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T H E U N I V E R S I T Y O F T U L S A

THE GRADUATE SCHOOL







NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF LAMINAR FLOW OF NON-NEWTONIAN
FLUIDS IN ECCENTRIC ANNULI





by
Yahya Hashemian Adariani






A thesis submitted in partial fulfillment of

the requirements for the degree of Master of Science

in the Discipline of Petroleum Engineering


The Graduate School

The University of Tulsa


2005

ii





T H E U N I V E R S I T Y O F T U L S A

THE GRADUATE SCHOOL






NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF LAMINAR FLOW
OF NON-NEWTONIAN FLUIDS IN ECCENTRIC ANNULI
by
Yahya Hashemian Adariani

A THESIS

APPROVED FOR THE DISCIPLINE OF

PETROLEUM ENGINEERING




By Thesis Committee


, Chair
Dr. Mengjiao Yu


Dr. Ramadan Ahmed


Dr. Siamack A. Sirazi


Dr. Stefan Miska
iii





ABSTRACT


Hashemian Adariani, Yahya (Master of Science in Petroleum Engineering)

Numerical Simulation of laminar Flow of non-Newtonian Fluids in Eccentric Annuli

Directed by Dr. Mengjiao Yu
(113 pp., Chapter 4)

(229 words)

Accurate predictions of annular frictional pressure loss are important for optimal
well bore hydraulic program design. Inaccurate prediction of frictional pressure drop in
the annulus can result in an underestimation of the bottom hole pressure, which might
then exceed the strength of the formation, thus causing loss of drilling fluid and creating a
potentially dangerous situation due to the resulting loss of hydrostatic head.
In this study fully developed laminar axial flow of non-Newtonian fluids in
eccentric annuli has been investigated numerically. Effects of eccentricity on frictional
pressure loss in annulus for different fluids are presented. Numerical results are compared
with previous studies. Numerical investigation based on SIMPLE algorithm by Patankar-
Spalding (1972)

has been presented for the case of Newtonian fluid flow in eccentric
annulus with inner pipe rotation.
Yield power-law rheology model is used as the constitutive equation of the flow.
Cartesian and boundary fitted coordinate system are utilized as two different approaches
to discretize the flow equations and generate mesh network. A minimum cut off value for
iv
the minimum shear rate is used to identify the plug (zero shear rate) region. Fluid flow
equations have been solved using an iterative successive over relaxation method.
Increasing eccentricity is found to lower frictional pressure drop for different
fluids. It was observed that for non-Newtonian fluids the effect of eccentricity on
pressure loss is less pronounced compared to Newtonian fluids.




































v





ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS





The author thanks Dr. Mengjiao Yu, dissertation advisor, for his continuous
patience and assistance in this endeavor.

My special thanks to Dr. Ramadan Ahmed for his help and valuable suggestions.

I am thankful to Dr. Siamack Shirazi and Dr. Stefan Miska for their help,
suggestions and encouragement.

My appreciation extends to National Iranian Oil Company for providing me with
financial support.


I also thank TUDRP students and all my friends for their constant encouragement
and support.

This work is dedicated to my parents.















vi





TABLE OF CONTENTS

Page

ABSTRACT...............................................................................................................iii

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS.......................................................................................v

TABLE OF CONTENTS...........................................................................................vi

LIST OF FIGURES ...................................................................................................viii

CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background ............................................................................................1
1.2 Significance of the Subject ....................................................................2
1.3 Contribution and Evaluation of This Study ........................................3
1.4 Scope of the Study ..................................................................................4

CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE REVIEW...............................................................5
2.1 Annular Flow of Newtonian Fluid .......................................................5
2.2 Concentric No-Rotation Non-Newtonian ............................................9
2.3 Eccentric No-Rotation Non-Newtonian ..............................................11
2.4 Newtonian Fluid Flow in Annulus with Inner Pipe Rotation............12
2.5 Concentric With Rotation Non-Newtonian .........................................13
2.6 Non-Newtonian Fluid Flow in Annulus with Inner Pipe Rotation....13

