin clay films on most
peds; few fine roots; common fine pores;
very strongly acid; gradual smooth
boundary.
Brown (7.5YR 5/4) silt loam; weak.
medium to coarse, subangular blocky
structure; friable; thin, discontinuous
clay films 9n peds; few fine roots;
common fine pores; strongly acid;
diffuse smooth boundary.
Bw
C1 2.03-3.55
C2 3.55-4.16
2Bt1b 4.16-4.47
2Bt2b 4.47-5.20
Brown (7.5YR 5/4) silt loam; weak,
coarse subangular blocky structure;
friable; common fine pores; strongly
acid; diffuse smooth boundary.
Yellowish brown (10YR 5/4) silt loam;
structureless; massive; friable.; common
fine pores; strongly acid; gradual
smooth boundary.
Pale brown (10YR 6/3) silt loam; c o n ~ o n ,
medium, faint light brownish gray (10YR
6/2) and yellowish brown (10YR 5/4)
mottles; structureless; massive;
friable; common fine pores; medium acid;
clear smooth boundary.
Light brownish gray (10YR 6/2) silty
clay loam; common, medium and fine
strong brown (7.5YR 5/6) mottles;
moderate, medium angular and subangular
blocky structure; very firm; common fine
pores; clay films on peds; medium acid;
gradual smooth boundary.
Light brownish gray (10YR 6/2) silty
clay loam; few, medium and fine, strong
brown (7.5YR 5/6) mottles; moderate
medium subangular blocky structure; very
firm; common fine pores; clay films on
ped surfaces and in pores; medium acid.
53
54
H30
9'a
sa
70
tm
ID 50
..-

I'Cl
U
V)
40

33
.. ::!
SITE 3
Depth
(meters)
Horizon
0.00-0.17
AP
Bt 1
Bt2
Bt3
0.81-1.11
Bt4
1. 42-1. 72
BW
2.03-2.33
I
------- Cl
I


I
I

"/!, -.

- C2

2Btlb
4.47-4.77


:
..
PARTICLE SIZE (microns)
Figure 13 Cl(ty-free particle size distributi·on (Coulter Counter and sieve) in
a Memphis soil and underlying Paleosol on the Prairie Terrace in
Lafayette Parish, Louisiana.
Formation
.,...
o
I/)
s:::
s-
ID
"0
o
E
Ol
s:::
'r-
s:::
I'Cl
oj..J
s:::
o
u
I/)
I/)
ID
o
I'Cl
'r-
s-
o
ID
a..
"0
ID
Q) • ..-
us-
1'Cl;:'
s-.o
s-
Q) Ol
I-S:::
.,.... r-
IDCO
e,.- e,.- V)
S-I'ClO
'r- oj..J Q)
n::s c,--
s.:.OI'Cl
a.. u a..
Table 15. Particle size distribution in a Memphis soil and underlying paleosol on the Prairie Terrace in Lafayette
Parish, Louisiana.
Depth
I Size Class and Particle Diameter (mm)
Horizonr Total =! Sand
Silt
Sand Silt I Very Sand
(2.0- (0.05- Clay Coarse I Coarse I Med
.0.05) 0.002) «0.002) :2.0-1.0)1 (1.0-0.5) (0.5-
Fine Very fine
(0.25-0.1) (0 .1-0.05 )
-Pct. of "" 2
1 16.1
0.00-0.17
0.17-0.30
. 0.30-0.48
0.48-0.81
0.81-1.11
1.11-1.4,2
1.42-1.72
1
1. 72-2.03
2.03-2.33
2.33-2.641
2.64-2.94
1
2.94-3.25 I
3.25-3.55 :
3.55-3.86 :
3.86-4.16
4.16-4.4,7
4.47-4.77
4.77-5.20
AP
Btl
Bt2
Bt3
Bt4
Bw
C1
C2
2Bt1b
2Bt2b
5.2 83.8
4.6 73.7
1.9 710.5
1.8 n.LI
2.0 81. 2
2.1 78.6
2.4 80.1
2.9 81. 9
2.2 81.5
2.2 82.2
2.9 82.7
2.5 82.2
0.9 83.8
1.1 81. 9
2.7 76.0
6.3 64.8
7.6 58.6
7.5 58.1
11.10 0.6
21.6 0.3
27.6 0.1
25.8 0.0
16.8 0.0
19.3 0.0
17.5 0.0
15.2 0.0
16.3 0.1
15.6 0.0
14.,4 0.0
15.3 0.0
15.3 0.0
17.0 0.0
21.3 0.2
28.9 0.4
33.8 0.5
34.,4 0.4
1.2
1.2
0.1
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.1
0.1
0.0
0.0
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.3
0.3
0.3
0.4
0.7 0.1 7.4
a
a
a
a
a
a
a
a
a
o
a
a
a
16.0
37.1
40.2
40.6
37.4
33.3
28.2
37.4
37.4
28.5
32.9
93.1
74.4
28.1
10.3
7.7
7.7
Tex-
tural
class
si
sil
sic
sil
sil
sil
sil
sil
sil
sil
sil
sil
sil
sil
sil
sic
sic
sic
U1
U1
56
Table 16. Profile distribution trends of Phyllosilicates in the clay-size
fraction of a Memphis soil and underlying Paleosol on the Prairie
Terrace in Lafayette Parish, Louisiana.
Mineral ComEonent
Inter-
stratified
Depth Soil Vermiculite and
(meters) Horizon Kaolinite Micaceous Smectite (Eedogenic) interlayered
0.00-0.17 Ap xxx xxx xxxxxx xxx xx xxx
0.17-0.30 Btl xxxxxx xxxxxx xxx xx xxx
0.30-0.48 Bt2 xxxxxx xxxxxx xxxx xx xx
0.48-0.81 Bt3 xxxxx xxxxx xxxxxxx x xx
0.81-1.11 Bt4 xxxxx xxxxxx xxxxxxxx tr xx
1.11-1.42 xxxxx xxxxxx xxxxxxxx tr x
1.42-1. 72 Bw xxxxx xxxxxx xxxxxxxx tr x
1. 72-2.03 xxxxx xxxxx xxxxxxxxx x
2.03-2.33 C1 xxxx xxxxx xxxxxxxxxx x
2.33-2.64 xxx xxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxx tr
2.64-2.94 xxx xxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxx tr
2.94-3.25 xxxx xxxxx xxxxxxxxxxx tr
3.25-3.55 xxx xxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxx tr
3.55-3.86 C2 xxx xxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxx tr
3.86-4.16 xxxx xxx xxxxxxxxxxxxx tr
4.16-4.47 xxxxxx xxx xxxxxxxxxxx tr
4.47-4.77 2Bt1b xxxxxxx xxx xxxxxxxxxx tr
4.77-5.20 2Bt2b xxxxxx xx xxxxxxxxxxxx tr
Depth Horizon pH
In 1:1

H20 /:aC1 z n.NKC1
Tab'le 17. Selected chemical characteristics of a Memphis soil and underlying
Paleosol on the Prairie Terrace in Lafayette Parish, Louisiana
Extractl
able Cation exchange
acidity cap_ilcit.1.. Saturation Cahl!; , Ex:r.
Exch.1ngeable I BaCI2- effec- Nfl.,- 'urn of I I I i(Exch<ln;:e- Organle',re;S Fr"" ;',
Ca Mg K Na Al H TEA tive OAe ations i Al liH !Bases il able) ceo" (flr.,':11
I I [ ,
I 1.1 I I I I [ , I
(meters). .•.. .;.. ----milliequivalents/100 Ii.,
o 00-0 17 AP • I [
" 5.1 4.6 4.2 1.7 0.5 0.1 0.10.4 0.4 7.2 3.1 2.8 9.5 I 13 8 24 3.4 I 0.51 40
0.17-0.30 Btl 4.8 4.3 3.9 2.7 1.1 0.1 D.l 2.00.1 7.2 6.1 2.8 11.2 33 2 36 2.4' '0.65, 15
0.30-0.48 Bt2 4.9 4.3 3.8 4.4 2.2 0.1 0.1 2.6 0.2 8.7 9.6 5.0 15.5 27 2 44 2.0 i i 0.74 I 31
0.48-0.81 Bt3 5.0 4.4 3.8 4.6 3.1 0.2 0.1 2.2 0.2 9.2 10.4 7.6 17.2 I 21 2 46 1.5 I '1.08, 69
0.81-1.11 Bt4 5.0 4.6 3.9 4.8 3.6 0.2 0.1 1.3 0.4 6.1 10.4 5.5 14.8 12 4 59 1.3 ,1.00 84
1.11-1.42 5.24.7 4.0 4.8 3.4 0.1 0.1 0.8 0.2 6.1 9.4 3.4 14.5 I' 8 2 58 1.4 [ [L09[ 116
1.42-1.72 BW 5.3 4.7 4.0 5.0 3.2 0.1 0.10.5 0.2 6.1 9.1 12.4 14.5 , 6 2 1
58
1.6! '1.12 219
1. 72-2.03 5.2 4.7 4.0 5.4 3.4 0.1 0.1 0.6 0.1 4.6 9.7 13.2 13.6 6 1 66 I 1.6 i : 1.04 I 276
2.03-2.33 Cl 5.5 5.0 4.3 6.2 3.6 0.2 0.1 0.2 0.2 4.6 10.5 12.7 13.7 2 2 66 1.7 i 1.18' 306
2.33-2.64 5.4 5.0 4.3 6.0 3.6 0.2 0.2 0.0 0.2 4.6 10.2 11.5 14.6 0 2 68 1. 7 1.06' 320
2.64-2.94 5.3 4.9 4.2 5.5 3.2 0.2 0.40.0 0.2 4.6 9.5 11.2 13.9 a 2 57 1.7! ,1.11 300
2.94-3.25 5.4 4.9 4.1 5.1 3.2 0.1 0.3 0.0 0.2 5.1 8.9 8.8 13.6 a 2 64 1.6 I 1.11 I 310
3.25-3.55 5.6 5.2 4.3 6.2 3.6 0.2 0.2 0.0 0.2 4.6 10.4 12.8 14.8 0 2 69 1.7 I i 1 .09' 288
3.55-3.86 C2 5.6 5.2 4.4 5.9 3.5 0.1 0.2 0.0 0.2 4.6 .10.0 12.2 14.4 0 2 68 1.7 i 0.99. 282
5.7 5.3 4.4 6.6 4.2 0.2 0.2 0.0 0.2 3.6 11.4 12.3 14.8 a 2 76 1.6 I iO.95 228
2Bt1b 5.6 5.3 4.4 8.2 4.7 0.2 0.2 0.0 0.2 2.5 13.5 16.9 15.8 0 1 84 1.1 I ;0.88 112
2Bt2b 5.7 5.3 4.4 8.9 5.1 0.2 0.2 0.0 0.2 4.6 14.6 18.3 19.0 0 1 76 1.7 I ,0.91 69
4.77-5.20 5.6 I 5.6 4.4 8.3 4.8 0.2 0.2 0.0 0.2 0.5 13.7 17.0 14.0 I 0 1 96 1.7 " 0.89: 49
I I , •
, [
,
I [
I I I I I I I I I I i I I
[ I
I I I I iii !
Ln
-....J
Table 18. Whole-soil composition of nine elements and Ti/Zr ratio in a Memphis soil and underlying
paleosol on the Prairie Terrace in Lafayette Parish, Louisiana.
Depth
I
Element
(meters)
Ca I Hg I K J Al I Fe J Si
p
-----L-----tpm-----
--:= __ ,

i
0.00-0.17 AP 0.05 0.06 0.20 2.57 1. 32 26.87 537
2312 397
0.17-0.30 Bt2 0.04 0.07 0.04
3.38 1.72 23.44 368
2459 413
0.30-0.48 Bt2 0.07 0.10 0.04
3R98 2.36 22.00 449
2613 385
0.48-0.81 Bt3 0.19 0.17 0.07
4.31 2.50 22.63 579
2665 431
0.81-1.11 Bt4 0.15 0.37 0.08
4.59 2.53 24.27 678
2780 481
1..11-1. 42
I
0.24 0.13 0.08
3.86
2.31 23.36 692
2746 535
1..42-1. 72 Bw 0.26 0.25 0.08
4.24 2.47 25.31 825
2960 596
1.72-2.03 0.26 0.30 0.07
4.14 2.34 24.59 865
2767 529
2.03-2.33
I
CI 0.24 0.22 0.11
3.74 2.23 22.87 834
j
2668 543
2.33-2.64 0.16 0.18 0.101
4.26 2.52 27.16 841
3132 496
2.64-2.94 0.17 0.12 0.09
3.68 2.20 23.79 685
2880 400
2.94-3.25 0.14 I 0.09 0.08
3.80 2.24 24.37 728
3161 415
3.25-3.55 0 .. 11 0.06 1.31 3.51 2.16 23.82 747 3090 667
3.55-3.86 C2
0.07 0.03 1.26 3.39 2.08 34.35 731 3145 679
3.86-4.16
0 .. 11 0.05 1.13 3.54 2.03 24.45 600
3248 713
4.16-4.47 2Bt1b
0 .. 07 0.04 0.85 3.42 2.15 22.77 533
3084 677
4.47-4.77 2Bt2b
0 .. 20 0.19 0.95 4.51 2.74 26.40 562
3293 746
4.77-5.20
0.34 0.35 1.12 5.50 2.80 29.74 434
3664 718
I
I
I
:
I
I
I
I
I
I
\
I
\
I
\
I
Ratio
[ri/Zr
5.82
5.95
6.79
6.18
5.78
5.13
4.97
5.23
4.91
6.31
7.20
7.62
4.6
4.6
4.6
4.6
4.4
5.1
VI
(Xl
59
SITE 4
This stop is located within a few meters of the site represented by the
accompanying morphological description and supporting data. It is on the Miss-
issippi River Alluvial Plain near the southern edge of a salt dome (Anse La Butte)
which forms a local topographic high lying north and east of the site. Locally,
elevations range from a little less than 3 to about 7.5 meters. Directly west
of the site, highest elevations on the Prairie Terrace are in excess of 14 meters.
The area is drained by Bayou Vermilion immediately west of the site. Bayou Teche
occupies a former Mississippi River Channel approximately 5 km to the east.
The Mississippi River, now flowing approximately 80 krn to the east, near
Baton Rouge, abandoned the Teche-Mississippi Channel about BP (Kupfer,
1964). The Red River flowed in the Teche-Mississippi Channel for at least sev-
eral hundred years following its abandonment by the Mississippi and partially
filled the existing channel with sediment (Saucier, 1974; Frazier, 1967; Howe
and Moresi, 1933). The reddish color of these sediments, restricted almost
totally to the former Mississippi Channel, are a striking contrast to the sur-
rounding Mississippi River alluvium.
Important relationships between the loess and overlying and. underlying
deposits are shown in Figure 14. Daniels and Young (1968). studied the loess
on the adjacent Prairie Terrace and indicated that it mantled the escarpment
to the Mississippi River Alluvial Plain. They recognized the occurence of buried
loess deposits on the alluvial plain and that soils developed in loess occupied
areas not covered with alluvium. Subsequent investigations by the authors indi-
cate that the loess buries a surface presumed to be a late-Prairie component
of the Prairie Terrace or a Post-Prairie Terrace. The loess continues to thicken
eastward in the areas investigated. Although its easternmost extent has not
been it is presumed to be west of the former Mississippi River
Channel now occupied by Bayou Teche. The alluvium overlying the loess becomes
generally thinner to the north of the site and relatively large areas are at
the surface in northern Lafayette and southern St. Landry Parishes, for example.
To the south, the alluvium thickness and the southern extent of the buried loess
has not been determined. Areas of loess exposed at the surface and surrounded
by the IIlore recent alluvium represent high areas. such as Anse La Butte, on the
former surface. The frequency of occurence of such areas decreases southward
until they become absent entirely.
Soils developed in the Mississippi River alluvium in the area are mostly
Iberia (Vertic HaplQquall) and Baldwin (Vertic Ochraqualf) with small amounts
of Dundee (Aerie Ochraqualf) on the highest positions of the Bayou Teche nat-
ural levees. These soils have developed in sediments deposited in conjunction
with a Mississippi River belt formed approximately 3,800 to 2,800 years ,BP
(Kupfer, 1964). Soils developed in loess in areas where it has not been cov-
ered by more recent alluvium are predominantly Acy (Aeric Ochraqualf), Coteau
(Glossaquic Hapludalf), Frost (Typic Glossaqualf), Jeanerette (Typic Argiaquoll)
and Patoutville (Aerie These soils are mrirphologically indistin-
guishable from soils in the same series developed in the loess deposits on the
higher Prairie Terrace to the west. The limited existing data suggest that soils
on the lower position may have less total clay, higher base status and greater
smectite content in the clay-size fraction compared to those on the higher
terrace. The absence, in this position, of soils developed in the thick loess
deposits having well drained sola, such as the Memphis, is considered a result
of the longer periods of saturation at shallower depths compared to soils dev-
eloped in similar deposits on the higher Prairie Terrace.
Figure lQ, Alluvium - loess - terrace relationships in the vicinity of
LafayetteJ Louisiana,
..
Holocene Mississippi River alluvium
[illlioess
[Ell Prairie (?) or Post-Prairie (?) Terrace
Prairie Terrace
.. Observation point
it
4
12
10

Q)
8(i)

c:

:
Vermi 11 ion
Bayou
4
Distance in Kilometers·
o
-1
0\
o
II
SITE 4-
Mississippi River Alluvial Plain (backswamp)
Inclusion (fine-silty, mixed, thermic Vertic Ochraqualf?) in Baldwin soil
(fine, montmorillinitic, thermic Vertic Ochraqualf) area.
Location: Lafayette Parish, La. approximately 70 meters N of Lafayette-St.
Martin Parish line in SW corner of that part of survey section
60 that lie's within Lafayette Parish (elevation: approximately
4.5 meters),
The Baldwin series is comprised of poorly drained, slm-1ly permeable
soils developed in recent, clayey Mississippi River alluvium that is more
than about one meter thick.
Formation
bD
P
"Fi
P
".-1
(1j
.w
p
0.-1
(j 0
[f]
[f] 0
[f] Q)
Q).-I
o (1j
.-Ip.,
(1j'"'(j
".-1 Q)
H ".-1
o H
Q) ;::!
p.,..o
Soil
Horizon
Ap
Btl
2Btlb
2Bt2b
Depth
(meters)
0.00-0.27
0.27-0.58
0.58-1. 27
1.27-1.60
Morphology
Very dark grayish brown (10YR 3/2) silty
clay; strong, medium, fine and very fine
blocky and subangular blocky structure;
extremely firm, many fine roots;
neutral; clear smooth boundary.
Mottled grayish borwn (lOYR 5/2) and
yellowish brown (lOYR 5/4-5/6) silty
clay loam; exteriors of most peds are
very dark grayish bro,"1ll (lOYR 3/2); Clay
films and/or pressure faces on many ped
surfaces; strong, medium angular and
subangular blocky structure; very firm;
common fine roots, few. medium black
concretions. neutral gradual smooth
boundary.
Mottled grayish brown (lOYR 5/2) and
yellowish brown (lOYR 5/4-5/6) silty
clay loam; dark grayish brown (lOYR 4/2)
clay films; moderate, medium, subangular
blocky ,structure. firm; few fine roots;
common, medium. black concretions;
neutral; diffuse smooth boundary.
Mottled, light brownish gray (lOYR 6/2)
and brownish yellow (lOYR 6/6-6/8) silt
loam; weak to moderate, subangular
blocky structure, firm; clay films on
ped faces and lining pores are mostly
dark grayish brown (lOYR 4/2) or grayish
brown (lOYR 5/2); few, fine, black
concretions; slightly acid; diffuse
irregular boundary.
61
62
2Bt3b
2C1b
2C2b
2C3b
3bwb
1.60-2.51
2.51-3.45
3.45-4.36
4.36-4.97
4.97-5.23
Mottled, grayish brown (10YR 5/2) and
yellowish brown (lOYR 5/4-5/8) silt
loam; weak, coarse sub angular blocky
structure; friable; dark grayish brown
clay films on some ped faces and in
pores; common, fine black concretions;
neutral in upper part becoming
moderately alkaline in lower part.
Yellowish brown (10YR 5/6) to brownish
yellow (10YR 6/6) silt loam; many,
medium, light brownish gray (10YR 6/2)
mottles; massive; friable; few, fine,
black concretions; neutral in upper
part; mildly alkaline in lower part;
diffuse. smooth boundary.
Yellowish brown (10YR 5/4) silt loam;
massive; friable; moderately alkaline;
gradual smooth boundary.
Brown (10YR 5/3) silt loam; common,
fine. light brownish gray (10YR 6/2) and
yellowish brown (10YR 5/4) mottles;
massive; friable; mildly alkaline; clear
smooth boundary.
Strong brown (7.5YR 5/6) silty clay;
few, fine and medium reddish brown (5YR
4/4-5/4) and yellowish brown (10YR 5/6)
mottles; strong. medium, angular and
subangular blocky structure. neutral.

