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The Cell and Transport Review Sheet Review the definitions of all the cells parts and their

functions and review the diagrams and structures in the Cell and Transport packet

1. The contributions of Matthias Schleiden, Theodor Schwann, and Rudolph to the cell theory Virchow. a. Schleiden- Discovered all plants are made up of cells b. Schwann- Discovered all living things are composed of cells c. Virchow- Discovered all cells are from cells just like it 2. Differences between Eukaryotic and Prokaryotic cells a. Eukaryotic- Nucleus, Endoplasmic Reticulum, Golgi Apparatus, Lysosomes, Vacuoles, Mitochondria, Cytoskeleton b. Both- Cytoplasm, Cell Membrane, Ribosomes, Cell Wall, DNA c. Prokaryotic- N/A 3. Parts of the Cell a. Nucleus- control center of the cell (contains DNA) b. Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum- Attached ribosome cause it to be rough the RER is used to package proteins for transport c. Ribosomes- Protein builder of the cell d. Nucleus- Assembles proteins for building e. Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum- Makes lipids and breaks down carbohydrates also detoxifies poisons f. Golgi- Stores and ships proteins

g. Lysosomes- Stomach of the cell helps break down waste of the cell h. Mitochondria- Power house of the cell (cellular respiration) i. Chloroplast- Found in all plant cells used to produce chlorophyll that is used for photosynthesis j. Centrioles- help in the process of cell division k. Cell Wall- Found in all plant and bacteria cells provide protection for the cell l. Flagella- Used by bacteria to move m. Cell Membrane- Found in a cells it is semi-permeable and is made of a phospholipid bilayer n. Cytoplasm- Jell like structure in the cell surrounding the other parts of the cell holding them in place most chemical reactions occur here o. Cytoskeleton- Provides structure for the cell and allows movement in and out of the cell 4. Ribosomes create proteins which are then packaged by Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum then the Golgi attaches carbohydrates and lipids to the protein to be stored and shipped out through the cell membrane 5. Passive Transport- transportation of matter from high concentration to low concentration until dynamic equilibrium is reached and does not require energy a. Simple Diffusion- transports O2 and CO2 b. Facilitated Diffusion-transports glucose into the cell through protein not the same as protein pump c. Osmosis- transports water which can move freely in and out of the cell

6. Active Transport- movement of matter from low concentration to high concentration requires energy a. Endocytosis- into the cell i.e. a white blood cell takes a bacteria onto a cell b. Exocytosis- out of the cell i.e. shipping of proteins out of the cell c. Protein Pump- pumps molecules in or out of the cell

7. Animal Cells in Solutions Molarity-amount of solute in the solution a. Hypertonic- the solution has less molarity than the cell causing the cell to shrink i.e. dehydration (not dehydration synthesis just dehydration) b. Isotonic- the solution has the same molarity as the cell therefore causing nothing to happen c. Hypotonic- the solution has more molarity than the cell causing the cell to swell and can lead to bursting i.e. giving to much water to a cell 8. Plant cells in Solutions a. Hypertonic- Turgor pressure causes the cell to become rigid causing the plant to stand up i.e. giving water to a plant and it standing up b. Hypotonic- Plasmolysis causes the cell to shrink i.e. when a plant is not watered it will begin to droop