CHAPTER 3: ANNULAR FLOW IN ECCENTRIC ANNULUS .......................15
3.1 Annular Flow in Eccentric Annulus .....................................................15
3.1.1 Assumptions ..............................................................................16
3.1.2 Continuity Equation .................................................................16
3.1.3 Momentum Equation.................................................................17
3.1.4 Drilling Fluid Rheology............................................................18
General Model: .....................................................................19
3.1.5 Numerical Procedure ...............................................................20
3.1.6 Discretizing the Equation of Motion .......................................21
3.1.7 Solution Algorithm....................................................................23
3.1.8 Minimum Shear Rate.................................................................23
3.1.9 Convergence Criteria................................................................24
3.1.10 Flow Rate Calculations...........................................................25
3.1.11 Using Boundary Fitted Coordinate System............................25
3.1.12 Geometry Transformation.......................................................26
vii
3.1.13 Transformation of the Equations ............................................27
3.1.14 Discretization of the Equation of Motion................................28
3.1.15 Grid Refinement Analysis .......................................................29
3.1.16 Flow Rate Calculations...........................................................31
3.2 Newtonian Fluid Flow in Eccentric Annulus with Inner Pipe
Rotating.........................................................................................................32
3.2.1 Assumptions ..............................................................................33
3.2.2 Governing Equations ................................................................33
3.2.3 Boundary Conditions ................................................................34
3.2.4 Transformation of Equations ....................................................35
3.2.5 Numerical Procedure................................................................38
3.2.6 Discretization of Momentum and Continuity Equation............38
3.2.7 Pressure Correction Equation ..................................................42
3.2.8 Summary of SIMPLE Algorithm...............................................45

CHAPTER 4: RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS.................................................47
4.1 Newtonian Fluid.....................................................................................47
4.1.1 Results for Newtonian Fluid .....................................................47
4.1.2 Comparison of the Results for Newtonian................................49
4.2 Power-Law Fluid....................................................................................51
4.2.1 Results for Power-Law Fluid....................................................51
4.2.2 Comparison of the Results of Power-Law................................54
4.3 Results and Comparison for Yield Power-Law Fluid ........................53
4.4 Comparison with Experimental data of Ahmed
[1]
.............................56
4.5 Conclusions .............................................................................................58

REFFERENCES ........................................................................................................56

APPENDIX A............................................................................................................64
APPENDIX B............................................................................................................67
APPENDIX C............................................................................................................73
APPENDIX D............................................................................................................82
APPENDIX E ............................................................................................................91
APPENDIX F.............................................................................................................95












viii





LIST OF FIGURES


Page

1.1 Schematic of Drilling Operation.........................................................................2

2.1.1 Newtonian fluid in concentric annulus ............................................................6

2.1.2 Eccentric Annulus ............................................................................................6

2.1.3 Effects of eccentricity on frictional pressure loss for a Newtonian fluid with constant
rate using 7 . 1 . 2 . eq . [ Sec liter Q / 1 . 0 , Sec Pa. 00102 . 0 , m R
o
0889 . 0 ].....................9

3.1.1 Cartesian coordinate system.................................................................................17

3.1.2 Flow Curve for Different Fluids ...........................................................................19

3.1.3 Grid network in Cartesian coordinate with different grid sizes in x and y direction...21

3.1.4 Flow Rate Calculation at Grid Point i,j..................................................................25

3.1.5 Grid Network in Boundary Fitted Coordinate System............................................26

3.1.6 Geometry Transformation ....................................................................................27

3.1.7 Grid refinement in tangential direction (number of grids in radial direction=60).
Comparison of the value for volume flow rate of simulation with analytical solutions for
concentric annulus for a Newtonian (n=1) and a power-law (n=0.2) fluid. ........................30

3.1.8 Grid refinement in radial direction (number of grids in tangential direction=60).
Comparison of the value for volume flow rate of simulation with analytical solutions for
concentric annulus for a Newtonian (n=1) and a power-law (n=0.2) fluid. ........................31

ix
3.2.1 Boundary conditions for an eccentric annulus with rotating drill pipe............35

3.2.2 Staggered grid for velocity and pressure .........................................................39

3.2.3 Overall SIMPLE Algorithm .................................................................................46

4.1.1 Velocity profile of Newtonian fluid for concentric to fully eccentric annuli [ m OD 1778 . 0 ,
Sec m Q / 0001 . 0
3
, S Pa. 00102 . 0 ] ...........................................................................47

4.1.2 Velocity profile of Newtonian fluid for concentric and fully eccentric annuli
[ m OD 1778 . 0 , Sec m Q / 0001 . 0
3
, S Pa. 00102 . 0 ]..................................................48

4.1.3 Present study results for Newtonian fluid[ m OD 1778 . 0 , Sec m Q / 0001 . 0
3
,
S Pa. 00102 . 0 ]..........................................................................................................49

4.1.4 Eccentricity vs. error in pressure drop of the different studies compared with Piercy et al.
for a Newtonian fluid....................................................................................................50

4.2.1 Velocity profile of power-law fluid for concentric to fully eccentric annuli [ 5 . 0
o
i
R
R
,
Sec m Q / 006 . 0
3
,
n
S Pa K . 6 . 0 , 2 . 0 n ] .....................................................................51

4.2.2 Velocity profile of power-law fluid for concentric and fully eccentric annuli [ 5 . 0
o
i
R
R
,
Sec m Q / 006 . 0
3
,
n
S Pa K . 6 . 0 , 2 . 0 n ] .....................................................................52