Ba
8\:1
70
6a
I.tJ

.-
ttl
U
V')
49

ala
20
11:1
\:l
Depth
(meters)
SITE 4
Horizon
......... ------AP
----... __ - Bt 1
'--_______ 2Bt 1 b
___________ 2B t2b
. '-------2Bt3b


-------2Clb
-:------
____ - ___ 2C2b
3.75-4.06

j ................_------
4.36-4.67
'-------
I
I A
.........."
PARTICLE SJZE (microns)
63
Formation
E

Vl > .-
Vl =:l C .,....
C C
oL Vl
It; C
.j..J .,.... C
C $., It s-
ill <1J.j..J <1J
U > c v
ill ..... C C
0::: 0::: U E
I

o
Vl
o
ill
r-
<tl
0..
.....
s-
=:l
.0 .
en
C
.....
C
'r-
rtI
.j..J
I::
o
U
V)
U1
ill
o
<U
'r-
s-
o
I.tJ
n.
I
I <1J .....
U s-
<U =:l
s-.o
s-
ill en
1-1::
..... ,.....
-I.;::.;:: ;;;
s-<uo
..... .j..J ill
mCr-
s- 0 m
0.. un.
Figure 15 Clay-free particle size distribution (Coulter Counter and sieve) in a
Baldwin soil unit inclusion on the Holocene River all'uvial
plain in Lafayette Parish, Louisiana.'
o.
Table 19. Particle size distribution in a Baldwin soil unit inclusion and underlying paleosols on the Holocene
Mississippi River alluvial plain in Lafayette Parish, Louisiana.
Size Class and Particle Diameter (rom)
- Total
Sand Depth Horizon
,
Silt
Sand Silt Very Sand
(2.0- (0.05- Clay Coarse Coarse Medium Fine Very fine
(meters' 0.05) 0.002) «0.002) 2.0-1.0) (1.0-0.5) (0,5-0.25) (0.25-0.1) (0.1-0.05)
,!
Pct. of"'- 2 wur
AP
I
1.9 57.2 40.9 0.1 0.2 0.2 0.3
Cf\
.p..
Tex-
tural
class
1 I I I I 1 1
1.2 30.1 sic
1:1 ... 1 I 1 I. t:.c: -, ')') n A , A ,
~ " - -
O . ~ , ...., ....... I VJo/ J ..... ;7 V...L v • .L U.l. U • .L 1.3 46.9 s ~ c l
0.58-0.96 2Btlbl 2.4 68.7 28.9 0.3 0.4 0.2 0.1 1.3 28.6 slcl
I
0.96-1.27 : 2.5 70.6 26.9 0.4 0.4 0.2 0.2 1.3 28.2 sicl
1 1"\-,> ..... "P'Io ..... , !
1.
1
2.
2.
2.
3.
3.
3.
4.
4
4
4.
Table 20. Profile distribution trends of Phyllosilicates in the clay-size
fraction of a Baldwin soil unit inclusion and underlying paleosol on
the Holocene Mississippi River Alluvial Plain in Lafayette Parish,
Louisiana.
Mineral Com:eonent
Inter-
stratified
Depth Soil and
(meters) Horizon Kaolinite Micaceous Smectite Interlayered
0.00-0.27 Ap xxxx xxxx xxxxxxxxxxxx tr
0.27-0.58 Btl xxxx xxxx xxxxxxxxxxxx tr
0.58-0.96 2Bt1b xxxx xxxxx xxxxxxxxxxx tr
0.96-1. 27 xxxx xxxxxx xxxxxxxxxx tr
1. 27 -1. 60 2Bt2b xxx xxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxx tr
1.60-1.90 2Bt3b xxx xxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxx tr
1. 90-2 .20 xxx xxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxx tr
2.20-2.51 xxx xxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxx tr
2.51-2.84 2C1b xxx xxx xxx xxxxxxxxxxx tr
2.84-3.14 xxx xxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxx tr
3.14-3.45 xxx xxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxx tr
3.45-3.75 2C2b xxx xxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxx tr
3.75-4.06 xxxx xxxxx xxxxxxxxxxx tr
4.06-4.36 2C3b xxxx xxxxx xxxxxxxxxxx tr
4.36-4.67 xxxxxx xxxxx xxxxxxxxx tr
4.67-4.97 xxxxxxxx xxx xxx xxxxxx tr
4.97-5.23 3Bwb xxxxxxx xxxxx xxxxxxxx tr
65
Depth
(meters)
O.OO-O.ll
0.27-0.58
0.58-0.96
0.96-1. 27
1.27-1.60
1.60-190
1. 90-2.20
2.20-2.51
2.51-2.84
2.84-3.14
3.14-3.45
3.45-3.75
3.75-4.06
4.06-4.36
4.36-4.67
4.67-4.97
'4.97-5.23
Horizon
.-
Btl
2Bt1b
2Bt2b
2Bt3b
2Clb
2C2b
2C3b
3Bb
pH
In 1:1
suspension
H20 "faC12 n.NKCl
7.0 6.7 6.0
6.8 6.5 5.5
6.8 6.5 5.5
6.7 6.4 5.4
6.5 q.1 5.1
6.7 .6.3 5.3
7.6 . 7.3 6.9
7.9 7.6 7.1
7.7 7.5 7.0
6.7 6.4 5.4
7.6 7.4 6.8
7.8 7.6 7.1
7.8 7.5 7.1
7.8 7.4 7.0
7.8 7.4 7.0
7.4 7.1 6.3
7.2 7.0 6.1
0\
0\
Table Selected chemical characteristics of a Baldwin soil unit inclusion and underly
in
9
Paleosols c'n the Holocene Mississippi River Alluvial Plain in Lafayette Parish,
Louisiana
Exchangeable
Ca Mg I KINa Al
I
H
Extract
able
acidity ____
BaClz- purn of
TEA tive cations
--.-:.-----rnrn illi e q u iva 1 en t s /100 g ram 9-----:" .
4.20.3 0.1 0.0 0.2 5.1 23.9 29.1\ 28.8
19.1
15.5
10.6
11.2
9.1
7.6 I
10.1
10.4
10.4
11.0
14.3
15.4
15.6
14.4
14.3
10.3
16.0
4.9 0.2 0.1 0.0 0.2 4.1 20.9 22.8 25.8
4,0 0.1 0.1 0.0 0.2 3.6 15.0 17.0 18.4
4.3 0.2 0.1 0.0 0.2 3.1 15.9 16.6 18.8
4.0 0.2 0.1 0.0 0.2 3.1 13.6 16.4 16.5
3.9 0.2 0.2 0.0 0.2 2.5 12.1 14.5 14.4
3.9 0.2 0.1 0.0 0.2 0.5 14.5 12.2 14.8
6.8 0.2 0.1 0.0 0.2 0.5 17.6 13.0 17.9
4.9 0.3 0.1 0.0 0.2 0.5 15.9 13.6 16.2
5.4 0.2 0.1 0.0, 0.2 1.5 16.9 11.9 18.2
4.2 0.2 0;1 0.0 0.2 0.5 19.0 12.2 19.3
3.6 0.2 0.1 0.0 0.2 I 1.0 19.5 12.2 20.3
3.6 0.2 0.1 0.0 0.2.
1
1.0 19.7 11.1 20.5
3.9 0.2 0.1 0.0 0.2 0.5 18.8 11.1 18.8
4.0 0.2 0.1 0.0 0.2 0.5 18.8 11.5 19.1
4.8 0.2 0.1 0.0 0.2 1.0 15.6 13.4 16.4
7.2 0.3 0.1 0.0 0.2 2.1 23.8 21.4 25.7
Al
.1 ,
Saturation \ Cah\g: : :
1 !(Exchange-!organic 'free ;'- .
H liBaseS!able) C .CO) IF":' (I1r"'.'11 ,I
--
7. :;;___ ;':'-
4.5 , 0.50 30
o 1 80 3.2 ' 0.34 40
o 1 80 2.6 : 0.94;
o 1 83 2.6 ;0.50, 74
o 1 81 2.3 ,0.96 244
o 2 83 1.9 . 0.98 280
o 1 97 2.6 ,0.84' 277
o 1 97 1.5 'o.n' .121
o 1 97 2.1 : 0.71 212
o 1 92 2.0 0.78' 340
o 1 97 3.4 '0.78' 305
o 1 95 4.3 0.69 202
o 1 95 4.3 0.64, 148
o 1 97 3.7 '0.75 260
o 1 97 .3.6 0.79' 182
o 1 94 2.1 0.5237
o 1 92 2.2 0.56 30
Table 22. iNhole-soil composltlon of nine elements and Ti/Zr ratio in a Baldwin soil unit inclusion and
underlying Paleosols on the Holocene Mississippi River Alluvial Plain in Lafayette Parish,
Louisiana.
Depth
(welers)
0.00-0.27
0.27-0.58
0.58-0.96
0.96-1. 27
1.27-1.60
1. 60-1. 90
1. 90-2.20
2.20-2.51
2.51-2.84
2.84-3.14
3.14-3.45
3.45-3.75
3.75-4.06
4.06-4.36
4.36-4.67
4.67-4.97

r-
HorizClil
AP
Btl
Bt2b
Bt2b
Bt3b
2c2b
,
,
2c2b
I
2c3b
3Bwb
Element Ratio
__ ! ___ __ l ___ __ __ __ __ l __ == __ 1 __ Ii/ Z r
0.10 0.14 I 1.35 4.76 2.82 ' 25.95 837
1
4990
8051 6.19
0.02 0.03 1.36 4.28 2.08 26.58 571 4251 682 6 ;23
0.03 0.02 1.44 4.57 2.85 27.66 494 4410 650 6.78
0.26 0.31 1.55 5.30 2.69 28.38 805 4033 554 7.27
0.03 0.05 1.35 3.46 2.42
I
5.46
22.68 '1123
3604 659
0.08 0.02 1.44 3.91 2.62 25.42 1074 3500 497 7.04
0.32 0.15 1.44 3.50 2.22 25.40 1014 3511 ·479 I 7.32
0.24
I
0.07 1.08 1.07 1.60 19.77 813 2785 416 6.69
0.10 0.05 1.22 2.31 2.01 23.34 910 3191 486 6.56·
0.07 0.04 1.52 4.07 2.57
27.47 11022
1
3713 487 7.62
0.15 0.04 1. 34 3.15 2.21 24.68 888
2843 386 7.36
0.32 0.04 1.37 2.78 2.26 25.53 938
,
1
3122 441 7.07
I
0.52 0.07 1.37 2.69 2.14 25.25 890
I
3045 453 6.72
I
0.05 0.10 1. 22 2.56 1.86 22.16 890 i
1
2773 437 6.25
0.06 0.03 1. 37 2.17 25.48 778
i
3186 469 6.79
0.12 0.03 1.30 4.17 2.20 26.66 660
I
! 3258 498 I 6.54
0.25 0.05 1.62 6.57 3.69 29.30 745
! 4243 . 529 I
I I
I
I
l
i
I
i
i
1
r ,.
1