4.2.3 Results for power-law fluid. [ 5 . 0
o
i
R
R
, Sec m Q / 006 . 0
3
,
n
S Pa K . 6 . 0 ] ............53

4.2.4 Results for power-law fluid. [ 5 . 0 n , Sec m Q / 006 . 0
3
,
n
S Pa K . 6 . 0 ]................54

x
4.2.5 Comparison of Re . f predictions with previous studies
[3,5]
for a power-law fluid with
[ 5 . 0
o
i
R
R
, Sec m Q / 006 . 0
3
,
n
S Pa K . 6 . 0 ].................................................................52

4.2.6 Comparison of Re . f predictions with previous studies
[3,5]
for a power-law fluid with
[ Sec m Q / 006 . 0
3
, 5 . 0 n ,
n
S Pa K . 6 . 0 ] .....................................................................53

4.3.1 Comparison of the present study with Haciislamoglu
[7]

[ inch OD 10 , inch ID 5 , Sec m Q / 012618 . 0
3
, 7 . 0 n , S Pa K . 25 . 0 , Pa
y
394 . 2 ] .....57

4.4.1 Comparison of the present study with experimental data of Ahmed
[1]

[ m OD 035052 . 0 , m ID 01745 . 0 , % 98 . 0 ty Eccentrici , 671 . 0 m ,
S Pa K . 2610958 . 0 , Pa
y
1 . 2 , m L 6576 . 3 ] ................................................................58

1





CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION


1.1 Background
During drilling operation of oil wells a fluid is pumped from a surface mud tank
down to the bottom of the well through drill pipe, through nozzles in the drill bit and then
back to the surface mud tank trough the annular space between the drill pipe and well
bore wall as shown in Fig.1.1. The drilling fluid has to satisfy several requirements such
as: supporting the well bore wall from collapsing, preventing formation fluid from
transferring to the well bore, cooling the drill bit, carrying cutting from bottom of the
well to the surface through annulus, etc.
The pump pressure is a function of pressure losses in surface equipment, in drill
pipe, across the bit nozzles, through the annulus, etc. Frictional pressure loss through
annulus is the main concern of this study.
Several factors can affect frictional pressure loss in annulus such as flow rate,
flow regime, mud rheology, well bore geometry, cuttings content, drill pipe rotation, drill
pipe lateral motion or swirling introduced by the rotation itself and/or fluid flow, etc. In
this study eccentricity is the main investigated issue along with rheology and drill pipe
rotation.
2



1.2 Significance of the Subject
In conventional drilling, frictional pressure loss accounts for about 10% of the
whole circulation pressure loss.
[15]

In slim hole configurations, annular frictional pressure loss can contribute 30-50%
of the total fluid circulation pressure loss and some investigators have reported it to be as
high as 90%.
[8]
Significant frictional pressure drop in the annulus can result in an increase of the
bottom hole pressure, which might then exceed the strength of the formation, thus
causing loss of drilling fluid and creating a potentially dangerous situation due to the
resulting loss of hydrostatic head.
[15]




Fig.1.1 Schematic of Drilling Operation
3
1.3 Contribution and Evaluation of This Study
In this study effect of eccentricity of drill pipe and rheology of drilling fluid on
frictional pressure drop in annuli for Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluid is investigated.
A computer program in FORTRAN is developed to perform calculations.
Results of the program are compared with the present works of Azouz
[3]
, Escudier
[4, 5]
,
Piercy
[17]
and Haciislamoglu
[7]
and found to be all in good agreement. Also, numerical
simulation for a Newtonian annular flow in eccentric annulus with a rotational drill pipe
is performed.

1.4 Scope of the Study
A short review of the past works related to this study is the content of Chapter 2.
This review has categorized the previous studies according to the type of the problem.
Chapter 3 is an investigation of laminar flow of Newtonian and non-Newtonian
fluids in eccentric annulus. In the first part of this chapter, drill pipe is considered to be
stationary and fluid is Newtonian or non-Newtonian. The second part of the chapter
considers the drill pipe to be rotating and fluid to be Newtonian only. In the first part of
the chapter, two approaches are used to solve the problem. For the first approach a
rectangular mesh system is used to solve discretized flow equations in Cartesian system.
In the second approach, on the other hand, a boundary fitted coordinate system is utilized
to apply numerical technique to equations. Flow equations as well as geometry are
transformed into this new system and then discretized. Similar solution procedures are
used to solve the equations in Cartesian and boundary fitted coordinate system. The last
part of Chapter 3 is related to flow of Newtonian fluid in eccentric annulus with a rotating
drill pipe. Navier-Stokes equations of motion and continuity in a rectangular coordinate
4
system are transformed into a computational plane in a boundary fitted coordinate
system. SIMPLE algorithm by Patankar-Spalding
[16]
is chosen to solve the equations.
In chapter 4 results of numerical simulation are presented and compared with
other studies. Results are related to Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluid flow in eccentric
annulus with stationary drill pipe. Results for the case when drill pipe is in motion are not
presented due to instability of the numerical procedure.



