'--l
68
S!TE 5
This stop is within a few meters of the site represented by the accompany-
ing morphological description and supporting data. A site where Touchet and
Daniels (1970) described 3.35 meters of pre-Prairie post-Montgomery loess is about
6.5 Km south southwest of this location near Turkey Creek, Louisiana.
The site is on the Intermediate Terraces (Snead and Mc Culloh, 1984).
Our designation as Montgomery is for convenience and consistence with our data
files and previous use (1982). It also coincides with the Terraces most common
identification since Fisk's 1938 and 1940 works. Other selected identifying names
used in the past are given in the discussion for Site 2.
Southwestern Louisiana is the principal area of occurrence of the Terrace.
Saucier (1974) indicates that it represents ' •.• remnants of the alluvial valley
fill and coastal plain that deve)oped during the Yarmouth Interglacial Stage ... I.
Other workers have indicated that it was deposited during the'Sangamon Interglacial
Stage (see discussion Site 2).
The gently sloping areas of the loess-covered Montgomery Terrace are
about 12 meters above the nearly level Prairie Terrace to the south and 25 to
30 meters above the wide alluvial plain to the east. The escarpment to the alluvial
plain is steep and highly dissected. The escarpment to the Prairie Terrace is
gently sloping with little dissection. Elevations of the loess-covered part of
the Terrace range from 43 meters near the valley wall in the northeastern part
to about 20 meters in the southwestern part.
Maximum thickness of the loess has not been determined but exceeds 9
meters in areas near its southeastern I imits of occurrence at the surface.
Thickness and distrubution patterns of the Peoria loess (Figures 2 - 4) indicate
that a small increment may have been deposited on the pre-Peoria loess in areas
near its eastern edge.
A number of modern soils developed in the pre-Peoria loess are identified
In Louisiana (see Tables 4 and 5) G Differences in many characteristics between
them and soils developed in Peoria loess are compared qualitatively in Table 6.
In the West Central Louisiana area soils developed in the pre-Peoria loess are
Calhoun (Typic Glossaqualf), Dossman (Ultic Hapludalf). Duralde (Fragic Glossudalf) •
. Evangel ine (Haplic Glossudalf), and Tenot (Aeric Albaqualf). Bartelli (1973)
has discussed genetic processes in soils developed in loesses in the area and
considers Ferrolysis to be a major process in formation of soi Is such as the Duralde
which he considers developed from a former Fragiudalf. A number of soils developed
in pre-Peoria loess in the area form a possible chronosequence with soils developed
in Peoria loess where both have analogous landscape positions and drainage
characteristics. Examples include Memphis - Dossman, Duralde - Grenada, Calhoun -
Calhoun (taxadjunct).
SITE 5
Montgomery Terrace
Duralde Soil taxadjunct (fine-silty, siliceous, thermic Fragic Glossudalf?)
Location: Evangeline Parish,Louisiana. N E ~ , S E ~ , sec. 29, T.1S, R1E.
(elevation: approximately 3S.5 meters).
The Duralde series is comprised of somewhat poorly drained, slowly
permeable soils formed in areas where a pre-Peoria-Post-Montgomery loess
mantle more than about one and one-half meters thick has not been covered
by more recent deposits.
Formation
M
'M
a
(JJ
Soil
Horizon
A
Bw
B/E
Btl
Depth
(meters)
O.OO-O.OS
0.OS-0.23
0.23-0.38
0.3S-0.69
Morphology
Dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2) silt; few.
fine, faint gray (10YR 6/1) mottles;
weak, fine, granular structure; friable;
many fine and medium roots; common,
medium and fine brown concretions; very
strongly acid; clear wavy boundary.
Pale brown (10YR 6/3) silt; common,
medium, faint light gray (10YR 7/2)
mottles, few, medium. faint brown (7.5YR
5/4) mottles; weak, medium, subangular
blocky structure; friable, few fine and
medium roots; very thin silt coatings
lining some pores and on some ped faces;
thin discontinuous clay films lining
some pores. Many, fine brown to black
concretions; very strongly acid; clear
irregular boundary.
Estimated 60 percent is like underlying
horizon and remaining 40 percent like
overlying horizon except light gray
(lOYR 7/2); very strongly acid; clear
wavy boundary.
Grayish brown (10YR 5/2) to brown (10YR
5/3) silt loam; common, medium, distinct
yellowish brown (lOYR 5/6) to red (2.5
YR 4/6) mottles; moderate, medium and
fine, sub angular blocky structure;
firm; common fine pores; continuous clay
films on peds; few medium and fine
brown to black concretions; very
strongly acid; clear smooth boundary.
69
70
Bt2 '
Bt3 1.73-2.46
Bw 2.46-2.97
Cl 2.97-4.11
C2 4.11-4.57
Pale brown (lOYR 6/3) silt loam;
common, medium, faint. light gray (lOYR
6/2) and few medium faint, yellowish
brown (lOYR 5/4) mottles; moderate,
medium, subangu1ar blocky structure;
firm; many fine pores; thin continuous
clay films on many ped surfaces; thin
coatings of silt on some ped surfaces;
common, medium and fine brown to black
concretions; very strongly acid in upper
part becoming less acid with depth;
neutral in lower part; gradual wavy
boundary.
Brown (7.5YR 4/4) silt loam; common,
medium and fine light gray (lOYR 7/2)
mottles; moderate to weak, medium
subangu1ar blocky structure; firm; thin,
nec1r1y continuous clay films on most
ped surfaces; clay films in pores; thin
gray silt coatings on many vertical ped
faces; common, medium and fine, brown to
black concretions; neutral; gradual wavy
boundary.
Brown (7.5YR 5/4) silt loam; few, fine,
light gray (lOYR 7/2) and few, fine,
faint strong brown (7.5YR 5/6) mottles.
Weak, medium sub angular blocky
structure; friable; thin clay films on
some ped surfaces and lining some pores;
thin gray silt coatings on some peds;
common, medium and fine, black to brown
concretions;
boundary.
ntlll1t'r!l1 III ... .L __ ............. ~ ,
gradual wavy
Strong brown (7.5YR 5/6) silt loam;
weak, medium sub angular blocky
structure; friable; clay films on some
ped faces and in pores; black stains
common on many ped faces; few fine black
concretions; gray silt coatings on many
vertical ped 'faces; neutral; gradual
smooth boundary.
Light yellowish brown (lOYR 6/4) silt
loam; few, fine and medium, faint light
gray (lOYR 7/2-7/3) mottles; few, fine,
faint strong brown (7.5YR 5/6) mottles;
thin discontinuous clay films on some
ped faces and in pores; gray coatings
and gray seams along some vertical ped
faces. Common, fine black concretions;
neutral; gradual smooth boundary.
bO
~
'M
~
'M
cO
.j...J
~
o
(j
aJ
(j
cO
H.-l
H 0
aJ (fJ
H 0
aJ
:>-'.-l
H cO
aJ Ii<
S
0"0
bOaJ
.j...J 'M
~ H
o ::1
~ , o
2Btb 4.57-5.21 Yellowish brown (10YR 5/4) silty clay
loam; common, medium and coarse distinct
light gray (10YR 7/2) mottles and few to
common, fine and medium, prominant red
(2.5YR 4/6) mottles; moderate, medium,
subangular blocky structure; firm; clay
films on ped surfaces and in pores; few
fine brown to black concretions;
neutral.
71
SITE 5
72
Depth
(meters) Horizon Formation
(1)
..-
rt3
U
Vi
0.00- A
BW
B/E
Btl
0.53-0.69
Bt2
0.94-1. 19
1. 45-1. 73 - ___ Bt3
79
BB
-------BW
- I
~ I
~ B '" 7" 2 9"7 - ~ -
c. •• ~ ' ~
3\l - I
211
111
I
_____ Cl
: 2
tl ?7-4 tl? - ~ . . . . . . . _/\
' . ~ / ~ ; ~ '----
I
4.57-4.72 ~ ~
~ ; " '--28tb
- . PARTICLE SIZE (microns)
Figure IS. (lay-free particle size distribution (Coulter Counter and sieve) in
a Duralde soil taxadjunct and underlying Paleosol on the Montgomery
Terrace in Evangeline Parish, Louisiana.
.r-
o
III
c
s-
(1)
-0
o
E
01
e
.r-
e
.r-
rt3
+I
C
o
U
III
In
-(1)
I
C
.,....
ttl
+I
e
o
ttl
.r-
s-
o
(1)
a..
I
QJ
s-
a..
>,0"0
S-U(1)
W dr= r=
E(1)S-O
OU:::I1Il
01tt1-00
+IS- (1)
C s- 01..-
o(1)Crt3
::E I- ..... a..
o.
O.
O.
O.
O.
O.
O.
1.
1.
1.
1.
2.
2.
2.
2.
2.
3.
3.
3.
4.
4.
4.
4.
4.
4.
Table 23. Particle size distribution in a Dura1de soil taxadjunct and underlying paleosol on the Montgomery Terrace in
Evangeline Parish. Louisia.na.
L ----1-
Size Class and Particle Diameter (mm)
Total
Sand -
I
,
Silt
Sand
Silt Very
I
Sand Tex-
,
(2.0-
(0.05- Clay Coarse Coarse Medium Fine Very fine
I
tura1
(meters 0.05)
0.002) «0.002) :2.0-1. 0) 0,0-0.5) (0.5-0.25) (0.25-0.1) (0.1-0.05 ) class
,
-Pet. of "- 2 mur
00-0.08 A 7.7 83.4 8.9 1.0 1.2 1.2 1.2 3.2 10.8 S1
08-0.23 Bw 5.6 83.1 11.3 2.0 1.0 0.3 0.6 1.7 14.8 si
23-0.38 B/E 4.7 77 .1 18.2 1.0 0.8 0.5 0.5 1.9 16.4 sil
38-0.53 Btl 2.7 71.4 25.9 0.3 0.3 0.2 0.4 1.5 26.4 si 1
53-0.69 2.9 73.9 23.2 0.4 0.3 0.3 0.4 1.5
I
25.5 sil
69-0.94 Bt2 3.6 75.0 21.4 1.1 0.5 0.2 0.3 1.5 20.8 s i 1
94-1.19 2.4 78.5 19.1 0.2 0.2 0.1 0.3 1.5
I
32.7 sil
19-1.45 2.6 80.2 17.2 0.1 0.2 0.2 0.4 1.7 30.8 sil
45-1. 73 Bt3 2.0 77 .4 20.6 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.2 1.5
I
38.7 sil
73-1. 90 2.1 76.5 21.4 0.2 0.2 0.1 0.2 1.4
I
36. Lf s i 1
90-2.06 . 2.2 80.8 17.0 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.3 1.7 36.7 sil
:)6-2.21:
I
54.2 sil
1.5 81.3 17.2 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 1.3
:
21-2.46 ' Bw 2.1 77 .6 20.3 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 1.9 37.0 sil
!j.6-2.72 ; 2.7 76.1 21.2 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 2.2 28.2 sil
72-2.97 : 2.8 76.5 20.7 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 2.5
I
27.3 sil
97-3.23 C1 3.0 76.8 20.2 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.2 2.7
I
25.6 sil
23-3.53 4.0 77 .1
I
18.9 0.1 0.1 0.2 0.2 3.5 I 19.3 5il
53-3.81 6.3 76.4 17.3 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.4 5.8 12.1 sil
31-4.11 10.0 71. 7 I 18.3 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.4 9.2 7.2 s1l
Ll-4.27 C2 11.6 66.4 22.0 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.4 11.1 5.7 sil
27-4.42 10.8 65.6 23.6 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.3 10.3
I
6.1 s11
+2-4.57 9.5 64.4 26.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.2 9.1
i
6.8 sil
57-4.72 2Btb 9.0 61.1 29.9 - 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.2 8.7 6.8 sic
72-4.98 8.9 56.8 34.3 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.2 8.6 6.4 sic
:18-5.21 11.2 55.0 33.8 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.2 11.0 4.9 sic
I i
I
'-J
W
Table 24. Profile distribution trends of Phyllosilicates in the clay-size fraction of a Duralde soil
taxadjunct and underlying paleosol on the Hontgomery Terrace in Evangeline Parish, Louisiana.
Mineral ComEonent
Interstratified
Depth Soil Chlorotized and
(meters) Horizon Kaolinite Micaceous Smectite Vermiculite interlayered
0.00-0.08 A xxxxxxxxxx tr x xxxxx xxxxx
·0.08-0.23 Bw xxxxxxxxxx tr xx xxx xxxxx
0.23-0.38 B/E xxxxxxxxXx tr xxxx: xx xxxx
0.38-0.S3 Btl XXXXXXXXx x xxxxxx x xxx
0.S3-0.69 XXXXXXXx XX xxxxxx x xxx
0.69-0.94 Bt2 xxxxxxxx XX xxxxxxx. tr xx
0.94-1.19 xxxxxxxx XX xxxxxxxx xx
1.19-1.45 }:xxxxxxx XX x x x x x x x x ~ xx
1.45-1.73 Bt3 XXXXlOCX xxx xxxxxxxx. xx
1. 73-1. 90 XXXXlOCX xxxx xxxxxxxxx xx
1. 90-2.06 xxxx xxxx. xxxxxxxxxx xx
2.06-2.21 xxxx xxxxx xxxxxxxxxx xx
2.21-2.46 Bw xxxx xxxxx xxxxxxxxxx xx
2.46-2.72 xxxx xxxxx xxxxxxxxxxx x
2.72-2.97 xxxx: xxxx xxxxxxxxxxxx x
2.97-3.23 C1 xxxx: xxx xxxxxxxxxxxx x
3.23-3!S3 xxxx xxx xxxxxxxxxxx x
3.81-4.11 xxxxxx x xxxxxxxxxx xx
4.11-4.27 C2 XXXXX:KX tr xxxxxxxxxx xxx
4.27-4.42 xxxxxxxx tr xxxxxxxx xxxx
4.42-4.S7 xxxxxxxxx tr xxxxxxx xxxx
4.S7-4.72 2Btb xxxxxxxxxxx tr xxxxx xxxx
4.72-4.98 xxxxxxxxxxx tr xxxxx xxxx
4.98-S.21 xxxxxxxxxxx tr xxxxx xxxx
'-l
~
Depth
(meters}
0.00-0.08
0.08-0.23
0.23-0.38
0.38-0.53
0.53-0.69
0.69-0.94
0.94-1.19
1.19-1. 45
1.45-1. 73
11.73-1. 90
1. 90-2.06
2.06-2.21
2.21-2.46
2.46-2.72
2.72-2.97
2.97-3.23
3.23-3.53
3.53-3.81
3!.81-4.1l
4.11-4.27
4'.27-4.42
4.42-4:57
4l57-4.72
4.72-4.98
4,98-5.21
Horizon
A
Bw
8,1
Btl
Bt2
Bt3
Bw
C1
C2
2Btb
pH
In 1:1
Table 25. Selected chemical characteristics of a Dura1de soil taxadjunct
and underlying Paleosol on the Montgomery Terrace in Evangeline
Parish, Louisiana.
Extrllct I !
able Cation exchange I :
acidity capacity : Saturation : Cah!b
9uspension Exchangeable BlIC1 2- cffee- 1'11.- "urn of I I :Oq::a:;1c 'F!"P;S ,rrp,",
H2
0
faCl! Ca J Mg I K Na Al H TEA tive OAe ations I Al H i able) C CO J r"
5.0 4.3 3.6
4.8 4.2 3.4
4.8 4.1 3.3
4.8 4.2 3.2
4.9 4.3 3.4
5.0 4.5 3.4
5.4 5.0 3.8
6.1 5.7 4.7
6.7 6.1 5.2
6.7 6.4 5.4
7.0 6.5 5.4
7.2 6.5 5.6
7.2 6.7 5.7
7.1 6.2 5.6
7.1 6.4 5.7
7.2 6.6 5.7
7.2 6.6 5.7
7.1 6.6 5.6
7.2 6.5 5.8
7.1 6.6 5.8
7.0 6.6 5.8
6.9 6.5 5.7
6.9 6.6 5.8
7.0 6.6 5.7
6.8 6.5 5,.7
0.6
0.8
1.6
,3.1
3.8
4.6
4.6
5.4
6.2
7.0
5.9
5.0
6.8
6.2
6.6
6.4
6.1
5.6
4.4
5.7
4.8
6.0
6.6
7.8
6.5
J 1.1 I '
mHliequiva1ents/100 gram9--- ,7.! ;:: __ _
1.0
1.4
2.2
3.6
3.8
4.4
4.0
4.2
5.0
5.3
4.4
3.8
5.4
4.8
5.1
4.7
4.4
4.3
3.6
4.7
4.0
5.0
5.6
6.6
5.6
I
' j
0.1 0.1 2.2 0.3 6.7 4.1 7.8 8.3 54 7 19, 0.6
0.10.13.30.3 5.1 5.9 6.8 7.4 56 5 31 i 0.6
0.10.25.40.1 9.2 9.6 10.4 13.3 56 1 31 I 0.7
0.1 0.4 6.4 0.0 9.7 13.6 13.1 16.9 47 0 43 i 0.9
0.1 0.6 4.4 0.2 8.2 12.9 12.8 16.5 34 2 50 I 1.0
0.1 0.8 2.2 0.4 6.6 12.5 10.8 16.5, 18 3 60 I 1.0
0.1 0.8 0.3 0.3 3.2 10.0 8.3 12.6 3 3 75 I 1.2
0.1 0.8 0.1 0.1 1.0 10.7 8.1 11.5 1 1 91 1.3
0.1 1.1 0.0 0.1 0.5 12.5 9.8 12.9 O· 1 96 1.2
0.1 1.2 0.0 0.1 1.5 13.7 14.0 14.1 0 1 89 1.3
0.1 1.1 0.0 0.2 2.5 11.7 10.0 14.0 0 2 78 1.3
0.1 1.0 0.0 0.2 0.5 10.1 10.2 10.4 0 2 95 1.3
0.1 1.5 0.0 0.1 1.0 13.9 13.0 14.8 0 1 93 1.3
0.1 1.3 0.0 0.1 2.0 12.5 12.8 14.4 0 1 86 1.3
0.1 1.4 0.0 0.1 2.0 13.3 10.8 15.2 0 1 87 1.3
0.1 1.4 0.0 0.1 2.1 12.7 11.6 14.7 0 1 86 1.4
0.1 1.4 0.0 0.1 1.5 12.1 11.9 13.5 0 1 89 1.4
0.1 1.2 0.0 0.1 0.5 11.3 9.2 11.7 0 1 96 1.3
0.1 0.9 0.0 0.1 1.0 9.1 8.9 10.0 0 1 90 1.2
0.1 1.7 0.0 0.1 1.5 12.3 13.3 13.7 0 1 89 1.2
0.1 1.0 0.0 0.1 1.0 10.0 0.9 10.9 0 1 i 91 1.2
0.1 1.1 0.0 0.2 2.0 12.4 1.8 14.2 0 2 I 86 I 1.2
0.1 1.3 0.0 0.2 2.0 13.8 3.1 115.6 I 0 2 87 1.2
0.1 1.4 0.0 0.1 4.1 16.0 2.6 20.0 0 1 I 80 1.2
0.1 1.1 0.0 0.2 0.5 I 13.5 3.9 13.8 0 1 96 1.2
I
, 0.44
0.48
0.44
0.56
I 0.43
0.46
0.45
0.45
0.46
l.04
0.84
0.71:
0.74
, 0.B3
0.84
0.90
0.86
0.59
i 0.62'
0.69
, 0.64
, 0.74,
0.78'
1l.{)11
1.33'
L'lr.
(fl c ,,', :
10
8
10
10
10
8
8
7
9
11
20
21
33
40
62
70
104
54
36
50
30
30
26
20
10
-....J
In
Table 26. Whole-soil composition of nine elements and Ti/2r ratio in a Dura1de soil and underlying
paleosol on the Montgomery Terrace in Evangeline Parish, Louisiana.
·Depth
1
I Element
(meters) I Horizon
. Ca I Hg I K J/ Al I Fe .l Si
. P r -'- I 1 Ti I Zr I
----------------ppm---------------
1 I I I
0.00-0.08 A
0.04 0.04 0.30 11.83 11.94 I 28.22 210
2959 531
0.08-:0.23
I
Bw
0.02 0.03 10.28 11.96 0.85 27.71 176
3011 522
0.23-0.38 B/E 0.03 0.03 0.31 2.46 ,1.58 25.96 231
2925 529
0.38-0.53 Btl 0.03 0.03 0.34
11.42
24.39. 269
2935 507
0.53-0.69 0.05 0.03 0.42 3.18 .1.58 26.18 ·236
3113 538
0.69-0.94 Bt2 0.06
I 0.02
0.50 2.90 1.51 26.00 111
3063 412
0.94-1.19 0.09 0.04 0.52 2.56 1.25 24.23 125
2823 427
1.19-1.45 0.10 0.03 0.55 2.56 1.22 26.89 171
3565 563
1. 45-1. 73 Bt3 0.10 0.03 0.59 2.83 1.30 24.85 165
2844 488
1. 73-1. 90 0.17 0.07 1.00 3.48 2.19 23.16 254
2468 446
1. 90-2.06 0.06 1.11 2.96 1. 75 21.35 320.
2283 488
2.06-2.21
I
0.09 0.02 1.16 3.25 1.66 24.38 343
2579 570
2.21-2.46 Bw 0.05 0.03 1.20 3.32 1.93 23.49 361
2893 599
2.46-2.72 0.09 0.04 1.19 3.44 2.01 23.47 409
2883 544
2.72-2.97 0.06 0.03 1.16 3.30 1.77 22.67 389
2796 550
2.97-3.23 C1 0.10 0.04 1.20 3.58 2.03 25.05 490
3051 543
3.23-3.53 0.14 0.12 1.11 3.52 1.85 24.58 474
3086 550
3.53-3.81 0.12
I 0.06
0.87 2.95 1.48 25.82 359 2825 454
3.81-
L
f.11 0.11 0.09 O. 2.60 1.32 26.86 341 2823 539
4.11-Lf.27 C2 0.08
I 0.10 0.25 2.68 1.45 27.48 488
2709 591
4.27-4.42 0.03 0.02
1
0
.
07 2.48 1. 36 27.53 211
2731 353
4.42-4.57 0.04 0.03 0.()6 2.85 1.63 26.63 171
2737 278
•. 72 2Btb 0.04 0.03 0.05 3.08 1.62 25.75 191 3038 311
4. .. 98 0.09 0.13 0.08 3.98 2.26 27.13 313
3153 423
4.98-5.21 0.02 0.02 0.09 3.21 2.35 24.19 257
3014 402
I
I
:
!
, ,
lRatio
tri/Zr
5.57
5.76
5.52
5.79
5.78
7.43
6.61
6.33
5.82
5.53
4.67
4.52
4.82
5.29
5.08
5.25
5.61
6.22
5.24
4.58
7.71
9.84
9.77
7.45
7.50
-....I
0\
I
I
SITE 6
This is about 1150 meters north northeast of the site represented
by the actompanying morphological description and supporting data. Both are
within the same Dexter soil body. The original site was in a churchyard with a
almost identical to the alternate.
77
The Macon Ridge is an elongate north-south trending sandy braided-stream
terrace of the Arkansas River extending from near Chi cot in southeastern Arkansas
to the Sicily Island Hills area in Louisiana (Saucier, 1974). According to Saucier
(1974) it was deposited about 40,000 to 30,000 years BP when the Arkansas River
drained areas of Cordilleran glaciation in the Rocky Mountains. He identifies
four terrace sublevels with the highest near the eastern edge and progressively
lower units to the west. The Arkansas River flowed west of the Macon Ridge until
3,000 years BP when it broke through the Ridge and entered the Mississippi
River further north in Arkansas. Streams now occupying the area west of the Ridge
in Louisiana include the Ouachita and Boeuf Rivers and Bayous Bartholomew and
Lafourche. Saucier's maps of the Ridge in Louisiana show a small 9rea of Prairie
Terrace which includes the highest elevations on the Ridge (32 -41 m.). Eleva-
tion maxima on surrounding interfluves are at about 27 - 29 meters. .
bur investigations show that several events following deposition of the
sands are. recorded in the near-surface materials and. are determining with respect
to the kinds and distribution of soils (figure 17 - 21). Deposit of the sands
was followed by a period during which developed soils formed in the sandy
sediments comprisirilg the higher parts of the la.ndscapes. Simultaneously
abandoned stream channels and low areas received outwash from the
area. This more clayey and less sandy material accumulated as a more clayey 'plug'
burying soils with minimal development or, in some locals, burying stratified
sandy deposits. The presumed slow, long-term accumulation of sediment in the low
areas together with the wetter Pedogenic environment in these areas resulted in
their having sol Is that are less developed than those on the adjacent higher
landscapes. The described landscape was later buried by the late-Pleistocene
loess deposits originating in the Mississippi River alluvial plain to
the east. The morphology is preserved in the loess mantle but
becomes more distinct in the direction of thinning loess (east to west). Since
loess deposition there has not been extensive erosion of the Ridge and loess stili
covers essentially the entire area where it was deposited. The lness deposits
form the channel wal Is of most streams draining the area.
The Dexter soil, (Ultic Hapludalf) has formed in high areas'on the pre-
loess landscape near the western margin of the loess where the deposits are thin
and contain an admixture of the sandy underlying material throughout. Major
characteristics of the Dexter soil are quite analogous to characteristics of the
basal zone beneath thicker loess deposits overlying the buried sandy soils on
the Ridge. Other relationships among the soils are out! ined in the comments pre-
taining to site 8.
24
23
1./"1
s....
Cl)
+""
Cl)
:2: 22
c:
c
0
21
>
Q)
w
20
19
Figure 17. Some relationships between landscapesJ and modern soils in areas
with thick loess deposits on the Macon Ridge in Louisiana.
Memphis and
Loring soils Calhoun and
soils
loess

::::::::::::::
clayey sediments
I
sandy braided-stream I
I
terrace deposits
I I ,
O.D 0.1 0.2 OJ 0:4
Distance in Kilometers
-....J
(Xl
""1
3-
QJ
-
QJ
:2:
e22
e
0
--
t·:':·,·--··
:>
CD 21
4.1
20
Figure 18. Some relationships between landscapes J and modern soJ!s in areas
with moderately thick loess deposits on the Macon Ridge in Louisiana.
lEEE] loess
clayey' alluvium
sandy braided-stream
terrace deposits
I
I
I
Gigger and
I
I
Necessity soils
I
,
I
I
I
i
I
I
I

. I
I
I

0.4
Gilbert and
Deerford soils
Distance in Kilometers
Gigger and
Necessity soils
1:6
'-l
\.0
en
!....
Q)
22
21
20
...--
"'-
c
§ 19
..-.
+-J
a
>
18
w
Figure 19, Some between sediments, landscapes, and modern soils
'in areas with thin silty deposits on the Macon Ridge in Louisiana.
Foley
soils
Dexter soils
tti Loess with of
rJ /' underlying sediments
Clayey sediments
Sandy sed'iments
Foley soils

16 · '" ....
,J! ...................................................... ..•••••••.•••.••••..••••..•••••••.••••••.••••••..•••••••.•••..••••.••••••••••••••.••••••
o 0,1 0.2 0.3
Distance in Kilometers
Eas
00
o
0.4
1
I"
Figure 20 0 Some relationships between sedimentsJ landscapesJ and soils in areas
locking identifiable loess deposits on the Macon Ridqe in Louisiana.
rna Si 1 ty alluvium
Clayey se(jiments
Iillrnl Sandy sed iments
I I
:>. I >. .1
I I I
I U)
<:f) ....... U) ...-. I
:i5 0 I Foley soi Is 'I 0 I Liddievi lIe soils
U(/) UU)I
Liddieville soils
I I (J.) I
ll1lli1!!I,I,I!I'IIIIIII'!'i,II,'li"llIlIiltll.,! ..
C .....jmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmllgggmmgglmll1lmmmmmmmm::::. :.
1

or-( :::::::::::::::::::::::::::!::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::!!:!::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::!!::::::::::::::::::::::::!:::::::H::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::;:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::=:=
w 1 ;:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::liE:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::l::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::;:::':::::::::::::::::
............... <> ........ ,. ..... "' .... <> •• " .... "2-D ......................... ••••• ... .,.DO .... D .. " ............................................... ......... " .......... " .................... o ................... c-o ................................ "' ................ " .................................... •••••••• ............. _
................. ., ......................... ......................................... " ...................................................... • ". 0 ....................... 0 ................................. D ................ D." ..... "' ........................ 0 ........................ " ..... 0 .... " .... o."" .................. " .......... '0.,.

... 1.11!!lllllililill!!l '!,lll!ll!!II,I'llllllllllilll
.......
a 0,4 0.8 1.2 1.6
Distance in Kilometers 00
i-'
0;
.:=
=
c
.g
,..
:>
" U
" . ~
'" u
'"
LEGEND
Rc,enl alluvium of the Arkansas or Mississippi River
[:::tU Pleistocene ~ g e loess
k»>l Plciuocene lfgC braided-wearn alluvium
I
5 miles (Approx.)
We>! Eas.!
110
70
60
50
40
.><
..
~
u
.:.<
..
~
u
Figure 21. Distribution of loess and other sediments on an east-west traverse across
the Macon Ridge from Louisiana Highway 4 bridge at the Beouf River to
Vicinity of old church in Franklin Parish, Louisiana.
80
00
N
SITE 6
Macon Ridge Terrace
Dexter Soil (fine-silty, mixed, thermic Ultic Hapludalf)
Location: Two miles northwest of Winnsboro, Louisiana, 310 feet west of
highway 869 and 42 feet north of church in sec. 8,
T.14N., R.7E. (elevation: approximately 22.2 meters)
The Dexter series is comprised of well-drained, moderately permeable
soils formed where a thin mantle of Peoria loess contains an admixture of
underlying sandy braided-stream deposits.
Formation
Soil
Horizon
Ap
Bw
Btl
Bt3
Depth
(meters)
0.00-0.10
0.10-0.2S
0.2S-0.61
0.61-0.81
0.81-1.02
Morphology
Brown (lOYR 4/3) silt loam; weak, fine
granular structure; friable; many fine
roots; medium clear smooth
boundary.
Dark brown (7.SYR 4/4) silt loam; weak,
medium sub angular blocky structure;
friable; few fine roots; few fine pores;
strongly acid; clear smooth boundary.
Yellowish red (SYR S/6) clay loam;
surfaces of peds are reddish brown (SYR,
4/4); moderate, medium subangular blocky
structure; firm, common fine roots; few
fine pores; nearly continuous clay films
on faces of peds; few fine black stains
on peds; very strongly acid; gradual
smooth boundary.
Yellowish red (SYR S/6) clay loam;
surfaces of peds are reddish brown (5YR
4/4); moderate. medium subangular blocky
structure; firm; few fine pores; thin
patchy clay films on faces of peds;
common medium black stains on faces of
peds; very strongly acid; clear smooth
boundary.
Dark brown (7.SYR 4/4) loam;
surfaces of peds are reddish brown
(SYR4/4); moderate, medium subangular
blocky structure; firm; few fine pores;
thin patchy clay films on faces of peds;
common medium black stains on faces of
peds; very strongly acid; clear smooth
boundary.
83
84
2Bt4
2Cl
2C2
3C3
1.02-1.32
1.32-1.65
1. 65-2 .03
2.03-2.50
Dark brown (7.5YR 4/4); sandy loam,
weak, medium subangular blocky
structure; friable; few fine pores; thin
patchy clay films on faces of peds; few
medium black stains on faces of peds;
strongly acid; gradual smooth boundary.
Brown (7.5YR 4/4) fine sandy loam; weak,
coarse subangular blocky structure; very
friable; few fine black stains on faces
of peds; strongly acid; gradual smooth
boundary.
Light yellowish brown (lOYR 6/4) loamy
fine sand; single grained; very friable;
strongly acid.
Stratified braided-stream deposits;
predominantly sands and loamy sands that
contain some more clayey strata.
85
SITE f}
Horizon
Depth Formation
(meters)
p
\BW
en
+..:>
-.-1
en
0
0..
Q)
'0
am 0.25-0.61
E
t1-
~
Q)
J...l
93
+..:>
en
'0
Q)
se
'0
-.-1
Bt2 ~
J...l
70
,0
~
'0
1=1
62.1
~
Q)
en
rl
'0
~
C,)
Bt3
1=1
r:n
52.1
cd
~
en
[jJ
42.1
Q)
0
rl
1. 02-1. 32
2Bt4
~
30
-.-1
J...l
0
Q)
20 t
P-i
'"d
I: i
Q)
:x:
1. 3 2 ~ 1 . 65
-.-1
..,..
-
--
2Cl """
\
1. 65-2.03
\
2C2
I =t I I I I I I
" CD "'<t e>l
(Q CD ts:I N
ts:I N CD ts:I "'<t N ts:I ts:I CD ts:I
-
N ts:I en l'Sl l'Sl
e>l 10
...... ts:I ts:I (T) ts:I 6 .

.
to
.
ts1
ts:I ts:I ts:I ts:I ts:I
.
N
. .
ui <d

l'Sl N CD ts:I N ts:I If) ts:I ts:I ts:I
N
(11 "'<t CD ...... ...... ...... N N
(11 "<t
.....
N 10
.....
N
PARTICLE SIZE (m i crans)
Figure 22. Clay-free particle size distribution (Coulter
Counter and sieve) in a Dexter soil- on the
Macon Ridge in Franklin Parish, Louisiana.
Table 27. Particle size distribution in a Dexter soil on the Macon Ridge in Franklin Parish, Louisiana.
Size Class and Particle Diameter (mm)
Depth Total Sand
Silt
Very Sand
(2.0- (0.05- Clay Coarse Coarse Medium Fine Very fine
:12)
Sand Silt 1
(meters:j Cl.05) 0.002) «0.00 2.0-1.0) (1.0-0.5) (0.5-0.25) (0.25-0.1) (0.1-0.05 )
0.00-0.10
0.10-0.25
0.25-0.61
0.61-0.81
0.81-1.02
1.02-1.32
1. 32-1. 65
1. 65-2. 03
AP 34.8
Bw 23.9
Btl 17.9
Bt2 26.2
Bt3 40.9
2BtLf 59.1
2Cl 73.5
2C2 85.0
54.7
62.5
35.6
39.3
32.8
23.8
15.1
5.7
10.5
13.6
35.6
34.5
26.3
17.1
11.4
9.3
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
Pct. of "'·2 mUl
0.0 6.2
,
20.0 8.6 1.6
0.0 3.9 14.2 5.8 2.6
0.0 2.5 10.4 5.0 2.0
0.1 3.5 15.8 6.8 1.5
0.1 5.2 26.1 9.5 0.8
0.0 7.0 37.1 15.0 0.4
0.0 7.1 47.1 19.3 0.2
0.0 8.5 54.7 21.8 0.1
Table 28. Profile distribution trends of Phyllosilicates in the clay-size fraction of a Dexter soil on
the Macon Ridge i:n Framkli.n Parish, Louisiana.
Mineral Component
Regular
inter- Inter-
Chlorotized stratified stratified
Depth Soil Vermiculite (Smectite- and
(meters) Horizon Kaolinite Micaceous Smectite (Pedogenic) chlorite?) interlayered
0.00-0.10 Ap xxxxxxx xxxxxx tr xx tr xxxxx
0.10-0.25 Bw xxxxxxx xxxxxx tr xx x xxxxx
0.25-0.61 Btl xxxxxxx xxxxxxx tr x x xxxx
0.61-0.81 Bt2 xxxxxxx xxxxxxx tr x x xxxx
0.81-1.02 Bt3 xxxxxx xxxxxxx x x x xxxx
1.02-1.32 IIBt4 xxxxxx xxxxxxx x x x xxxx
1.32-1.65 nel xxxxxxx xxxxxxx x x x xxx
1. 65-2.03 IIC2 xx.xxxxx xxxxxxx x x x xxx
ex>
0\ .•
Tex-
tura1
class
5; 1
5;1
cl
cl
1
51
51
15
Depth
Table 29. Selected chemical characteristics of a Dexter soil on the Macon
Ridge in Franklin Parish, Louisiana.
Extract
able I
acidity I cap .. ___ y
Exchangeable DaC12-effec- INH .. - Sum of
Saturation
ations I Ai IH
I I Ca K i:-1a I Ai I H TEA tive
;meters)..! ." 1 I I ' rnUliequivaients/100 grarn9- i. .
0.00-0.10 I AP 15.7 I 5.0 4.6 2.0 1.0, 0.5 0.1 0.0 0.3 6.2 3.9 5.8 9.8 0 8 37
0.10-0.251 Bw 16.015.4 4.9 2.2 ! ].0 10.1 0.2 0.0 0.3 5.6 3.8 4.6 9.1 {) 8 38
0.25-0.61 Btl 5.6 4.9 4.3 4.2 1.9 1 0.2 0.1 0.2 0.4 7.5 7.0 9.6 13.9 3 6 46
0.61-0.81 Bt2 15.3 4.5 3.8 2.2 3.7 0.1 0.2 1.8 0.6 10.6 8.6 9.9 16.8 21 7 37
0.81-1.02 Bt3 15.314.4 3.9 1.5 i 3,.1 0.1 0.2 1.5 0.3 8.5 6.7 7.6 13.4 '23 4 37
1.02-1.32 2Bt4 15.4 4.4 3.9 1.0 2.2 0.1 0.1 1.2 D.O 5.4 4.6 5.4 1 8.8 26 0 39
1.32-1.65 2Cl 5.5 '14.5 14.0 0.6 1.3 10.1 0.1 0.3 0.3 4.2 2.6 3.6 6.2 11 12 32
1.55-2.03 2C2 5.5 4.6 14.1 0.7 1.3 0.1 0.1 0.3 0.3 3.9 2.7 3.4 6.0 11 11 35
Cahl£ ' "
(Exchange- :Organlc i rree
S
'Free i'-
able) , e leo)' 'Fe '(ilr.I·:11
2.0 10.42 12
2 . 2 . , 0 . 54: 6
2.2 11.35
1
2
0.61.31 12
0.5 '0.90, 16
0.4 ,0.68 14
0.5 ,0.48 I 15
0.5 \0.40: 22
1
Table 30.
Whole-soil composition of nine elements and Ti/Zr ratio in a Dexter soil on the Macon Ridge
in Franklin Parish, Louisiana.
Depth Element
(meters) Horizon
Ca I Mg I K I A1 .L. Fe .1 Si
P
--------------------%------ ------r------
1
0.00-0.10 AP 0.08 0.04 1.27 2.24 1.02 30.09 333
,
0.10-0.25 Bw 0.14 0.09 1.47 2.80 1.21 31.87 399
0.25-0.61 Btl 0.09 0.21 1.39 4.55 2.63 27.32 . 473
0.61-0.81 Bt2 0.11 0.22 1.57 5.11 2.87 30.77 534
0.81-1.02 Bt3 0.08 0.15 1.42 4.11 2.18 28.39 436
1. 02-1. 32 2Bt4 0.07 0.06 1 .. 48
I 3.50
1.64 31. 73 219
1.32-1.65 2C1 0.17 0.l3
I 1.. 94
3.85 1.30 40.99 93
1. 65-2.03 2C2 0.18 0.11 1 .. 81
I 3.55
1.17 39.51 75
1
I
I
I !
I I i
,
, ,
...
---:=--'
3213 815
3771 1018
3933 879
3897 887
3126 707
2413 463
2165 517
1596 363

Ratio
'l-i/Zr
3.9
3.5
4.5
4.4
4.4
5.2
4.2
4.4
I
1
.L - ---_.
00
o..-J
88
SITE 7
This stop is at the site originally sampled and represented by the accomp-
anying morphological description and supporting data. Some slumping has occurred
since the site was sampled. The Sicily Island Hills have recently been dedicated
as a State Wildlife Management area. Before that, private ownership of the
.extensive mInIng operations limited acces to other areas. Numerous excellent
exposures of the two loesses and underlying gravel are scattered throughout the
area.
Some relationships among the geologic materials forming the Sicily Island
Hills and surrounding area are illustrated in Figure 23. Chawner (1936) described
the Hills as an eastward continuation of the uplands to the west. These hills
form the western edge of the narrowest portion of the Lower Mississippi alluvial
valley. They are seperated from the hills to the west by the Oucachita River and
its alluvial plain. The area is more or less circular in form with maximum
elevations of 80 meters, nearly 60 meters above the Macon Ridge to the east.
The hi.lls are capped by two loesses having a combined thickness in excess of 10
meters in places. Citronelle gravels and sands, now removed from much of the area
by mining operations, occur immediately below the loess. The Citronelle formation
is in turn underlain by the Catahoula formation, a late Oligocene and/or' early
Miocene deposit (Snead and McCulloh, 1984).
We ideAtify two loesses at the site. The uppermost 3.8 meters is comprised
of the Peoria loess containing an eroded Memphis soil profile. The underlying
pre-Peoria loess is about 6.4 meters thick ond contains a paleosol similar in many
respects to the Memphis soil above. Beneath the loess is awell expressed paleosol
developed in the Citronelle formation. The pre-Peoria gravels
contact zone is an excellent place to observe the basal mixed zone that extends
upward into the loess the 'contact
l

Below about 7 meters, the pre-Peoria loess is calcareous throughout the
matrix and contains gastropod shells. A single 14c date of 27,500 ! 1,200 years
BP has been obtained from shell taken from the lower 4art of this zone. Other
shell has been extracted for verification dating by 1 C and amino acid techniques.
The soils developed in loess on the Sicily Island Hi lIs are mostly in
the Hemphis series (Typic Hapiudaif). The gently sloping topography and more
restricted internal soil drainage conditions under which most other soils (except
the Natchez) are developed in Peoria loess in the Lower Mississippi Valley are
lacking. The Peoria loess is leached free of carbonates throughout and soils
having the high base status of the Natchez series (Typic Eutrochrept) have not
been observed.
In
I.-
m
......
m
:E
c
c
o
-+-'
('0
>
W
1..ii.J
W
>
......
ro
CI,)

Figure 23, General relationships among geologic materials in the Sicily Island
Hills area in Louisiana
50
40
30li
20
10
o
o
E
::J
.......
>
::J
.......

10
L
(])
>
...
CY-:
10
+-J
• r-<
.c
u
::J
0
j
L
(])
>
. ......

10
+-oJ
..
')

Peoria loess)

I; .... - .... v . _ .. ... ..
6 41G••
C
•• .... • ... •
4I
.. • .... • •
• 9 •• 9 •••• 4" •• 9. 6'. a',
a ... 4 41& .. p .......... • ....... ..
•••• 0 •• .". a·v .-. a'v .'
ell.'" .6 41. ,. "Oo • .... <CIa. • ... ., ••
' .... " .. &4".'" e
ll
." .. 9 do 44' ••• 6.' .. "0
4
.. ',,9,6 "".' 6\ 4.".'.
- - aT ! cT •• '. .9, t"

loess
(?)
formation
jTertiary deposits
::: ::';:::i::::! ::!;::':":.;:.:',-,,: t/V (M 1 oc ene)
, ........ ',' ..... ; ... ; .. , ... " .......................... ..

4 6 8 10 12
Distance in Kilometers
en
en
Q)
o
.--.
o
.......
L
o
Q)
a..
J
14
Q)
u
o
L
L
Q)
I-
E
o
Q)
L
+-J
en
I
"0
Q)
-
"0
Q)
...... 0:
0"0
L ......
..a 0:::
...
>.
'0
c
o
U)
c
o
u
o
::F.:
........
E
:::J
.......
>
:::J
........
.......
10
1--
IV
>
., .....
0::::

0.
0.

(n
(/)
......
(/)
(/)
......
:E
J
16
00
\0
90
SITE 7'
Loess covered early Pleistocene Terrace (Sicily Island, La.)
Memphis Soil (fine-silty, mixed, thermic Typic Hapludalf)
Location: Catahou1a Parish, Louisiana: abandoned gravel pit in
sec. 11, T10N., R7E. (elevation: approximately 73
meters).
The Memphis series is of well-drained, moderately permeable
soils developed in Peoria loess deposits more than approximately 1.25
meters thick.
Formation
Soil
Horizon
A
Btl
. Bt2
Bt3
Bt4
Depth
(meters)
0.00-0.07
0.07-0.38
0.38-0.76
0.76-1.14
1.14-2.13
Morphology
Brown, (10YR 4/3) silt loam; weak,
medium and fine, angular blocky and
granular structure; friable; many fine
roots; slightly acid; abrupt smooth
boundary.
Strong brown (7.5YR 5/6) silt loam;
moderate, medium sub angular . blocky
structure; firm; clay films on ped
surfaces and in pores; common fine
. roots; strongly acid; clear smooth
boundary.
Dark brown (7.5YR 4/4) silt loam;
moderate to weak, medium sub angular
blocky structure; firm; thin clay films
on ped surfaces and in pores; few fine
med1um gradual smooth
boundary.
Dark brown (7.5YR 4/4) silt loam; weak,
medium and coarse sub angular blocky
structure; firm; thin discontinuous clay
films on some ped surfaces; thin gray
silt coats on some vertical . ped
surfaces; mildly alkaline; gradual
smooth boundary.
Dark brown (7.5YR 4/4) silt loam; weak,
coarse subangular blocky structure to
massive; friable; thin discontinuous
clay films on some peds; thin gray silt
coatings on some vertical ped faces;
mildly alkaline; diffuse smooth
boundary,
C1 2.13-3.34
C2 3.34-3.80
2Bt1b 3.80-4.40
2Bt2b 4.40-5.02
2Bwb 5.02-5.33
2C1b 5.33-7.01
2C2b 7.01-9.75
2C3b 9.75-10.21
Dark brown (7.5YR 4/4) silt loam;
structureless; massive; friable;
moderately alkaline in upper part;
mildly alkaline in upper part; diffuse
smooth boundary.
Dark brown (7.5YR 4/4) to brown (10YR
4/4) silt loam; structureless; massive;
mildly alkaline; gradual smooth
boundary.
Strong brown (7.5YR 5/6) silty clay
loam; moderate, medium subangular
blocky structure; very firm; continuous
clay films on ped surfaces and in pores;
neutral; gradual smooth boundary.
Strong brown (7.5YR 5/6) silt loam;
moderate, medium sub angular blocky
structure; firm; clay films on ped
surfaces and in pores; neutral in upper
part to mildly alkaline in lower part;
gradual smooth boundary.
Strong brown (7.5YR 5/6) silt loam;
weak, coarse sub angular blocky
structure; friable; mildly alkaline;
gradual smooth boundary.
Brown (7.5YR 5/4) silt loam;
structureless; massive; very friable;
mildly alkaline in upper part;
calcareous; contains gastropod shells;
moderately alkaline in lower part;
diffuse smooth boundary.
Brown (7.5YR 5/4) silt; structureless
massive; very friable; calcareous;
contains gastropod shells; strongly
alkaline; diffuse smooth boundary.
Brown (7.5YR 5/4) gravelly silt loam;
structureless; massive; friable;
moderately alkaline; gradual smooth
boundary.
'91
92
3A1b
3A2b
3Btb
10.21-10.66 Yellowish brown (10YR 5/4) gravelly sand;
structureless; massive; loose;
calcareous; mildly alkaline; diffuse
smooth boundary.
10.66-11.27 Light yellowish brown (10YR 6/4)
gravelly sand; structureless;' massive;
loose; calcareous; mildly alkaline;
clear smooth boundary.
11.27-11.58 Red (2.5YR 4/8) gravelly sandy loam;
moderate, medium and coarse, subangular
blocky structure; very firm; seams of
material from overlying horizons extend
through horizon along some peds.
Calcareous on some ped faces; mildly
alkaline.
OJ
r-
n:l
U
V')

IC2
9\1
e2
72
59
511
40
32
2i
111
SITE 'f
Depth
(meters) Horizon
0.00-" 0."'-'