5



CHAPTER 2

LITERATURE REVIEW


This chapter is a review of some the previous work about laminar annular flow.
Laminar annular flow is flow of a fluid in an annulus under laminar regime. In laminar
regime, fluid particles travel along well-ordered non-intersecting paths, or layers.
The determination of annular flow performance is important in the planning and
design of the hydraulic program for a well not only because of significant pressure losses
but also possible hole cleaning problems.
Laminar annular flow has been the subject of many investigations. With the
developments in computers and also computational fluid dynamics there is a high trend
of using numerical simulations.

2.1 Annular Flow of Newtonian Fluid
One of the first correlations for annular flow is given by Lamb (1932)
[12]
. In that
study, an equation is presented that correlates frictional pressure loss with flow rate in a
concentric annulus for a Newtonian fluid.
( )
1
1
1
]
1


1
2
2
2
1
2
2 4
1
4
2
ln
8
r
r
r r
r r
dl
dP
q

1 . 1 . 2 . eq
Where,

1
r : inner radius of the inner pipe
2
r : inner radius of the outer pipe
6
dl
dP
: pressure drop
: viscosity of the fluid
q : volumetric flow rate






Piercy et al. (1933)
[17]
presented an exact solution that correlates, frictional
pressure loss, flow rate and eccentricity. Considering Fig.2.21:

















Where,
o
R and
i
R are the outer and inner cylinder radii and c is the displacement of the
two centers. Momentum equation in the rectangular Cartesian coordinates for this case to
be solved is:
Fig.2.1.1 Newtonian fluid in concentric annulus
R
i

R
o

c
X
Y
Fig.2.1.2 Eccentric Annulus
7

,
_


2
2
2
2
0
y
v
x
v
z
P
z z
2 . 1 . 2 . eq
Where,
z
P

: pressure drop in axial direction


: fluid viscosity
z
v : fluid velocity in axial direction
Using below notation:
( )
2 2
y x k v
z
+ 3 . 1 . 2 . eq


The mathematical problem now becomes:
0
2
2
2
2

y x

4 . 1 . 2 . eq
subjected to the no-slip condition, ) (
2 2
y x k
w
+ on the solid boundaries, which is
Laplaces equation.
They obtained exact solution by mapping the cross section conformally onto a
region where Laplaces equation has a known solution. This technique is called complex
variable technique. By applying the transformation:
( )
,
_

+ + i M iz y
2
1
tan 5 . 1 . 2 . eq
where,
2
2
2 2 2
2
o
i o
R
c
c R R
M

,
_

+

z
P
k

4
1
: Where
8
the momentum equation ( 4 . 1 . 2 . eq ) in the ( ) , ??coordinate system will take the form:
0
2
2
2
2

6 . 1 . 2 . eq
Subject to:

, 0 1
cosh cosh
cosh 2
2

,
_

+
at M K
Solving 6 . 1 . 2 . eq :
( )
i o
n
n
i o
R R c for
n n
ne
M c
M c
R R
dl
dp
< <

,
_

+
0 ,
) sinh(
8
4
8
Q
1
) (
2 2
2 2
4 4


7 . 1 . 2 . eq
Where,
c
c R R
i o
2
F
2 2 2
+

2 2
o
R F M

,
_

M F
M F
ln
2
1

,
_

M c F
M c F
ln
2
1

9
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1.0
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1
Relative Eccentricity, [c/(Ro-Ri)]
d
P
/
d
L
(
E
c
c
e
n
.
/
C
o
n
c
e
n
.
)
Ri/Ro=0.8
Ri/Ro=0.5
Ri/Ro=0.2




As can be clearly seen from Fig.2.1.3, the eccentricity of the drill pipe can cause a
substantial decrease in frictional pressure loss.

2.2 Concentric No Rotation Non-Newtonian
Bird and Fredrickson (1958)
[6]
obtain analytical correlation between flow rate and
frictional loss for Power- law fluids.
( ) ( )
1
1
]
1


,
_

+
+
n
n
n
n n
n
o
L K
P
n
R
Q
1
1
2 2
1
1
1
1
2
1 1 3
1
2
3
1

1 . 2 . 2 . eq
Where,
K = fluid consistency index
Fig.2.1.3 Effects of eccentricity on frictional pressure loss for a Newtonian fluid with
constant flow rate using 7 . 1 . 2 . eq . [ Sec liter Q / 1 . 0 , Sec Pa. 00102 . 0 , m R
o
0889 . 0 ]
10
n = flow behavior index for power-law fluid
o
i
R
R

L
P

= pressure drop per unit length


And can be calculated from the following equation:

,
_

,
_

1
1
2
1
2

d d
n
n
2 . 2 . 2 . eq
In their paper, Bird and Fredrickson (1958)
[6]
also showed a correlation for
Bingham Plastic fluid flow in concentric annulus as follows:
( ) ( )( ) ( ) ( )
1
]
1