I
0.38- 0.76
8tl
8t2
'------8t3
___ 8t4
'-------- C 1
-------C2
'------___ 28t 1 b
'-----___ 2BC 2b "
2Bwb
'-'-___ 2C 1 b
__ 2C2b
!! 8. 38- 8.83 I _

o ')0 () ,r:
: "'---

Lv
I '-"
10.21-10.66 : - fi
; - 3Alb
10.66-10.97
10.97-11.27
11.27-11.58
I
I )
.--"""
PARTICLE SIZE
3A2b
Formation
.....
e
or-
III
III
OJ
o
n:l
..... .
s.....-
0'''''''
OJ 0
CLIIl
'r-
e
.,....
n:l
.f.J
t:
o
U
VI
III
OJ
o
n:l
'r-
1--j'=="
o 0
OJ III
CL 0
! Q)
OJ r--
s... n:l
CL CL
I
r::
"ri
10
r--.
",. r::
'-' 0
u
(I) 'C
rl P (I) •
rl 0 °0 I rl
<LI"riHO
P ::l Ul
o m.o 0
H S <LI
H b1)rl
"riO&::m
U 4-1 .,,:
Figure 24.C1ay-free particle size distribution (Coulter Counter and sieve) in a
Memphis soil and underlying Paleosols on Sicily Island in Catahoula
Parish, Louisiana.
93
Table 31. Particle size cj.istribution in a Hemphis soil and underlying paleosols on Sicily Island in Catahou1a Parish,
Louisiana.
~
~
Depth Horizon, Total
Sand Silt I
(2.0- (0.05- Clay
(meters 0.05) 0.002) «0.002)
00-0.07 A 2.9 79.2
I
17.9
07-0.38 Btl 1.7 75.8 22.5
38-0.76 Bt2 1.5 77 .2 21.3
76-1.14 Bt3
!
0.9 82.2 16.8
14-1.52 Bt4
i 1.3 80.6 18.1
52-2.13
,
1.3 79.1 19.6
13-2.
73
1
C1 1.3 79.0 19.7
73-3.34 1.6 76.5 22.0
34-3.80 I
C2 2.0 74.6 23.4
80-4.10 2Bt1b 1.1 69.9 29.0
10-4.40 i 0.8 70.4 28.9
40-4.72; 2Bt2b 0.7
I
86.2 13.1
72-5.02 i 0.6 86.1 13.3
02-5.33 i 2Bwb 0.9 83.7 15.3
33-6.09: 2C1b 1.3 Sl.8 16.S
09-7.011 1.8 85.3 12.9
01-7. 92 1 2C2b 4.8 85.2 10.0
92-8.38 5.9 86.3 7.7
38-8.83 7.7 86.2
I
6.1
83-9.29 7.9 84.5 7.6
29-9.75 9.4 81.5
I
9.1
75-10.2 2C3b 18.5 73.1 8.4
21-10.6E 55.2 37.5 I 7.3
66-10.91 3A1b 89.7 7.1
I
3.2
97-11. 2 3A2b 94.6 2.8 2.7
27-11. Sf 3Btb 82.0 1.2
[
16.8
I
I
I
I
I
-
Size Class and Particle Diameter (mm)
Sand
,
Very
Coarse Coarse Medium Fine
2.0-1.0) 0,0-0.5) (0.5-0.25) (0.25-0.1 )
Pct. of '" 2 llllU
0.0 0.3 0.7 0.6
0.0 0.1 0.1 0.2
0.0 0.1 0.2 0.2
0.0 0.0 0.0 0.1
0.0 0.1 0.1 0.2
0.0 0.1 0.1 0.1
0.0 0.0 0.1 0.1
0.0 0.1 0.1 0.2
0.0 0.1 0.1 0.2
0.0 0.2 0.4 0.2
0.0 0.1 0.2 0.1
0.0 0.0 0.1 0.1
0.0 0.0 0.1 0.1
0.0 0.0 0.1 0.1
0.0 0.1 0.1 0.1
0.0 0.1 0.1 0.4
0.8 1.2 0.6 0.6
0.7 1.3 1.1 1.2
1.2 2.9 1.3 1.1
1.8 2.2 1.3 1.1
2.4 2.2 2.0 1.4
3.6 5.4 5.9 2.2
16.7 13.6 18.5 4.2
18.4 30.7· 33.8 5.3
4.8 36.1 48.1 4.4
11.6 42.6 26.4 1.1
Very fine
(0.1-0.05 )
1.3
1.4
1.1
0.9
1.0
1.0
1.1
1.2
1.6
0.4
0.4
0.6
0.5
0.9
1.2
1.3
1.6
1.6
1.3
1.5
1.5
1.4
2.2
I 1.5
1.1
i
t
0.4 I
,
,
I
I
I
i
I
I
I
I
Silt
Sand
27.3
44.6
51.5
91.3
62.0
60.8
60.7
47.8
37.3
63.5
88.0
123.1
143.5
93.0
62.9
47 .. 4
17.7
14.6
11.2
10.7
8.7
4.0
0.7
0.1
0.1
0.1
Tex-
tura1
class
sil
s;1
s i1
sil
sil
sil
sil
sil
sil
sic
sic
sil
sil
sil
s;l
s i 1
si
s;
s;
si
si
sil
1
s
s
s1
1
1
Table 32. Profile distribution trends of Phyllosilicates in the clay-size
fraction of a Memphis soil and underlying paleosol on Sicily Island in
Catahou1a Parish, Louisiana.
Mineral ComEonent
Inter-
stratified
Depth Soil and
(meters) Horizon Kaolinite Micaceous Smectite Inter1ayered
0.00-0.07 A xxxxxxxx xxxxx xxxxxx x
0.07-0.38 Btl xxxxxx xxxxxx xxxxxxx x
0.38-0.76 Bt2 xxxxx xxxxxxx xxxxxxx x
0.76-1.14 Bt3 xxxxx xxxxxxx xxxxxxx x
1.14-1.52 Bt4 xxxxx xxxxxxx xxxxxxxx tr
1.52-2.13 xxxxx xxxxxxx xxxxxxxx tr
2.13-2.73 C1 xxxxx xxxxxxx xxxxxxxx tr
2.73-3.34 xxxxx xxxxxxx xxxxxxxx tr
3.34-3.80 C2 xxxxxx xxxxxxx xxxxxxx tr
3.80-4.10 2Btlb xxxxxxxx xxxxx xxxxx xx
4.10-4.40 xxxxxxx xxxxxx xxxxx xx
4.40-4.72 2Bt2b xxxxx xxxxxx xxxxxxxx x
4.72-5.02 xxx xxxxx xxxxxxxxxxx x
5.02-5.33 2Bwb xxx xxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxx tr
5.33-6.09 2C1b xxx xxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxx tr
6.09-7.01 xxx xxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxx tr
7,01-7.92 2C2b xxx xxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxx tr
7.92-8.38 xxx xxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxx tr
8,38-8.83 xxx xxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxx tr
8.83-9.29 xxxx xxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxx tr
9.29-9.75 xxxxx xxxx xxxxxxxxxxx tr
9.75-10.21 2C3b xxxxxxx xxx xxxxxxxxxx tr
10.21-10.66
10.66-10.97
10.97-11. 27
11.27-11.58
95
1
Depth Horizon pH
In 1:1
I
i
suspension
H2O aGb NKGi Ga
(meter 51 I "
. -
I
).00-0.07; A
6.2 5.2 4.4 7.7
I
).07-0.38: Btl
5.3 5.6 4.8 6.6
).38-0.76 I 8t2
6.0 6.8 6.0 6.5
).76-1.14 i Bt3
i
7.6 7.4 6.8 5.9
1.14-1. 52 i Bt4
I
l.52-2.13:
18.2 7.8 7.0 7.9
8.3 7.8 7.0 6.9
I
1.13-2.73 : C1
8.2 7.7 6.8 6.3 I
U3-3.34
7.4 7.5 6.6
I 6.
9
I
I
1.34-3.80 i C2
7.6 7.4 6.2 15.5
I
1.80-4.10; 28tlb
7.1 7.2 6.3 1 8.7
1.10-4.40 :
7.0 7.2 5.8 9.6
I
L 40-4.72 : 2Bt2b
7.4 7.2 ' 5.7 6.3
I
,
I. 72-5.02 i
7.5 7.2 5.9 6.1
I i.02-5.33 ! 2Bwb
7.6 7.2 5.9 6.2
i.33-6.09 ,2C1b 7.6 7.8 7.2 5.8
I
I
i.09-7.01 I 8.2 8.1 7.6 7.6
'.01-7.92 12C2b 8.6 8.2 7.8 11.6
'.92-8.38 I
8.6 8.2 7.9 15.6
1.38-8.83 i
8.6 8.2 7.9 15.4
1.83-9.29 : 8.5 8.1 7.8
13.9
1.29-9.75 '
8.2 8.2 7.8 1 16.5
75-10.21 2C3b
8.4 8.1
7.6 i 15.3
0.21-10.6p
8.2 7.6 7.4 i 4.5
,0.66-10.97 3A1b
7.8 7.2 7.2 ,0.5
0.97-11. 27 3A2b 7.4 6.9 6.6 I 0.3
1.27-11.5B 3Btb
7.7 7.1 6.7
i1.
8
I
, I
I
Table 33. Selected chemical characteristics of a Memphis soil
and Paleosols on Sicily Island in
Catahoula Parlsh, Louisiana
Extract
able Cation exchange
,
,
I
\0
(J'\
I
i
1
acidity capacity Saturation Cahlg I
,
Ex t r. I
I
llaC1
2
- effec- NH4- of
I(EXChange-iorganiC r-
Mg K Na
I Al I H
TEA tive OAc )::ations Ai H
Bases able) C ,eo) I Fe '(II'..-Jll)1
" ,
7.
I : I I
-milliequivalents/100
, I , % r t,·· !
I I
0.60 :
3.4 0.5 0.1 0.0 0.1 5.0
Ill.8
11.8 16.7 1 70 2.3 I
4.4 0.3 0.3 0.2 0.6 4.3 12.4 12.4 15.9 2 5 73 1.5
I
I : 0.62 '
I ,
4.8 0.2 0.4 0.0 0.1 1.0 12.0 12.0 12.9 1 92 1.4
,
I
: 0.60 I
I
i
,
, 0.55 i
4.8 0.2 1.7 0.0 0.1 1.8 12.7 12.7 14.4 1 88
I
1.2 I
: 0.1 312 ,
5.3
1
0.2 2.1 0.0 0.1 0.7 15.6 15.6 16.2 1 96 1.5 , ' 0.1 ' 0.50 ' 332 I
5.2 0 .. 2 2.5 0.0 0.1 0.4 14.9 14.9 15.2 1 97 1.3 I 0.1 ,0.52 I 376
4.9 0 .. 2 2.4 0.0 0.1 0.4 13.9 13.9 14.2 1 97 1.3 ; 0.0 ; 0.55 354
,
i
5.3 0 .. 2 2.7 0.0 0.1 0.8 15.2 15.2 15.9 1 95 1.3 i ' 0.1 ! 0.50 354
I
4.4 0 .. 2 2.8 0.0 0.1 1.4 23.0 23.0 24.3 1 94 3.5
,
! 0.0 ; 0.95 312
I :
6.5 0 .. 2 3.6 0.0 0.1 0.8 19.1 19.1 19.8 1 96 1.3 , 0.1 '0.80 I 270
6.8 0 .. 2 3.7 0.0 0.1 1.4 20.4 20.4 21.7 1 94 1.4
i
0.0 : 0.75 ' 312
4.6 0,,2 1.6 0.0 0.1 7.2 12.8 12.8 19.9 1 64 1.4
I
! 0.1 : 0.58 : 292
3.7 0,,1 1.4 0.0 0.1 1.1 11.4 11.4 12.4 1 91 1.6 I I 0.1
10•70 : 292
4.2 0,,2 2.1 0.0 0.1 0.8 12.8 12.8 13.5 1 94 1.5 , 0.1 ' 0.55 , 208
;
4.8 0 .. 2 2.0 0.0 0.1 0.8 12.9 12.9 13.6 1 94 1.2
I
i 0.4 10•50 168 ! ,
5.7 0,,2 1.2 0.0 0.1 4.0 14.8 14.8 18.7 1 79 1.3
I
, 1. 5 i 0.45 376
5.8 I 0,,2 1.6 0.0 0.1 3.8 19.3 19.3 23.0 1 83 2.0
I
! 6.0 \ 0.40 i 208
4.1 0,,1 1.7 0.0 0.1 3.8 21.6 21.6 25.3 1 85 3.8
I
;18.6 : 0 22 ' 292
,
3.6 0,,1 1.8 0.0 0.1 3.8 21.0 21.0 24.7 1 85 4.3 24.2
i' I
314
i
1 1
0

22
i ,
3.7 0,,1 1.5
0.0 0.1 4.8 19.3 19.3 24.0 1 75 3.8 I '0.25 I 230 :
4.5 0,,1 1.1 0.0 0.1 4.8 22.3 22.3 27.0 1 82 3.7
I
i 9.8 : 0.25 I
252
4.5 0,,1 1.2 0.0 0.1 3.4 21.2 21.2 24.5 1
I
86 3.4
,
j 4.0 0.32 250 ,
2.0 0 .. 1 0.4 0.0 0.0 0.0 7.0 7.0 7.0 0 100 2.2
I
1
0
.
0 ,0.12 ' 96 i
1
0.6 0,,1 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 1.2 1.9 1.2 0 100 0.8 0.0 • 0.05 ' 120
i
0.3 0,,1 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.7 1.8 0.7 0 100 1.0 10.0 10.05 ,
I
2.6 0 .. 1 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 2.7 6.6 2.7 0 100 0.7
! 0.0
: 0.45 : 320
I
' i
i
I
:
I
I
I
i
I
Table 34. Whole-soil composition of nine elements and Ti/Zr ratio in a Memphis soil and underlying
paleosols on Sicily Island in Catahou1a Parish, Louisiana.
I
Depth
en:", U:: rs) Horizon,
0.00-0.07
0.07-0.38
0.38-0.76
0.76-1.14
1.14·-1.52
1.52-2.l3
2.l3-2.73
2.73-3.34
3.34-3.80
3.80-4.10
4.10-4.40
4.40-4.72 I
4.72-5.02
5.02:"'5.33
5.33-6.09
6.09-7.01
7.01-7.92
7.92-8.38
8.38-8.83
8.83-9.29
9.29-9.75 I
9.75-10.21/
10.21-10.66,
10.66-10.97)
10.97-11.27;
11. 27-11. 58
1
A
Btl
Bt2
Bt3
Bt4
C1
C2
2Bt1b
2Bt2b
2Bwb
2C1b
2C2b
2C3b
3A1b
3A2b
3Btb
Element
Ca 1 ~ ' l g T K }, Al I Fe 1 Si
--------------------h------L-------------
0.49
0.46
0.53
0.55
0.58
0.56
0.49
0.40
0.42
0.23
0.23
0.52
0.18
0.23
0.29
0.34
1.72
3.41
1. 07
0.51
0.54
0.45
0.55
0.01
0.00
0.04
0.33
0.45
0.46
0.43
o .4l,
0.47
0.42
0.39
0.43
0.31
0.33
0.45
0.l3
0.32
0.48
0.36
0.79
1.02
0.09
0.06
0.09
0.06
0.25
0.03
0.01
0.05
1. 69
1. 74
1. 78
1.86
1. 76
1.77
1. 74
1.67
1.48
1.04
1.25
1.89
1. 69
1.55
1. 70
1.53
1.45
1.32
1.3Lf
1.3Lf
1.48
1.34
1.15
0,,37
0,,33
0 .. 27
i
\
4.60
5.21
5.14
4.93
4.84
5.12
5.01
5.11
5.05
4.70
5.03
4.80
3.55
3.93
445
3.91
3.91
2.66
0.73
1.04
2.60
3.01
2.86
0.61
0.44
2.38 I
2.28 '
2.69 .
2.58 :
2.35 I
2.29 .
2.43
2.42
2.38
2.32 i
2.37
2.79
2.37
2.12
2.04
2.14
2.05
2.01
1.65
1.23
1.41
2.02
1.68
1.22
0.32
0.18
0.83
32.06
30.61
30.59
30.75
29.68
31.28
33.88
34.01
31:28
31.51
30.48
31. 73
28.54
28.13
2953
27.48
26.12
24.53
24.07
24.34 i
27.19
27.33
34.15
40.35
40.85
34.70
_ ~ __ J ____ J _____ _
655
612
564
552
610
542
540
477
461
475
400
492
364
484
520
713
735
663
437
443
586
449
382
119
90
171
---- - f
3401
3238
3360
3788
3792
3658
3403
3594
4168
3454
4033
3967
4251
3890
3719
3318
2970
3177
3591
3303
2671
679
431
529
1163
1057
1072
1030
958
110il
11031
983i
824
952
1129
11004
1109
ll30
1289
1029
902
961
777
763
983
928
645
155
199
132
3.1
3.2
3.2
3,,1
3 .. 5
3 .. 4
3.4'
3.7
4.1
3.8
3.7
3.4
3.6
3.5
3.3
3.8
4.1
3.5
3.8
4.2
3.7
3.6
4.1
4.4
2.2
4.0
I.D
'-.J
98
SITE 8
The site represented by the accompanying morphological description and
supporting data may not be used for logistical purposes if a more convenient
alternate site can be located.
The discussion relating to Site 6 contains an overview of the Macon Ridge
and events influencing the present distribution of soils on its surface. Some
typical relationships between the modern soils and the different deposits are
shown in Figures 17 through 21. The Memphis (Typic Hapludalf), Loring (Typic
Fragiudalf), Calloway (Glossaquic Fragiudalf), and Calhoun (Typic Glossaqualf)
soils formed in areas where the loess is greater than about 1.25 meters thick
and does not contain an admixture of the underlying material throughout. The
Memphis and Loring soils occupy higher positions than the Calloway and Calhoun
and have developed in areas where the loess is directly underlain by the sandy
braided-stream deposits or where the loess is more than 2.5 meters thick if it
is underlain by more clayey materials. The Calloway and Calhoun soils developed
in areas where the is underlain by more clayey materials above the sandy
braided-stream deposits.
The Gigger (Typic Fragiudalf), Egypt (Aquic Glossudalfs), and Gilbert
(Typic Glossaqualf) soils formed where the loess is thinner than about 1.25 meters
and the apparant contact with the underlying sediment is within the solum. :he
Gigger soils are· on the higher positions where the loess is directly underlain by
the sandy braided-stream deposits. Egypt and Gilbert soils are on 10w:r positions
where the more clayey deposits lie between the loess and the sandy sediments.
Dexter (Ultic Hapludalf) soils formed where thin loess depdsits are mixed
throughout with the sandy underlying braided-stream materials. The Liddievil1e ..
(Ultic Hapludalf) and Necessity (Glossaquic Fragiudalf) soils formed there IS
little or no influence of loess because of either, or both, absence of loess depo-
sition or erosion of any deposited. Foley and Deerford soils (both Albic
Glossic Natraqualfs) are in the lowest positions in these areas. They are only
in places where the sandy braided-stream deposits are overlain by more clayey
alluvium which in turn is overlain by the silty material. This silty material con-
sists of a ioess-iike iocal alluvium that may have included some loess in places.
Necessity soils are on intermediate positions in areas that are less sloping. They
. formed in thin loess or in silty alluvium that also may have included loess in
places. The Forestdale soils formed in places where little or no loess or silty
alluvium overlies the more clayey alluvium in the low areas on the Terrace.
The presence of high levels of exchangeable sodium in the Natraqualfs is
associated with specific soil-parent material-geomorphic relationships. The high
levels of exchangeable sodium are associated with the more clayey alluvium that
accumulated in low or impounded areas on the braided-stream terrace before loess
deposition. In the modern landscape, these are level or nearly level areas that are
lower than the surrounding area. The Foley, Deerford, Egypt, and Gilbert soils all
have high levels of exchangeable sodium with the solum. Foley and Deerford soils
are the predominant soils with high levels of exchangeable sodium in areas of the
thinnest loess deposits. They have a natric horizon beginning within 10 to 20
inches. In areas of somewhat thicker loess, Egypt and Gilbert soils have hig.h
sodium level.s within the solum. They do not have natric horizons but have high
sodium levels beginning within 24 to 50 inches, Soils developed in loess deposits
greater thar about 4 feet thick do no have high levels of exchangeable sodium within
the solum. However, high levels of sodium are present in the more clayey alluvium
beneath the 10esso
"
.