+ +

+ + + y y y y
p
o
K K K
L
P R
Q

3 3 2 4
2
2
3
1
1
3
4
1 2 1
8
3 . 2 . 2 . eq
Where,
K = fluid consistency index
p
= plastic viscosity
o
i
R
R

L
P

= pressure
y
= yield stress
And
+
can be calculated from the following:
( ) ( ) ( ) 0 1 2 1 ln 2
2
+ + +

+
+
+
+ +



y y
y
y
K
K
4 . 2 . 2 . eq
Bird and Fredrickson
[6]
solved 4 . 2 . 2 . eq numerically and presented the results in the
form of charts facilitating rapid application.
Skelland (1967)
[8]
presented another exact solution for Bingham plastic fluid as
follows:
11
( ) ( ) ( )( )
( ) ( )( ) ( )( )
( )( ) ( )( ) ( )
3 3 3 3 2 2 2 2
2 2 2 2
2
2 2
2 2 2 2
2
2 2 4 4 4 4
3 4 4
4 4 16
8 16
ln
2
16
2
i o
p
y y
o i
y
i o o i
y
i o
y
i o i o
i
o
p
i o
p
R R b a a b b a a b R R
R R R R R R b a a b
L
P
R R a b
L
P
R R
L
P
bR
aR
b a R R
L
P
Q
+ +
1
]
1
+ + +
+ + +

,
_

+ +


5 . 2 . 2 . eq
Where, a and b could be calculated by solving the following equations:
( )
( )( )

'

,
_

+ +

i
o
i o
a b
R R
L
P
y
bR
aR
R R a b
ab
a b
i o
ln
2
2 2
2 2
2 2

6 . 2 . 2 . eq
Hanks (1979)
[9]
presented analytical solution for yield power- law fluid. In that
study several charts are presented through computing theoretical solutions of the
equations of the motion for the concentric annular geometry using the Herschel-Bulkly
model. Using those charts to find some parameters and applying them to the equations,
one can compute volume flow rate through given pressure drop and also computing
pressure drop through given volume flow rate.

2.3 Eccentric No-Rotation Non-Newtonian
Haciislamoglu (1985)
[7]
and Azouz (1994)
[3]
used numerical simulation to solve
the governing equations of non-Newtonian fluid flow in eccentric annulus without pipe
rotation.
Nearly all of the analytical and numerical solutions for annular flow without pipe
rotation indicate that frictional pressure loss decreases with increasing eccentricity, at a
12
given flow rate. The reduction in pressure loss can be significant for instant can be in the
range of the pressure loss.

2.4 Newtonian Fluid Flow in Annulus with Inner Pipe Rotation
Yamada (1960)
[22]
described the experimental results for the resistance of water
flow through an annulus formed by two concentric cylinders, with the inner cylinder
rotating and the outer cylinder stationary. This study shows that when the flow is laminar,
the resistance of a flow is unaffected up to a certain rotational speed. But beyond this
speed the flow resistance increases as the Reynolds number increases.
Ooms et al. (1996)
[15]
performed numerical simulation of Newtonian fluids flow
in annulus to investigate effects of eccentricity and rotational speed of the inner pipe on
frictional pressure loss. Their study was more accurately followed by Escudier et al.
(1999)
[4]
. Theoretical and experimental study of Escudier et al.
[4]
suggested that in the
case of concentric annulus, rotation of the inner pipe does not influence frictional
pressure loss of the Newtonian fluids. However, in the case of eccentric annulus they
showed that when the inner pipe is rotating, for low eccentricities (less than 30%),
pressure drop remains approximately constant with increasing of eccentricity. For higher
eccentricities however, frictional pressure loss generally decreases with increasing of
eccentricity. Escudier et al.
[4]
also found that for a given radius ratio, as rotation speed of
the inner cylinder increases at any eccentricity, frictional pressure loss increases.

13
2.5 Concentric With Rotation Non-Newtonian
Pilehvari (1989)
[18]
studied laminar, helical flow of a power law fluid in a
concentric annulus with inner pipe rotation. He adopted the differential equations
developed by Direkes and Schowlter and solved them by using the finite element method.
The results of their study shows that drill pipe rotation, lowers the pressure drop at
constant flow rate. He also pointed out that this effect is likely to be offset by formation
of Taylor vortices which form at higher pipe rotations.

2.6 Non-Newtonian Fluid Flow in Annulus with Inner Pipe Rotation
Wei (1997)
[20]
adapted Luos
[13]
approach

to propose a new model of power law
fluids in eccentric annuli. They showed that drill pipe rotation can reduce annular
frictional pressure loss due to the shear-thinning effect. He mentioned that overall annular
frictional pressure loss is the combined results of shear thinning effects and pipe lateral
motion or axial vibration effect and in most cased, the latter is the dominant factor.
Hussain and Sharif (2000)
[11]
performed a numerical investigation of Herschel-
Bulkley fluids in concentric and eccentric annuli with rotating inner cylinder. In their
study, they used a finite volume algorithm with a nonstaggered grid system and a non-
orthogonal curvilinear coordinate system to handle irregular geometry of an eccentric
annulus to analyze the problem. They found an increase of the flow rate with increasing
eccentricity for a fixed axial pressure gradient and pipe rotation speed.
Escudier et al. (2001)
[5]
performed numerical calculations using a finite volume
method for the fully developed laminar flow of a shear-thinning power- law fluid through
an eccentric annulus with inner cylinder rotation. It is shown that in general, pressure
14
drop values for power- law fluids follow the trends observed by Escudier et al. (1999)
[4]

for Newtonian fluids, including an increase with rotation of the inner pipe, an increase
with eccentricity at low and very high eccentricities but a decrease for intermediate
eccentricities. They showed that a power- law fluid generally exhibits lower pressure drop
as compared with the Newtonian liquid.




































15





CHAPTER 3

ANNULAR FLOW IN ECCENTRIC ANNULUS


In this chapter laminar flow of Newtonian and non- Newtonian fluids through an
eccentric annulus is numerically simulated. In the first part of the chapter drill pipe is
considered to be stationary and fluid is Newtonian or non-Newtonian. In the second part
of this chapter inner pipe is rotating and fluid is Newtonian.

3.1 Annular Flow in Eccentric Annulus without Inner Pipe Rotating

To simulate fluid flow in an eccentric annulus when the drill pipe is stationary,
governing equations for flow in eccentric annulus are developed in the Cartesian
coordinate system. Yield Power Law model is used to represent the rheology of the fluid.
To solve the flow equations, two approaches are used. In the first approach a rectangular
mesh system is used to solve discretized flow equations in the Cartesian coordinate
system. In the second approach, on the other hand, a boundary fitted coordinate system is
utilized to apply numerical technique to equations.
In the first approach using a rectangular grid system, equations are discretized and
an iterative over relaxation method is used to solve for velocity field at each grid point
knowing frictional pressure loss in axial direction of the well bore. A relaxation technique
is used to speed up convergence of the solution. Calculation of relaxation factor is
presented and the treatment for the no shear region is discussed.
16
In the second approach similar solution procedure is used, but geometry as well as
equations are transformed into a computational domain in a boundary fitted coordinate
system.

3.1.1 Assumptions
1-Laminar and fully developed flow
2-Isothermal and steady state conditions
3-Flowing direction is in the annulus along the axial direction of the well bore.
4- Incompressible fluid
5- Flow domain is an eccentric annulus.
6- Drill pipe is stationary
7-No slippage at the walls

3.1.2 Continuity Equation
Navier-Stokes continuity equation for an isothermal laminar flow in Cartesian
coordinate system is:

,
_

z
v
y
v
x
v
z
v
y
v
x
v
t
z
y
x
z y x


1 . 1 . 3 . eq
Where, is the density of the fluid and
z y x
v v v , , are velocity components in
z y x , , directions respectively. Coordinate system is shown in Fig.3.1.1.
Since the fluid is incompressible, all the terms on the left hand side of eq.3.1.1 are
zero. The first two terms in parenthesis on the right hand side of the same equation are
zero since the flow is purely axial (i.e. no flow in x and y directions ). So, from 1 . 1 . 3 . eq :
17
0

z
v
z
2 . 1 . 3 . eq

Fig.3.1.1 Cartesian coordinate system


3.1.3 Momentum Equation
For axial laminar flow, the equation of motion will take the form (Appendix A):
z
P
y
w
y x
w
x

,
_

+
,
_

3 . 1 . 3 . eq
Where, w is the fluid velocity in z direction and is the viscosity that is a
function of shear rate. The viscosity function depends on the rheology of the fluid. The
shear rate for axial flow can be expressed as:
2 2

,
_

,
_

y
w
x
w
& 4 . 1 . 3 . eq
In order to solve the above equations, the following boundary conditions are
applied:
1-Velocit y at the drill pipe is zero
2- Velocity at the well-bore wall is zero.
X
Z
Y



F
l
o
w

D
i
r
e
c
t
i
o
n




F
l
o
w

D
i
r
e
c
t
i
o
n

18


3.1.4 Drilling Fluid Rheology
Flow behavior of a fluid can be described by a mathematical relationship between
shear stress and shear rate. Fluids are generally categorized as Newtonian and non-
Newtonian Fig.3.1.2. This classification is based on the relationship between shear rate
and shear stress. Drilling fluids are mostly non-Newtonian in character and almost
invariably shear thinning, and often exhibiting visco-elastic and thixotropic properties as
well as yield stress
[2]
.
Newtonian Model:

5 . 1 . 3 . eq
Bingham Plastic Model:

&
p y
+
6 . 1 . 3 . eq
Power Law Model:

'

<
>

Fluid tic Pseudoplas 1


Fluid Dilatant 1
n
n
K
n
&

7 . 1 . 3 . eq

Yield Power Law (Herschel-Bulkley) Model:
Pipe and annular flows of Yield Power-Law fluid is of great interests in drilling
applications. This model describes the rheological behavior of drilling muds more
accurately than Bingham Plastic and Power-Law models. The Yield Power-Law
rheological model for all time- independent fluids is given by:
n
y
K & +

8 . 1 . 3 . eq

Where:
19
= Shear Stress
y
= Yield Shear Stress
& = Shear Rate
K = Fluid Consistency Index
n = Flow Behavior Index
= Newtonian Viscosity
p
= Plastic Viscosity




Fig.3.1.2 Flow Curve for Different Fluids

General Model:

All the above models can be expressed by the Yield Power Law model as follows:

'





+
Fluid Law Power Yield n If
K Model Plastic Bingham n If
Model Law Power n If
K Model Newtonian n If
K
y
p y
y
y
n
y
1 , 0 :
) ( 1 , 0 :
1 , 0 :
) ( 1 , 0 :


& 9 . 1 . 3 . eq


Apparent Viscosity:

A non-Newtonian fluid does not have a constant viscosity like Newtonian. However, in
numerical modeling, the concept of viscosity is used for non-Newtonian fluids to make
the governing equations similar to Newtonian fluids. This viscosity is known as apparent
20
viscosity that is a function of shear rate and depends on the rheology of fluid. Apparent
viscosity is generally defined as:

&

app
. 10 . 1 . 3 . eq

For YPL fluids, the apparent viscosity will be:
1
+
n
y
app
K

&
&
11 . 1 . 3 . eq
From 3 . 1 . 3 . eq , 4 . 1 . 3 . eq and 11 . 1 . 3 . eq we can summarize:
z
P
y
w
y x
w
x
app app

1
]
1

+
1
]
1

12 . 1 . 3 . eq

Where,
app
and
&
are defined by 4 . 1 . 3 . eq and 11 . 1 . 3 . eq respectively.


3.1.5 Numerical Procedure
To solve the equation of motion ( 12 . 1 . 3 . eq ), a numerical method based on finite
difference technique is used. In order to apply this technique, the flow region is
subdivided into a grid network. Fig 3.1.3 shows the grid network in a Cartesian
coordinate system centered on the center of the drill pipe.
Since the grid points do not coincide exactly with the circular boundaries, some
interpolations are made near the boundaries. The more grid points we use, the more
accurate geometry will be achieved. Since the geometry is symmetrical around y axis, we
only need to obtain the numerical solution for half of the domain.
21

Fig.3.1.3 Grid network in Cartesian coordinate with different grid sizes in x and y direction


3.1.6 Discretizing the Equation of Motion

Equation of motion is a differential equation that can be approximated by a
discretized finite difference equation. A second-order central differencing scheme has
been used for all the grid points inside of the flow domain. This scheme establishes the
following system of algebraic equations:

,
_

+ + +
+ + +

+
+
+
+
+
z
P
W A W A W A W A
A A A A
W j i
n
j i
n
j i
n
j i
n
j i
n
1 ,
1
4
1 ,
3
, 1
1
2
, 1
1
4 3 2 1
,
1
1
13 . 1 . 3 . eq

22
Where, coefficients are calculated based on 10 . . B eq (Appendix B). In order to
speed up the rate of convergence an over relaxation factor is introduced to 1 . 6 . 3 . eq thus:
( )

,
_

+ + +

+ + +
+ + +
+
+
+
+
+
+
z
P
W A A A A
W A W A W A W A
A A A A
W W
j i
n
j i
n
j i
n
j i
n
j i
n
j i
n
j i
n
,
4 3 2 1
1 ,
1
4
1 ,
3
, 1
1
2
, 1
1
4 3 2 1
, ,
1


14 . 1 . 3 . eq

Where:
j i
n
W
,
1 +
: The value of the velocity field at node j i, at computational step (iteration) 1 + n
j i
n
W
,
: The value of the velocity field at node j i, at computational step (iteration) n
Where, is over relaxation factor and is calculated following Azouz
[3]
at each
grid point and it is shown in (Appendix D):

( )
( )

'

<
+ +

+

0 4
1 1
2
0 4
1 1
2
2
3
2
1
2
2
3
2
1
2

if
if
J
J
15 . 1 . 3 . eq
Where:

,
_

,
_

+
+
,
_

1
cos 4
1
cos 4
2
1
2
4
2
2
2
3
2
1
2 1
N M
J




app

1

app

2

x

3

23
y

4

Where, N M , are number of grid points in y x, direction. Details of calculations
can be found in Appendix D.