(MSl)
f.
,/ ,/
45 MI 7'
'e}slocen18 loamy (ll/utl/um
from til, Duachlt(l RIII!!r
Pfelstoun, loamy andc;/aYIIY
CoaHc;l Plain ,lui/menU
-ll
Ptelstocen, loamy and clayey alluvium
from lire Arltanuu Rill"
\
L __ Approximately 40 Km 1,.
NiulMnli which in'll! mown blll4JaOcr to iho Iltirld Indlcats ithe kinds of soil in follows:
l. liuo lind Perry 1. Debuts lInd libuse 1l. BullSy 19. Perry 25. Forestd;alll
1. Hagerty II. Frluell and Guyton 14. Udalfs 20. Hebert and Portland 26. Idee
3. Groom !II. libuM 15. AllcmMlds 21. Rilla 27. Goodwill
4. Molllcy '10. Debute 16. Sterling ion and Gallion 22. Steriiniion 28. Dexter
S. and Groom 11. Guylon alld Cuclila 17. Mer Rouge and Glillion 23. Hebert and Portland 29. Yorktown
6. Late 12 Tiliou and Guyton 11. Heber! and Portland 24. Perry
Figure 25. Soil-Lanscape-Parent material relationships
in Morehouse Parish, Louisiana.
WEST
CARROLL
PARISH
/
/
/
\0
\0
100
SITES
Macon Ridge Terrace
Memphis Soil (fine-silty, mixed, thermic Typic Hapludalf)
(Glossic Hapludalf inclusion?)
Location: Franklin Parish, Louisiana in sec. 8, T15N" R9E.
(elevation: approximately 37 meters)
The Memphis series is comprised of moderately permeable
soils formed in Peoria loess deposits greater than approximately 1.25
meters thick.
Formation
Soil
Horizon
Ap
AB
Bw
Btl
Bt2
Bt3
Depth
(meters)
0.00-0.10
0.10-0.23
0.23-0.38
0.38-0.76
0.76-1.37
1.37-1.96
Morphology
Dark brown (lOYR 4/3) silt; weak
fine granular structure; friable; pH
5.7; clear smooth boundary.
Yellowish brown (lOYR 5/4) silt;
common, fine distinct strong brown (7.5
YR 5/6) mottles; structureless, compact,
brittle and firm plowpan; pH 6.6; abrupt
smooth boundary.
Dark yellowish brown (lOYR 5/6) silt;
common medium faint yellowish brown
(lOYR 5/4) mottles; weak, medium
subangular blocky structure; friable;
few fine black stains on ped surfaces;
pH 6.8; clear smooth boundary.
Yellowish brown nOYR 5/6) silt loam;
moderate, medium subangular blocky
structure; firm; pH 5.7; clear wavy
boundary.
Strong brown (7.SYR 5/6) silty clay loam
to 1.04 meters, silt loam below 1.04
meters. moderate, medium subangular
blocky structure; firm, interior of peds
somewhat brittle; few light brownish
gray silt coats 2-3 mm thick between
peds; pH range from 5.9 at top to 5.0 at
bottom of horizon; clear irregular
boundary.
Dark brown (7.5YR 4/4) silty clay loam
to 1.73 meters; silt loam below 1.73
meters; common medium distinct light
brownish gray mottles; moderate coarse
prisms parting to moderate medium
,.-j
o
(jJ
·0
~ Q)
aj,..-i
Q) aj
HP-<
+J
Ul'O
I Q)
'0 ·ri
<lJ H
'0 ;::!
·ri ...a
aj
H bl)
I:Q ~
·ri
, - - - . ~
",. ·ri
'-"aj
+J
()) ~
bOO
aj tJ
Q) Q)
• ..1 tJ
H aj
'..1 H
aj H
H Q)
P-<H
Bt4
Bw
2Bb
2C1
1. 96-2.84
2.84-3.35
3.35-5.00
5.51-5.87
subangular blocky structure; firm;
common fine black stains on ped
surfaces; common thin light brownish
gray silt coats between prisms and peds;
pH 5.3; gradual irregular boundary.
Dark bro"m (7.5YR 4/4) silt loam;
common medium distinct yellowish brown
(10YR 5/4) mottles; moderate, coarse
prisms parting to moderate, medium
subangular blocky structure; firm;
common black stains on ped surfaces;
common thin pale brown silt coats
between prisms and peds; pH ranges from
5.2 at top to 5.8 at bottom of horizon;
gradual wavy boundary.
Dark brown (7.5YR 4/4) silt loam;
few medium faint yellowish brown (lOYR
5/4) mottles; weak, medium subangular
blocky structure; firm; few fine black
stains on ped surfaces; few fine pockets
of light gray silt; pH 6.2; gradual wavy
boundary.
Dark brown (10YR 3/3) silt loam to 4.34
meters; loam below 4.34 meters; weak,
coarse sub angular blocky structure;
friable; . few fine black stains on ped
surfaces; common fine pockets of light
gray silt; pH ranges from 6.5 at top to
7.2 at bottom of horizon; gradual
irregular boundary.
Stratified dark bro'Vm (7.5YR 4/4) clay
loam to 5.51 meters; sandy loam below
5.51 meters; sand and sandy loam;
friable; pH 7.4.
101
SITE 8
102
Depth
(meters)
Hori zon Formation
leo
I1Il
S9
79
60l
0)
r-
~ D
~
V>
49
C!-!1.
0.00-0.10
0.10-0.23
0.38:"0.76
1. 04-1. 37
3.,35-3.68
,
-I
I
I
I
''____.....--. __ AP
AB
BW
Btl
-Bt2
Bt3
Bt4
BW
5.51-5.87 I 2C2
, ,
Figure 26. ClaY-free particle size 'distribution (Coulter C6unter and sieve) in
a Memphis soil and underlying Paleosol on the Macon Ridge in
Franklin Parish, Louisiana.
0)
I s:::
"C .,....
0) s:::
"C 'r-
~ r = rd
~ + J
s- b
...a 0
.,....
o
Vl
s:::
S-
O)
"C
o
E
0)
s:::
.,....
s:::
'r-
~
+J
s:::
o
u
Vl
Vl
0)
o
.,...
S-
O
0)
0...
U •
0) r-
OlQ)Q
~ U Vl
~ 0
..--.. S- Q)
('-. S- r-
~ Q) fU
.j.J 0...
0)
'r- E "C
S- ~ 0)
-,-- OJ -,.-
I'tI S- S-
S- .j.J ::::I'
o..!Il...a
o.
O.
O.
O.
O.
1.
1.
1.
1.
2.
2.
2.
3.
3.
3.
4.
4.
4.
5.
5.
5.
Table 35. Particle size distribution in a soil and underlying paleosol on the Macon Ridge in Franklin Parish,
Louisiana.
I
... ·-r
TT ! t -
Total
I
I
Sand
Silt
I
(2. 0-.
(0. 05-
I
(meters 0.05)
0.002)
00-0.10 AP I
7.1
I 82.7
1
10-0.23 AB 7.0
I
1
82.2
23-0.38 Bw
I
3.8 85.9
38-0.76 Btl
I
1.3 80.7
,
,
1
76-1.04 Bt2
I
3.0 70.0
)4-1. 37
5.3 72.2
I
37-1.73 Bt3 2.9 69.5
73-1. 96 2.8 71.4
;}6-2.29 Bt4 .3.2 74.3
29-2.56
1.9 77.7
56-2.84 2.6 76.2
34-3.10 Bw 5.1 75.1
LO-3.35 10.8 70.4
35-3.68 2Bb 9.1 71.3
:;8-4. 01 17.0 63.2
)1-4.34
1
20

2 62.6
67 36.4 48.1
)7-5.00 33.1 50.0
)0-5.26 2C1 34.0 46.1

29.2 42.8
il-5.87 2C2 72.4 16.3
I
I
I
I.
j j
Size Class and Particle Diameter (mm)
Sand
I
Very
Clay l Coarse Coarse Medium Fine
«0.002) 2.0-1.0) 0.0-0.5) (0.5-0.25) (0.25-0.1 )
I
Pet. of'" 2 mm
10.2
I
0.2 1.8 1.6 2.3
10.8 0.2 1.2 1.7 2.7
10.3
I
0.2 0.5 1.1 1.5
0.0 18.0 0.1 0.3 0.6
27.0
I
0.1 0.7 0.8 0.9
22.5 0.4 1.0 1.4 1.6
27.6 0.2 0.6 0.6 0.9
25.8 0.1 0.5 0.7 0.9
22.5 0.3 0.5 0.7 1.0
0.1 0.1 0.2 0.9
21. 2 0.0 0.1 0.5 1.6
19.8 0.1 0.1 0.9 3.0
18.8 0.0 0.1 2.4 7.1
19.6 0.0 0.1 3.8 2.4
19.8 0.0 0.4 3.6 10.4
17.2 0.0 0.0 4.7 12.6
15.5 0.1 0.1 9.5 22.7
16.9 0.0 0.1 7.2 21.5
19.9 0.0 0.1 6.4 22.4
28.0 0.0 0.1 6.2 . 18.0
11. 3 0.0 0.2 10.6 46.4
I
I
I
Very fine
(0.1-0. as )
1.2
1.2
0.8
0.3
0.5
0.9
0.6
0.6
0.7
0.6
0.4
1.0
1.2
2.8
2.6
2.9
4.0
4.3
5.1
4.9
15.2
Silt
Sand
I
I
11. 6
11. 7
22.6
46.7
23.3
I
13.6
24.0
I
25.5
I
23.2
I
i 40.9
I 29_3
I 14.7
I
6.5
7.8
3.7
i
3.1
1.3
:
1.5
1.4
1.5
0 .. 2
i
I
I
I
I
,
I
I
I
I
I
Tex-
tura1
class
5i
5i
5i
5 i 1
5i(
5il
5 i (
5il
5i-
5 i 1
5 i 1
5 i i
5 i
5; -
5 i-
5 i-
1
1
1
cl
51
....
o
w
104
Table 36. Profile distribution trends of Phyllosilicates in the clay-size
fraction of a Memphis soil and underlying paleosol on the Macon Ridge
in Franklin Parish, Louisiana.
Mineral ComEonent
Inter-
stratified
Depth Soil and
(meters) Horizon Kaolinite Micaceous Smectite Interlayered
0.00-0.10 Ap
0.10-0.23 AB xxxxxxx xxxxxx xx xxxxx
0.23-0.38 Bw xxxxxxxx xxxxx xxx xxxx
0.38-0.76 Btl xxxxxxx xxxxxx xxx xxxx
0.76-1.04 Bt2 xxxxxx xxxxxxx xxxx xxxx
1.04-1.37 xxxxxx xxxxxxx xxx xxxx
1.37-1.73 Bt3 xxxxxx xxxxxxx xxxx xxx
1. 73-1. 96 xxxxx xxxxxxx xxxxx xxx
1. 96-2.29 Bt4 xxxx xxxxxx xxxxxx xx
2.29-2.56 xxxx xxxxxxx xxxxxxxx x
2.56-2.84 xxx xxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxx tr
2.84-3.10 Bw
3.10-3.35
3.35-3.68 2Bb xxxxx xxxxxxxx xxxxxxx tr
3.68-4.01 xxxxx xxxxxxxx xxxxxxx tr
4.01:-4.34 xxxxx x x x x ~ x x x xxxxxxx tr
4.34-4.67 xxxxx xxxxxxxx xxxxxxx tr
4.67-5.00 xxxxx xxxxxxx x x x ~ x x x x tr
5.00-5.26 2Cl
5.26-5.51 xxxxx xxxx xxxxxxxxxx tr
5.51-5.87 2C2 xxxx xxxxxxx xxxx:xxxxx tr
Table 37. Selected chemical characteristics of a Memphis soil and underlying
Paleosol on the Macon Ridge in Franklin Parish, Louisiana
Extract
Depth Horizon pH
able Cation exchange
1
(meters)..
0.00-0.10
0.10-0.23
0.23-0.38
0.38-0.76
0.76-1.04
1.04-1.37
1.37-1. 73
1. 73-1.96
1.96-2.29
2.29-2.56
2.56-2.84
2.84-3.10
3.10-3.35
3.35-3.68
3.68-4.01
fi.01-4.34
4.34-4.67
4.67-5.00
5.00-5.26
5.26-5.51
p.52-5.87
AP
AB
Bw
Btl
. Bt2
Bt3
Bt4
Bw
2Bb
2C1
2C2
... ,
In 1:1
aCidity capacity
: effee- suspension I EXCllngeable
H2
0
f
aClz
JNKCl -c-a-
,
Hg K INa I Al
I I --mill
BaCI2- pum of
I
TEA tive OAe ations
lents/IOO
5.71
5.0 4.6
6.6 6.1 5.1
6.8 6.1 5.4
5.7 4.6. 3.9
5.9 4.2 3.7
5.0 4.1 3.4
5.3 4.2 3.5
5.3 4.3 3.2
5.2 4.6 3.2
5.7 4.8 3.5
5.8 4.9 3.7
6.1 5.2 3.7
6.3 5.7 4.1
6.5 5.7 4.4
6.6 6.0 4.5
6.9 6.0 ,!t.8
7.1 6.0 5.0
7.2 6.4 5.0
7.3 6.4 5.1
7.1 6.6 4.9
7.4 6.6 5;3
4;2
4.7
3.2
2.5
1.6
1.4
2.4
4.0
3.2
5.3
5.'9
5.5
5.1
4.7
4.9
4.5
4.1
4.5
6.0
8.0
3.9
2.1
2.2
1.2
1.3
1.6
1.9
3.4
4.4
4.2'
4.6
4.5
4.
3.B
3.4
3A
3.1
2.6
2.9
3.6
4.4
2.6
0.1
0.71 0
0.4 0
0
0.:
0.21 0
0
O. :2
0.2
O. :2
0.7
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.2
0.1 I 0
I
7.4
0.0 0.2
5.6
8.21
12.8
0.0 0.2 3.0 8.1
7.6 10.9
0.0 0.2 3.0 5.5 6.2 8.3
0.7 0.5 4.6 5.6 6.4 9.0
3.9 0.6 8.6 8.3 8.1 12.4
4.1 0.5 9.6 8.5
8.1 13.5
4.8 0.7 11.1 12.3 13.4 17 ;9
3.6 0.7 10.1 14.2 13.1 20.0
1.9 0.8 8.1 12.4 13.9 16.9
0.1 0.8 6.6 12.9 14.1 18.3
0.2 0.6 5.6 12.9
11. 7 17.7
0.2 0.4 5.6 11.9
12.1 16.9
0.1 0.5 4.1 11.0
9.7 14.5
0.0 0.3 3.0 9.7
8.2 12.4
0.0 0.3 3.5 10.0
8.4 13.2
0.0 0.3
3.0 9.2 8.1 11.9
0.0 0.2 2.5 7.9
7.1 10.2
0.0 0.2
1.5 8.8 7.8 10.1
0.0 0.2
3.5 11. 2
10.4 14.5
0.0 0.2 4.6 14.5 12.9 18.9
0.0 0.2
2.0 . 7.7 6.4 9.5
I
Saturation
Al
I
i
H

I i.
I
0.0 2.7 56
I
0.0 2.4 72
0.0 3.6 64
12.5 8.9 49
47.0 7.2 31
48.2 5.9 29
39.0 5.7 38
25.3 4.9 50
15.3 6.4 52
1.0 6.2 64
1.6 4.6 68
1.7 3.4 67
1.0 I 4.5
72
I
0.0 3.1 76
I
0.0 3.0 73
0.0 3.3 75
0.0 2.5 75
0.0 2.3 85
0.0 1.8 76
0.0 1.4 76
0.0 2.6 79
I
I
,
!
I
I
,
Calfi!; , [x t r .
,(Exchange-,Org"n\c Free (rC'C" ;'-
I ' '5-
i able) , C : F(' t
'
\r.,:l1
\ I I ;
,
,
"
I
2.0
,
2.1 I
2.7
I 1.9
I
I
i 1.0
,
0.7
I
0.7
I
i
,
0.9
0.8 i
1.2
I
I
1.3
I
1.3 ,
1.3
,
i
1.4 I
I
1.4 I
,
1.4
1.5
1.6
1.7
I
1.8
I
I
1.5
i
:
,
I
I
,
I
I
i
I
;
, I
,
I I
I
!
I
,
0.5
0.7
0.71
0.8
1.1
1.0
1.2
1.2
1.0
1.2
1.1
1.0
0.9
0.7
0.5
0.5
0.0 0.5 ,
0.0: 0.6 '
0.7
0.0 i 0.9!
0.0 0.5
I
I
,
I
!
i
1
i I
I
, ,
290
200
33
32
44
50
44
44
56
86
103
114
114
168
135
168
116
116
1-'
o
\JI
Table 38. Whole-soil composition of nine elements and Ti/Zr ratio in a Memphis soil and underlying
paleosol on the Macon Ridge in Franklin Parish, Louisiana.
Depth Element
(meters) Horizonl Ca I Mg K. Al I Fe Si P Ti
--------------------%--------------------
r
0.00-0.10 AP 0.21
I
0.14 I 3.34 1.34 31.41 677 2748 425
0.10-0.23 AB 0.20
0.
16
1
3.44 1.52 32.77 586 2970 384
0.23-0.38 Bw 0.12 0.08 I 2.89 1.09 30.91 355 2721 343
0.38-0.76 Btl 0.10 0.16 ! 1.23 3.69 1.61 31.56 473 3030 451
0.76-1.04 Bt2 0.09
0.29 I 1.37 , 5.05 2.39 31.07 587 3396 444
1.04-1.37 0.11 0.32 1.50 4.93 2.30 30.39 .472 3380 463
1.37-1. 73 Bt3 0.15 0.42 1.50 , 5.33 2.85 28.09 576 3296 458
1. 73-1. 96 0.21 0.42 1. 45 I 5.07 2.73 27.58 586 3105 449
1.96-2.29 . Bt4 ' 0.28 0.44 1.53 ' 5.17 2.81 28.77 640 3142 471
2.29-2.56 0.30 0.41 1.48 4.83 2.62 27.14 548 3149 420
2.56-2.84. 0.32 ·0.40 1.55 4.93 2.60 28.21 658 3210 509
2.84-3.io Bw
3.10-3.35
3.35-3.68 2Bb 0.36 0.30 1.68 4.36 2.00 30.10 532 2769 537
3.68-4.01 0.34 0.27 1.60 4.24 1.84 29.60 448 2614 470
4.01-4.34 0.29 0.22 1.54 3.90 1.66 28.64 453 2491 482
4.34-4.67 0.34 0.23l 1.71 4.04 1.66 31.33 478 2305 485
4.67-5.00 0.32 0.28 : 1.62 4.l3 1.89 30.05 501 2762 520
5.00-5.26 2C1
[
5.26-5.51 0.38 0.45 1. 73 5.24 2.59 28.21 491 2925 369
5.51-5.87 2C2 0.29 0.21 1.56 3.33 1.48 30.88 399 1581 242
atio
i/Zr
6.46
7.73
7.93
6.72
7.65
7.30
7.20
6.92
6.67
7.50
6.31
5.16
5.56
5.17
4.75
5.31
7.93
6.53
I-'
a
0'\
107
SITE 9
This stop is at the site originally sampled and represented by the accom-
panyingmorphological description and supporting data. It was sampled from a
fresh roadcut when the southbound lanes of US 61 bypass were under construction.
It is very near one of the sites included in Snowden's (1966) work and identified
by Snowden and Priddy (1968) as the Standard Loess Section for Mississippi. It
is our interpretation that their site was of the existing roadcut at about
the position of the highway median strip. The position of 14C and TL dates (Fig. 27)
are shown with respect to the present section and were plotted based on interpre-
tation of narrative descd'ptions by the respective authors.
The information in Figures 8 and 27 indicates the loesses and/or their
subunits identified at this site or nearby surrounding area. We three
loesses, Peoria, Pre-Peoria, and Loveland, each containing a basal mixed zone that
is especially apparant in the chemical, physical, and mineralogical data. The'
mixed zone at the base of the Peoria loess corresponds in position to the Roxana
(West et ale 1980). Those workers identified thrcker (1.7 meters) Roxana loess
deposits on Crowley·s Ridge i,n Arkansas. If Roxana loess is present at this or
other sites observed locally or southward to the Gulf Coast, the amounts are too
small to exceed the thickness of the basal mixed zone between the Peoria and
Pre-Peoria loesses. The third loess (Loveland)' is almost 3 meters thick and lies
about 1 meter below the level of the highway.
The deeply incised and steeply sloping "River Hills" areas having thick
Peoria loess deposits are comprised mostly of soils in the Memphis (Typic Hapludalf)
and Natchez (Typic Eutrochrept) series. At distances normal to the
Mississippi River other soils become dominant as the loess mantle thins and
topography is more gently sloping. Major soils in such an ideal toposequence
normal to the river include Natchez - Memphis - Loring (Fragiudalf) - Grenada
(Fragiudalf) - Calloway (Fragiudalf) - Calhoun (Glossaqualf).
The site and nearby roadcuts to the south afford excellent opportunities to
observe the basal mixed zone o For example, at the site the zone immediately above
the B horizon of, the soil developed in the Pre-Peoria loess contains visible
fragments from the underlying B horizon at distances of more than 0.5 meter above
the ·contact'. South of the site (.<.1 Km) Peoria loess directly overlies a
buried soil developed in very sandy deposits containing a buried soil with an
argill ic horizon comprised of distinct lamellae. There the admixture of sand
extending some distance upward into the base of the loess is especially apparant.
The sandy and gravelly materials underlying the loess and containing a
well expressed Paleosol is the Citronelle formation (Snowden, 1966). The
Citronelle formation, named by Matson (1916) has been considered PI iocene in age
by Berry (1916). However, most workers since Roy (1939) have considered it
Pleistocene or PI iocene - Pleistocene in age (l,e, Fisk, 1949; Doering, 1958).
According to Doering the sands and gravels in the vicinity of the site belong to
the Lissie formation which he correlated with Fisk·s Bentley (Yarmouth Interglacial)
or Montgomery (Sangamon Interglacial).
108
UJ
H
OJ

OJ •
::<::

'r!
,.c:



1

Peoria loess containing Memphis
Soil.

4.
8-
0
Peoria Loess
Snowden's
(1966) date
of yr.
(BP). (?) •
(Snowden's
(1966) date of
19 200 yr. BJi,) •
(?)

Basal Mixed Zone (22,600 BP
12
Snowden's (1966) dates
Pre-Peoria loess
h
95
,000 yr·lBP '984(?
__
r()::Icl
base
I I Basal Mixed Zone .

Loveland (?) loess
(120,000 to 135,000 yrs. BP
dates of Johnson et a1., 1984

1& Basal Mixed Zone
(?) , Early Pleistocene Terrace
Citronelle (?) Formation
L.. aF-L IF. g- u- IF.. e"F- S ;H'r 0'
Figure 27. Mississippi Standard Loess Section
showing of
material dated by C and TL methods.
(Note: Positions were plotted on
basis of descriptive material in
reference cited. Loesses and
zones identified correspond to those
of Miller et a1., 1982).
SITE 9
Mississippi Loess Standard Section
Memphis Soil mixed. thermic Typic Hapludalf)
Location: Warren County, Mississippi; West side of u.S. Highway 61 bypass
in north edge of city of Vicksburg; irregular
sec. 9, R4E. (elevation approximately 116 meters).
Formation
..-I
OM
o
UJ
Soil
Horizon
Ap
Bt
Bt2
Bw
C1
Depth
(meters)
0.00-0.20
0.20-0.51
0.51-1.22
1. 22-1. 83
1.83-11.43
Morphology
Dark yellowish brown (10YR 4/4) silt
loam; moderate fine and medium
subangular blocky and granular
structure; friable; consists of mixed A
and Bt horizon material; strongly acid;
abrupt smooth boundary.
Dark yellowish brown (10YR 4/4) silt
loam ped exteriors and yellowish brown
(10YR 5/4) ped interiors; moderate, fine
and medium, subangular blocky structure;
firm, continuous clay films on ped
surfaces and in pores; many fine and
medium pores; common, fine roots;
strongly acid; gradual, smooth boundary.
Yellowish brown (10YR 5/4) silt loam
with dark yellowish brown (10YR 4/4)
clay films on many ped surfaces and in
pores; continuity and thickness of clay
films decrease depth. Friable;
common fine and medium roots; COW.!llan
fine and medium pores; medium acid;
diffuse smooth boundary.
Yellowish brown (10YR 5/4) silt; weak,
coarse, subangular blocky structure;
friable; mildly alkaline; diffuse smooth
boundary,
Yellowish brown (10YR 5/4) to light
yellowish brown (10YR 6/4) silt;
massive; friable; contains calcareous
gastropod fossils; contains calcareous
concretions; calcareous; neutral (pH
7.3) to moderately alkaline (pH 7.9)
reaction in different subhorizons,
gradual smooth boundary.
109
110
C2
2Bt1b
2Bt2b
2Bt3b
11.43-12.04 Pale brown (10YR 6/3) silt loam;
otherwise like overlying material;
clear. smooth boundary. Contains admix-
ture from underlying 2Bt1b.
12.04-12.34 Brown (7.5YR 5/4) silty clay loam;
moderate medium sub angular blocky
structure; firm; continuous clay films
on ped surfaces and in pores; neutral;
calcareous in places on some ped .
surfaces; clear smooth boundary.
12.34-12.95
12.95-13.51,
Brown (7.5YR 5/4) to yellowish brown
(10YR 5/4) silt loam; moderate, medium,
sub angular blocky structure in upper
part grading to weak, medium and coarse,
sub angular blocky structure in lower
part. firm; clay films on ped surfaces
and in pores decrease in thickneps and
continuity with depth; calcareous;
neutral in upper part; mildly alkaline
in lower part; gradual smooth boundary.
Yellowish brown (10YR 5/4) silt loam;
'weak, coarse sub angular blocky structure
to massive; friable; thin discontinuous
clay films on some ped surfaces.
Calcareous; contains some gastropod
shells; mildly alkaline; diffuse, smooth

2Bwb 13.51-13.92 Pale brown (10YR 6/3) to yellowish
brown (lOYR 5/4) silt loam; massive;
friable; calcareous; contains gastropod
shells; mildly alkaline; gradual smooth
boundary.
3Bt1b
3Bt2b
3Bt3b
3Bt4b
3C
4Btb
13.92-14.22 Yellowish red (5YR 5/6) silty clay;
strong, medium and fine; subangular
blocky structure; continuous clay films;
very firm; neutral; gradual, smooth
boundary.
14.22-14.38 Yellowish red (5YR 5/6) silty clay loam;
common, fine and medium light brownish
gray (lOYR 6/2) mottles; moderate,
medium subangular block structure; firm;
clay films on many ped surfaces;
calcareous; neutral; diffuse, smooth
boundary.
14.38-14.68 Same as above horizon except silt loam;
neutral; gradual smooth boundary.
14.68-15.90 Reddish brown (7.5YR 5/4) to yellowish
red (7.5YR 5/6) silt loam; weak, medium
subangular blocky structure; firm; thin
discontinuous clay films on some peds;
calcareous in some parts and mildly
alkaline to 15.29 meters depth;
noncalcareous and mildly alkaline below
15.29 meters. Gradual smooth boundary.
15.90-16.81 Yellowish red (5YR 5/6) silt; weak,·
coarse sub angular blocky structure;
friable; common fine black concretions.
Slightly acid in upper part; neutral in
lower part; gradual smooth boundary.
Contains admixture from underlying 48tb.
16.81-17.12 Yellowish red (5YR 5/6) silt loam;
moderate, medium subangular blocky
structure; firm; clay films on ped
surfaces; common fine black concretions;
slightly acid.
111
112
100
00
80
70
fro
~ I
50
o ~ 1
40
33
20
1: I
Depth
(meters)
0.20- 0.5
3.30- 3.81
SITE 9
Horizon
----
Btl
Bt2
BW
BC
Cl
~ =
PARTICLE S1ZE (microns)
Formation
'r-
0
Vl
t::
s-
(l)
""0
0
E
Ol
t::
'r-
t::
'r-
co
+-l
t::
0
U,
Vl
Vl
(l)
0
co
'r-
s-
o
(l)
0...
Figure 2B. Cla1y-free particle size distribution (Coulter Counter and sieve)
in a Memphis soil and underlying Paleosols in Vicksburg, Mississippi
(Continued next page).
SITE 9 (Cont.)
Depth
(meters)
Horizon

C2
12.04-12.34
12.65-12.95
2Bt3b
101il
fro 2Bwb
811 13.77-13.92
711
3Btlb
52
14.07-14.22
Q)
51il
r-
rtl
40 u 3Bt2b


31il
20
Hl
Iil
J
Figure28. (continued) ClaY-free particle size distribution (Coulter Counter
and sieve) in a Memphis soil and underlying Paleo&ols in
Vicksburg, Mississippi.
113
Format; on
'r-
rtl
+l
C
o
U
Vl
Vl r-
(]) 0
o Vl
r- 0
(])
rtl r-
'r- rtl
S-o..
o
(])"'O
0.. (])
I 'r-
(]) s-
s- :::l
0.. .0
Vl
Vl
(]) .
Or--
.-0
Vl
---.. 0
.C'-. 0)
rtl
"'00..
c'
rtl"'O
.--(])
(]).,....
> s-
o :::l
-l .0
O'l
C
QJ or- •
cc..--
w·"'" 0
U rei Vl
O+-lo
+-lcO)
VlOr-
'r- U ro
(]) Cl..
r-O)
·o..U"'O
rtl(lJ
(lJ S-'r-
+-lS-S-
rtl(]):::l
-l+l.o
Table 39. Particle size distribution in a Memphis soil and underlying paleosols in Vicksburg, Mississippi.
Depth
Size Class and Particle Diameter (mm)
-- . Tntrll
. I
(meters
Sand
I I
,
Sand Silt Very
(2.0-
I
Clay Coarse Coarse Medium Fine Very fine
0.05) : O .. OOL) «0.002) 2 .. 0-1.0) (1. 0-0.5) (0.5-0.25) (0.25-0.1 ) (0.1-0.05 )
i
,
Pct. of 2 mm
.00-0.20 I
AP
.20-0.51 Btl
.51-1.22 Bt2
.22-1.83 Bw
.83-2.29 Bc
3.3 77 .5 1 18.8 0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 2.7
5.1 81.5
I 13.4 0.1 0.2 0.4 0.6 3.9
4.0 86.2
I
9.8 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.2 3.7
i
, 4.2 88.5
I
7.3 0.1 0.2 0.1 0.1 3.6
.29-2.79 C1
79-3.30
3.4 88.0
[
8.6 0.1 0 .. 1 0.1 0.1 3.4
3.2 90.0
I
6.8 0.0 0.1 0.1 0.1 3.0
30-3.81 3.6 89.5 6'.9 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 3.5
81-4.31 3.5 89.6 6.9 0.0 0.1 0.1 0.1 3.3
31-4. 72 1
72-5.331
33-5.94;
3.6 91.4 5.0 0.0 0.0 0.1 0.1 3.6
I
3.6 89.4
I
7.0 0.0 0.0 0.1 0.1 3.5
4.9 87.9 7.2 0.0 0.0 0.1 0.1 4.8
94-6.55. 4.0 89.7 6.3 0.0 0.0 0.1 0.1 3.9
55-7.16 4.2 89.2 6.6 0.0 0.0 0.1 0.1 4.1
16-7.77'
I
77-8.28 i
4.2 90.7 I 5.1 0.0 0.0 0.1 0.1 4.2
3.9 90.0
I
6.1 0.0 0.0 0.1 0.1 3.8
28-8.79 :.
79-9.30 !
30-9.80 i

21-10.8
82-11.4
4.5 88.1 7. 0.0 0.1 0.1 0.1 4.4
4.2 89.4 6. Lf 0.0 0.1 0.1 0.1 4.1
3.9 91.3 4.8 0.0 0.1 0.1 0.1 3.8
4.9 91.2 3.9 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 4.8
5.4 90.7 3.9 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 5.2
3.3 90.0
6 -1
0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 3.2 • I
43-11. C2 4.9 82.0 13.1 0.0 0.1 0.1 0.3 4.4

04-12.3 2Bt1bl
34-12.6 2Bt2b
4.1 79.5 16.4 0.0 0.1 0.2 0.4 3.4
2.5 64.7 32.8 0.0 0.0 0.1 0.2 2.3
3.0 72.8 24.2 0.0 0.1 0.1 0.2 2.7
65-12.9

2Bt3b
26-13.5
51-13.7 2Bwb
4.0 75.3 20.7 0.0 0.1 0.1 0.1 3.8
4.5 77 .6 17 .9 0.0 0.1 0.1 0.1 4.4
5.8 79.7 14.5 0.1 0.1 0.2 0.5 5.1
6.9 77 .6 15.5 0.0 0.1 0.4 0.7 5.8
I
\
I

Sand
I
I
23.5
16.0
21.6
21.1
25.9
28.1
24.9
I
25.6
'25.4
I
24.8
I
17 .9
22. Lf
I
21. 2
21.6
23.1
19.6
21. 3
23.4
18.6
16.8
27.3
16.7
19.3
25.9
26.0
I
18.8
I
17.2
i 13.7
I
11.2
i
I
Tex-
tura1
class
sil
s i 1
si
• si
[ s;
si
si
si
si
si
si
si
si
si
si
si
si
si
s;
si
s;
sil
sil
si cl
. sil
',. sil
, s i 1
sil
sil
>-'
>-'
+-
Table 39. (continued) Particle size distribution in a Memphis soil and underlying paleosols in Vicksburg, Mississippi.
Depth
I -- -- T
iHorizonr
I
(meters
i


14.07-14.22
14.22-14.3i
.14.38-14.6
14.68-14.9

15.29-15.6
15.60-15.9
15.90-16.2
l6.20-16.51
l6.51-16.81
16.81-17.12
1
!
3Bt1b:
3Bt2b
l
3Bt3b:
3Bt4b
1
3Cb
4Btb
Sand
(2.0-
0.05)
5.4
3.5
3.0
3.0
3.4
4.1
4.6
4.5
6.8
6.5
6.8
7.4
8.9
Total
I Silt I
I (0.05-
I i
O
.
002
)
i
i
72.0
1
49.5
47.6
I
64.0
I 73.0
I
78.1
I 80.9
80.7
I
78.9
84.9
88.0
87.2
71.8
I
I
I
I
,
I
I
Size Class and Particle Diameter (mm)
t Very Sand
Silt
Sand Tex-
Clay Coarse Coarse Medium Fine Very fine tural
«0.002) 2.0-1.0) (1.0-0.5) (0.5-0.252 (0.25-0.1 ) (0.1-0.05 ) class
, Pct. of "- 2 lUlU
22.6 0.0 0.1 0.3 0.6 4.5 l3,,3
47.2 0.0 0.1 0.2 0.4 2.9 14 .. 1
49.4 0.0 0.1 0.1 0.3 2.6 15 .. 9
33.0 0.0 0.1 0.1 0.3 2.7 21.3
23.6 0.0 0.1 0.1 0.1 3.3 21.5
17.8 0.0 0.0 0.2 0.1 3.8 19.0
14.5 0.0 0.1 0.1 0.2 4.2 17.6
14.8 0.0 0.0 0.1 0.2 4.3 17.9
14.3 0.0 0.0 0.1 0.2 6.5 11.6
8.6 0.0 0.1 0.1 0.2 6.3 13.1
5.2. 0.0 0.0 0.1 0.3 6.5 12.9
5.4· 0.0 0.0 0.2 0.4 6.8 ll.8
19.3 0.1 0.2 0.8 1.6 6.3 8.1
i
I
,
I
I
I--'
116
Table ,40. Profile distribution trends of Phyllosilicates in the clay-size
fraction of a Memphis soil and underlying 'paleosols in Vicksburg,
Mississippi.
Depth
(meters)
Soil
Horizon
0.00-0.20 Ap
n.20-0.51 Btl
0.51-1.22 Bt2
1. 22-1. 83 Bw
1. 83-2.29 BC
2.29-2.79 C1
2.79-3.30
Kaolinite
xxx
xxx
xxx
xxx
xx
xx
Mineral Component
Micaceous
xxxx
xxxx
xxxx.
xxxx
xxxx
xxxx
Smectite
Inter-
stratified
and
Interlayered
xxxxxxxxxxxx x
xxxxxxxxxxxx x
xxxxxxxxxxxx x
xxxxxxxxxxxx x
xxxxxxxxxxxxx x
xxxxxxxxxxxxxx tr
Almost identical diffractograms in
fifteen horizons between 2.79 and 10.82 meters
10-21-10.82
10.82-11.43
11.43-11. 73
11. 73-12.04
12.04-12.34
12.34-12.65
12.65-12.95
12.95-13.26
13.26-13.51
13.51-13.77
13.77-13.92

14.07-14.22
14.22-14.38
14.38-14.68
14.68-14.98
14.98-15.29
15.29-15.60
15.60-15.90
15.90-16.20
16.20-16.51
16.51-16.81
16.81-17.12
C2
2Bt1b
2Bt2b
2Bt3b
2Bwb·
3Bt1b
3Bt2b
3Bt3b
3Bt4b
3Cb
4Btb
xx
xxx
xxxx
xxxxxx
xxxxxxx
xxxxxx
xxxxx
xxxxx
xxxxx
xxxxxxx
xxxxxxxx
xxxxxxxxx
xxxxxxxxx
....r

xxxxxxxx
xxxxxxxx
xxxxxxxx
xxxxxxxx
xxxxxxx
xxxxxxx
xxxxxxx
xxxxxx
xxxxx
xxxx
xxxx
xxxx
xxx
xxx
xxx
xxx
xxxx
xxxxx
xxxx
xxxx
xxxx
xxxx
XXXXX
xxxxx
xxxxx
xxxxx
xxxxx
xxxxx
xxxxx
xxxx
xxxxxx
x'Xxxxx
xxxxxxxxxxxxxx tr
xxxxxxxxxxxxx tr
xxxxxxxxxxx x
xxxxxxxxxx x
xxxxxxx xxx
XXXXXXXf{ xxx
xxxxxxxxx xxx
xxxxxxxxx xx
xxxxxxxxx x
xxxxxxx xx
xxxxxx xx
xxxx xxx
xxxx xxx
XXXX xxx
xxxx xxx
xxxx xxx
xxxx xxx
xxxxx xx
xxxxxx xx
xxxxxx xx
xxxxxxx xx
xxxxxxx x
XXXXXXXX x
o
o
o
1
1
2
2
3
3
4
4
5
5
6
7
7
8
8
9
9
10
10
11
11
12
12
12
12
Table 41.Selected chemical characteristics of a Memphis soil and underlying
Paleosols in Vicksburg, Mississippi.
I
[
Extract I I' r
Depth Horizon pH able Cation exchange Ii!
In 1:1 i !acidity capacity Saturation Ca/Hg, I ! EHr.
suspension I Exchangeable ! BaC1 2- effec- NH
4
- pum of I (Exchange- ,OrganiC, !Free i'-
H
2
0 aC1
2
NKC1 I Ca INa I Al I H '1 TEA tive OAe ations Al H luases able) I C :C0 3 [Fe (nr.l'"l r_:
I I I I I I
,meters)': . milliequivalents/lOO gram&--- 7. I i. J,
.00-0.20 1 I I I I
.20-0.51! Btl 15.3 5.0 4.1 16.2 4.0 0.1 0.2 0.2 0.4 5.0 21.1 12.8 26.1 1 2 78 4.0 I 0.67: 270
.51-1.221 Bt2 6.0 5.7 5,,1 18.4 . 3.8 0.1 0.1 0.0 0.3 5.0 22.7 11.9 27.7 1 81 4.8 . ,0.66, 284
.11-1.83, Bw 7.8 7.6 7.1 19.8 4.0 10.1 0.2 1.3 24.1 8.5 25.4 95 5.0 20.7,0.48 44 i
.83-2.
29
1 Be 8.0 7.7 7.2 20.2 4.4 \ 0.1 0.1 0.0 24.8 9.1 24.8 100 5.0 15.9 0.40 40 I
.29-2.79. Cl 8.1 7.7 7.2 17:0 5.2 0.1 0.1 0.4 22.4 8.1 22.8 98 3.3 19.1 i 0.39 32 ;
.79-3.30 I 8.0 7.7 I 7.3 17.8 4.7 0.1 0.1 1.3 22.7 7.1 24.0 95 3.8 22.3.0.34 40 '
.30-3.81 II 7.9 7.8 7.3 18.3 3.9 0.1 0.2 5,.4 22.5 6.8 27.9 81 4.7 22.1 10.29: 35 :
.81-4.31 8.1 7.7 7.2 15.6 3.9 0.1 0.2 2.5 19.8 7.1 22.3 89 5.0 20.0 10.30 54 i
.31-4.72 I 7.9 7.8 7.3 17.5 2.8 0.1 0.2 1.2 20.6 5.5 21.8 94 6.2 24.0,0.34; 10
.72-5.33 7.8 7.7 7.2 17.3 3.8 0.1 0.3 1.7 21.5 7.4 23.2 93 4.6 18.5 10.30 40 I
.33-5.
94
1 7.9 7.7 7.3 15.8 3.5 0.1 0.1 8.0 19.5 7.2 19.5 100 4.5 17.1 0.28, 87 :
.94-6.55 7.87.6 7.3 16.4 3.1 0.1 0.1 1.7 19.7 6.5 21.4 92 5.3 18.20.31.74
.55-7.16 7.8 7.7 7.1 17..8 3.6 0.1 0.2 1.7 21.7 7.0 23.4 93 4.9 20.4 0.27: 74
.16-7.771' 7.9 7.6 7.3 17.0 3.0 0.1 0.1 1.7 20.1 5.7 21.8 92 5.7 21.4 0.
32
i 50 I
.77-8.28 7.8 7.5 7.3 16.3 2.8 0.1 0.1 0 19.3 5.8 19.3 100 5.8 21.0 0.27 74 ,
,28-8.79
1
7.8 7.4 7.4 13.5 3.8 0.2 0.1 0 17.6 6.6 17.6 100 3.6 22.7 0.21 127
.79-9.30 7.8 7.5 7 .. 3 13.9 3.4 0.1 0.1 0 17.5 5.7 17.5 100 4.1 31.6 0.24 84
,30-9.80 17.8 7.4 7 . .4 16.4 2.6 0.1 0.2 0 19.3 4.4 19.3 100 6.3 31.2 0.22 50
80-10.21 7.6 7.3 7.4 121.0 3.7 0.1 0.3 0 25.0 4.4 25.0 100 5.7 33.5 0.19 34
,21-10.
82
1 7.67.4 7.4 !1
21
.
9
4.0 0.1 0.4 1.7 26.3 4.0 28.0 94 5.5 34.20.18 34
82-11.43 7.7 7.4 7.4 21.6 4.8 0.1 0.5 2." 26.9 5.1 29.0 93 4.5 31.2.0.21 50
43-11.
73
1 C2 7.6 7.5 7.2 20.4 7.9 0.1 0.9 1.3 29.3 8.8 30.6 96 2.6 8.4 0.31 112
73-12.04 7.6 7.6 7.1 14.2 6.8 0.1 (J.8 3.3 21.9 0.5 25.2 87 2.1 4.8 0.44 44
04-12.3
4
1 2Btlb 7.2 7.1 6.4 10.0 B.9 0.2 0.4 4.2 18.5 7.0 22.7 81 1.1 0.73 5
34-12.65
1
2Bt2b 7.4 7.3 6.4 9.3 8.0 0.2 0.3 3.3 17.8 5.2 21.1 84 1.2 0.57 10
65-12.95 7.7 7.6 6.8 9.7 7.2 0.2 0.2 1.7 17.3 3.6 19.0 91 1.3 0.49 5
95-13.26\2Bt3b 7.9 i 7.7 7.0 11.0 6.8 0.2 0.2 I 0.8 18.2 19.0 I 96 1.6 3.4 0.41 5
I-'
I-'
'-J
Depth
(meters)·
13.26-13.51
13,51-13.7
13.77-13.9l
13.92-14.0i
14.07-14.22
14.22-14.31:
14.38-14. 6E

14.98-15.2
15.29-15.6
15.60-15.9
15.90-16.2
16.20-16.51
16.51-16.81
16.81-17.12
Horizon
.. -
2Bwb
3Bt1b
3Bt2b
3Bt3b
3Bt4b
3cb
4Btb
pH
In 1:1
suspension
H20
7.3 7.2 7.0
7.4 7.2 7.1
7.4 7.3 7.1
7.3 7.1 6.5
7.3 7.1 6.3
6.6 6.6 5,9
7.6 7.6 7.1
7.47.5 6.8
7.3 7.7 7.1
7.5 7.4 6.7
7.3 7.0 6.4
6.5 6.3 5.6
6.5 6.2 5.2
6.7 6.5 5.7
6.4 6.3 5.4
Ca
t-'
t-'
00
Table, 41 (Continued) Selected chemical characteristics of a Memphis soil and
underlying Paleosols in Vicksburg, Mississippi.
Exchangeable
Mg I KINa Al
I 1 I
H
Extract
able
acid i t Y f-:=-:-...;c::;.:a;c:=..":.<., __ -:-
BaC12- effec- urn of
TEA tive ations
,.
i I I I
Saturation i Cahlg Ii: I Exu.
I '1,(EXChange-!organiC! I cree I i'- I
R Fases I able) i F!" '(llr""'II)
Al
JLequivalen ts /100 grarns---'-------
9.6
6.0
7.2
1L 1
11.6
9.2
12:9
7.8
10.2
7.2
5.1
4.4
4.2
6.8
7.4
5.9
4.7
5.4
9.4
1 10.6
, 8.2
7.5
5.4
6.2
5.3
4.1
3.5
3.4
5.5
6.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.2
0.2
0.2
0.2
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.0
0.1
0.2
0.2
0.1
0.2
0.2
0.2
0.2
0.2
0.2
0.2
0.2
0.1
0.2
0.2
0.2
0.3
1.7
2.5
1.7
3.3
3.3
2.5
0.0
3.3
2.1 '
2.9
5.0
1.3
1.3
2.1
2.9
15.8
10.9
12.9
20.9
22.6
17.8
20.8
13.5
16.7
12.8
9.4
8.1
7.9
12.6
14.0
11.2
9.8
10.5
18.7
20.8
15.5
14.0
10.4
11.7
10.4
8.0
6.9
6.6
11.2
10.9
17 .5
13.4
14.6
24.2
25.9
20.3
20.8
16.8
18.8
15.7
14.4
9.4
9.2
14.7
14.9
90 1 .6 I 2.7 I 0.38
81 1.3 2.1 ; 0.32
88 1 .3 I 0.44 I
86 1.2 : 0.901
87 1.1 '0.97
88 1.1 ;0.61
1
1 00 1 .7 4 .7 ,0.45
80 I 1 .4 : 0.29,
89 1.6 3.0 0.38'
81 1.4 ;0.34
65 1.2 • 0.30,
85 I 1.3 0.31:
86 1.2 ; 0.21:
86 1.2 : 0.21 i
94 1.2 10.24'
;
20
28
5
10
12
13
10
19
22
24
32
19
25
29
19
Table 42. Whole-soil composition of nine elements
Paleosols in Vicksburg, Mississippi.
and TijZr ratio in a Memphis soil and underlying
Depth
I
Element

(meters) Horizon
Ca I Hg I K J Al l Fe J Si


--------------------%------ ------r------
I
I
0.00-0.20 AP
I
0.20-0.51 Btl 0.08
I 0.04 1. 33 3.38 2.29 25.63 830
3733 445 8.38
0.51-1.22 Bt2 i 0.04
i
0.01 1.15 2.97 1. 98 23.01 771
3324 438 7.58
1. 22-1. 83 Bw
i
2.43 0.87 1.12 1.89 1.50 21.28 708
2982 396 7.53 I
1. 83-2. 29 Bc 0.31 0.07 1.12 1.19 1.61 21.87 626
3099 393 7.88
2.29-2.79 C1 1. 47 0.20 1.08 1.43 1.45 21.18 697
3026 392 7.71
2.79-3.30
2.46 0.85 1.15 1. 62 1.33 19.95 613 2908 452 6.43
3.30-3.81
2.87 0.59 1.00 1.44 1.11 16.73 583
2419 408 5.92
3.81-4.31
2.87 0.83 1.24 2.07 1.37 20.72 697 3072 484 6.3Lf
4.31-4.72
2.14 0.34 1.01 0.75 1.10 18.63 556
2789 438 6.36
4.72-5.33
I
1. 25 0.12 1. 33 1.27 1.53 23.49 782
3495 531 6.56
5.33-5.94
1.41 I 0.38 1.19 1.51 1.47 23.11 598
f
3427 540 6.34
5.94-6.55
3.95 I 1. 74 1. 20 3.02 1. 66 22.20 669
3238 567 5.71
6.55-7.16
3.93 . 1.54
1.29
I 2.91
1.71 23.59 755
3499 602 I 5.81
7.16-7.77
4.32 1. 67 1.23 . 2.82 1. 69 22.69 655
3449 527 '6.54
7.77-8.28
I
4.61 2.00 1.26 I 2.96 1.62 21.94 651
3190 527 6.05
8.28-8.79
2.67 1.07 1. 24 1. 76 1.39 21.21 620
3009 1598
5.03
8.79-9.30
5.45 2.52 1.41 2.82 1.48 22.17 727
3006 478 6.28
9.30-9.80
5.43
I 1.92
1.09 2.28 1.20 19.00 612
2678 490 5.46
9.80-10.21 ,
5.74 1.56 1.09 2.34 1.15 18.01 599
I
2399 393 6.10
10.21-10.82
4.19 2.20 1.12 1.67 1.08 19.03 614
I
2656 437 6.07
10.82-11. 43
5.68 Cl.68 1.17 2.70 1.29 18.24 655

2555 671 3.80
I
11.43-11.73 C2 1. 60 0.36 1.58 3.52 1.77 25.68 650
1
3727 714 5.21
11. 73-12.04
0.49 0.03 1.60 4.30 2.06 29.93 503
1
4565 717 6.36
12.04-12.34 2Btlb 0.06 0.03 1.16 5.15 3.19 481 4412 746 5.91
12.34-12.65
2Bt2b I 0.08 0.24 4.48 2.62 26.00 432
14272
767 5.56
12.65-12.95
0.25 01.30 1.67 4.73 2.42 29.35 462 4508 749 6.01
12.95-13.26 2Bt3b 0.27 01.25 1.62 4.41 2.24 27.78 569 4236 750 5.64
13.26-13.51
0.30 0.10 1. Lf8 4.03 1.94 27.12 535 4152 804 5.16 I
13.51-13.77 2Bwb 0.11 0.12 1.18 3.22 1.46 23.91 426
i
4523 874 5.17
13.77-13.92
0.12 0.07 1.10 3.93 1. 79 28.41 487
4719 680 6.93
J
t


\.0
Table 42. (Continued) Whole-soil composition of nine elements and Ti/Zr ratio in a Memphis soil and
underlying Paleosols in Vicksburg, Mississippi.
Depth
Element
lRatio
(meters) Horizon
Ca I Hg \ K J Al I Fe 1 Si
P
----J------bpm-----
- - ~ ~ - - l ~ ~
tri/Zr
--------------------%--------------------
13.92-14.07 3Bt1b 0.07 0.05 0.90 \ 6.62 3.69 24.43 625
I
1
4379 668 6.55
14.07-14.22 0.06 0.18 1.03 7.63 4.13 25.37 676
I
4602 741 6,,21
14.22-14.38 3Bt2b 0.14 0.02 1.47 6.52 3.15 29.12 566
4762 716 6.65
14.38-14.68 3Bt3b 0.08 0.04 1.50 4.64 2.49 25.66 468 4077 617 6.60
14.68-14.98 3Bt4b 0.05 0.03 1.39 3.88 ' 1.64 I 21.80 349 3358 673 4.98
14.98-15.29 0.07
0.03 11.58
4.37 2.02 24.80 419 1
I ; ~ ~ ~
673 5.70
15.29-15.60 0.02 0.02 1.52 4.20 1.81 23.98 443
I
692 5.37
I
I
15.60-15.90 0.02 0.02 1.34 3.49 1.38 20.61 404
I
577 5.25
,
I 3033
15.90-16.20 3cb 0.03
I
0.02 1.64 3.89 1.56 25.05 470
,
I 3564 667 5.34
16.20-16.51 0.03 0.03 1.37 3.26 i.07 20.85 494
I
! 2963 674 4.39
16.51-16.81
1
0.02 0.05
I 1.25
3.11 1.36 18.89 662
i 3731 786 4.74
16.81-17.12 4Btb 0.02 0.03
11.07
' 2.97 1.37 21.89 463
!
2994 728 4.11
I
I
I
I
I
I
i
I
,
I
I
I
I
I,
t
!
\
[
I
!
!
f-'
N
a
121
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Master's Thesis, Agronomy Department, Louisiana State University and A
and M College.
Rosen, N. C. 1968.
Coastal Plain.
Rouge, 188
Heavy minerals of the Citronelle Formation of the Gulf
Ph.D. Dissertation: Louisiana State University, Baton
Roy, C. J. 1939. Type locality of Citronelle formation, Citronelle, Alabama:
Am. Assoc. Petroleum Geologists Bull., v. 23, p. 1553-1559.
Ruhe, R. V. 1976. Stratigraphy of mid-continent loess, U.S.A. p. 197-211 In
Quaternary stratigraphy of North America. W. C. Mahaney (ed.). Dowden-,-
Hutchinson & Ross, Inc., Stroudsburg, Penn.
Russell, R. J.
55:1-40.
1944. Lower Mississippi Valley loess. Geol. Soc. Amer. Bull.
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125
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Russell, R. J. and J. P. Morgan. 1964. Floodplain and Terrace Geomorphology.
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Southeastern Section, Geological Society of
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in the Lower Mississippi Valley. Southeastern Geology 9(2):65-76.
Saucier, R. T. 1974. Quaternary geology of the Lower Mississippi Valley.
Arkansas Arch. Survey, Res. Sere 6. 26 p.
Saucier, R. T. 1978. Sand dunes and related eolian features of the lower
Mississippi Valley. Geoscience and Man. 19:23-40.
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significance of late Quaternary terraces, Ouachita River, Arkansas and
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30:279-300.
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Louisiana. U.S. Dept. Agric., Soil Cons. Service.
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source. Soil Sci. 92:396-401.
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Mississippi-,Valley,.ddentification-of' the ,loess c· -
Amer. Proc. 12:389-399.
126
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(
TENTATIVE ITINERARY
FRIENDS OF THE PLEISTOCENE FIELD TRIP
APRIL 12, 13, 14, 1985
FrIday 12th
1/ C'
7:30-8:00: Assemble at LSU Agricultural Coliseum parking lot-
pick up guidebooks, etc.
8:00-9:00: Walk about 800-900 feet to southeast down Highland
Road to 1st site-remainder of time at site.
9:00-9:30 Drive (southeast) down Highland Road to LSU Avenue
(1st light). Turn left on LSU Ave. (LSU becomes
Stanford; then Stanford becomes Acad ian). Take 1-10
west off Acadian. Take 1-110 north off 1-10. Take
US Highway 61 North off 1-110 (end of 1-110). Site
is less than 10 miles north of end of 1-110 on right
side of road and is visible from highway.
9:30-10:30: At site.
10:30-11:30: Possible additional site nearby.
11;30-12:00: Return to 1-110 south and to Baton Rouge. Take Gov-
ernment Street exit and turn toward Mississippi River.
"0 to "Til Junction at levee and turn left to Catfish
Town.
12:00-12;45; Eat lunch at any of :several places in "Catfish Town".
12;115-1;00; Assemble in parking lot of Catfish Tovln.
e
1;00-2:15: Depart: Go back to Government Street. Take 1-110 south
exit off Government Street. Then take 1-10 west off
1-110. Continue to Lafayette, lao In lafayette take
(167) 1-49 north. Take Carencro exit off 1-49. Go
straight across intersection and continue north on
access road paralleling 1-49 and passing beside trailer
park. Turn right on Highway La. 726. At 1st 90 degree
cUrve to right in lao 726 go straight ahead instead
2:15-3:15:
of remaining on La. 726. Stay on this road to 1st side
road past where two houses (side by side) a r ~ under
construction on left. Turn left on that side road.
Site is about ~ - t mi Ie on left.
At site.

3:15-3:45:
3:45-4:45:
4:45-6:00:
6:00 pm:
7:15-7:30;
7:30 am;
8:30-9:30:
9:30-10:00;
Return to north s1de of Lafayette on 1-49. Take Gloria
Switch Road east to Moss St. Turn right on Moss St.
Take Moss St. to Butcher Switch Road east and turn left
on it. Stay on this road to Bayou St. Clair Rd. and
turn left on it. Go to "T" Junction and turn right.
Drive over 1-10 and take Ches Broussard Road to right.
Site is about h\--2 miles on right. (",""'l' b",ck
/V£,-ryl/l'\:, w
At site.
J{.A _ "fi-v f: >_
Return to Lafayette, Motels, etc.
Drinks (6:00)-Food (6:30)-Business Meeting (8:00)
Yare Build ng in Girard Park In Lafayette, La.
From Interstate 10 take US Highway 167 south to East
Ave.; turn left onto East University Ave.;
turn right onto West Taft (about 4th street to right);
Girard Park will be on your right in about 3 blocks
after turning onto West Taft.
Saturday 13th
Assemble in parking lot, La Quinta Motel, lafayette,
La.; located on US 167 north and about !-1 mile south
of Interstate 10.
Take US 167 (1-49) north. Take US 167 north, turnoff
from ,-49. Stay on US 167-the stop will require a
left turn off US 167 a short (miles) distance north
of the rather obvious e,carpment between the Prairie
and Intermediate (Montgomery) Terrace.
At sl teo
US 167 north to next site. This site is a right turn
off US 167 just before Meridian Fire Tower. (Lost
souls can wait at the tower and see the group return
from the site.)
"-0-<.../
10:00-11:00: At site.
11:00-11:45: US 167 north to Alexandria, La.
(71 bypass) through Alexandria.
turnoff.
Stay on US 167 bypass
Take Highway '28 east
11 :45-12:30: Luch at any of several "fast food" places on Highway
28 east.
Note: Some may wish to eat at one of several resaurants
along US 71 bypass (McArthur Drive). If so, they can
again assemble with the group at the point of departure.
12:30-12:t5: Assemble In Howard's Discount Store parking lot on
Highway 28 at east edge of Pineville, La. and across
street from McDonald's Restaurant.
12:45-1:45: Depart on Highway 28 east and continue to Highway 84
Junction. Take Highway 84 east (right turn) to Highway
124 (left turn-north to Harrisonburg). Take Highway
124 north to junction with Highway 8. Take Highway
east (right turn) to Highway 913 Junction. Turn left
on Highway 913. Go to Highway 915; turn left on High-
way 915. Site is on a gravel road to left off Highw2Y
915.
1:45-3:00:
3:00-3:30:
3:30-4:30:
4:30-5:30:
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i
.
7:15-7:30:
7:30-8:45:
8:45-9:30:
At site.
Return to Highway 915 and stay it (it becomes 916)
to intersection with Highway 8. Turn left on Highway
8 and drive to intersection with Highway 15. Turn left
on Highway 15. Site is on left side on Highway about
7 miles north of Sicily Island, La.
At site.
South on Highway 15 to US 65. Take US 65 south (right
turn) to Natchez. Shortly after crossing Mississippi
River the lead vehicle will turn right into a shopping
center and dri ve past an extens i ve exposure of u,n-
weathered Peoria loess. Some may wish to stop.
Note: Some may wish to drive a few mi les (less than
10) north of Natchez to view an excellent exposure of
a buried Paleosol developed in the Pre-Peoria loess.
The exposure is in a road cut for a highway (to be
constructed, but not finished). Turn right onto dirt
road and drive to 1st deep roadcut on your left.
There j.t is. "If' (;d-c-titoIA14/;tl. bc;l ......... C ..... lvTl.<Cr
:;:-,,\ tV'-I.:.( Ck"t: 2 c ..... f
Sunday 14th
Assemble at Ramada Inn Motel on south side of Highway
84 west and bluff overlooking Mississippi River.
Take Highways 84 and 65 west. Stay on Highway 65 to
junction with Highway 15. Turn left onto Highway 15
(15 North). Drive to intersection with 130
in Winnsboro, La. Turn left on Highway 130 then right
on Highway 618 in about 1 block. Take 618 to junction
with Highway 869. Turn right on Highway 869. Drive
two miles on Highway 869 and take road to right (in
a curve). Site is about 3/4 mile on left.
At site.
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