Discretizing viscosity equation in 11 . 1 . 3 . eq yields:
( )
1
,
,
,

+
n
j i
j i
y
j i
K

&
&
16 . 1 . 3 . eq
Where:

2
1 , 1 ,
2
, 1 , 1
,
2 2

,
_

,
_

+ +
y
W W
x
W W
j i j i j i j i
j i
& 17 . 1 . 3 . eq


3.1.7 Solution Algorithm
Three systems of algebraic equations are solved iteratively. First, discretized
velocity equation ( 14 . 1 . 3 . eq ) is solved at point j i, that is a point in the flow region. Then
viscosity equation ( 16 . 1 . 3 . eq , 17 . 1 . 3 . eq ) followed by relaxation factor calculation ( ) 15 . 1 . 3 . eq
is evaluated. Iterations continue until convergence is achieved. Having velocity field,
flow rate is calculated through numerical integration over the flow region.

3.1.8 Minimum Shear Rate
Visco-plastic fluids encounter a problem for small shear rate in the un-yielded
region while calculating the apparent viscosity. This is the most difficult aspect for
numerical modeling of fluids with yield stress. Azouz
[3]
used a minimum cut off value of
the shear rate. It is better to determine a cut off value corresponding to the conditions. It
24
was experienced that if the cut of value is too small or too big, sometimes we need too
many unnecessary iterations or we may encounter instability problem. The following
equations can be used for calculating cut off value of minimum shear rate:

'

,
_

Stress Yiel without Fluids for


Stress Yield with Fluids for
K
wall
n
y

&
&
8
1
8
min
10
10
18 . 1 . 3 . eq
where,
wall
& can be calculated from 24 . .B eq .Detailed derivations of the above equations
can be found in Appendix B.
Iteration begins with a relatively large value of cut off shear rate. When velocity
field reaches a convergence the cut off value must decrease and iterations continue with
the new cut off shear rate. This procedure continues until the smallest desired cut off
value is obtained. From then on, it will remain constant.

3.1.9 Convergence Criteria
When the values of velocity field do not change with more iteration and also
smallest calculated shear rate reaches the minimum desired shear rate, convergence is
achieved and calculations should be stopped.
Convergence of velocity is achieved when velocity field at new iterations is close
to the values of the previous iteration. This is defined by a relative value, called residual
of velocity:
25
( ) ( )
( )

max max
max max
1 1
,
1 1
, ,
j
j
i
i
j i
old
j
j
i
i
j i
old
j i
new
w
w w
Residual Velocity 19 . 1 . 3 . eq
If the velocity residual is small enough( )
7
10 . .

g e , convergence is achieved.

3.1.10 Flow Rate Calculations

Flow rate is integral of velocity times its associated area:
y x w A w wdA Q
j
j
i
i
j i
j
j
i
i
j i j i


max max max max
1 1
,
1 1
, ,
20 . 1 . 3 . eq


Fig.3.1.4 Flow Rate Calculation at Grid Point i,j

3.1.11 Using Boundary Fitted Coordinate System

One advantage the boundary fitted coordinate system compared to rectangular
coordinate system is its ability to conform to the boundaries of the system regardless of
i
i+1 i-1
j+1
j
j-1
y

x

j i
w
,

y x A
j i

,
26
the shape. In another word grid generated can fit itself into the boundary of the system as
shown in Fig.3.1.4. This feature increases the accuracy of the solution developed.
Doing the transformation, physical Cartesian coordinates (x,y) becomes the
dependent variables and the curvilinear coordinates ( , ) becomes the independent
variables. A generated grid is then defined as a set of points formed by the intersections
of the lines of a boundary conforming curvilinear coordinate system.





















Fig.3.1.5 Grid Network in Boundary Fitted Coordinate System


There is a uniform grid in this system in the sense that at each radius position the
angular width is constant and at each angular position, the radial width of the cells is also
constant.



x

y

e

i
R

o
R
) , ( ) , ( ) , ( j i y x
27
3.1.12 Geometry Transformation

Geometry and grids are transformed from Cartesian coordinate system to a
computational rectangular domain as shown in Fig3.1.5.

Fig.3.1.6 Geometry Transformation


An algebraic equation that can relate , to y x, can be given as 21 . 1 . 3 . eq , detailed
derivations can be found in Appendix E.

( )
( )( )
( )
( )
( )
( ) ( )
( )
( ) ( )
( )
( )( )
( )
( )
( )
( ) ( )
( )
( ) ( )
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
,
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
,
2
2 2
2 2 2

,
_

,
_

+
,
_

,
_

,
_

,
_

,
_

+
,
_

,
_

,
_



IM
i
Cos
IM
i
Cos
JM
j e
IM
i
Sin
JM
j e
JM
R
i
R
o
j JM
R
o
j i y
IM
i
Sin
IM
i
Cos
JM
j e
IM
i
Sin
JM
j e
JM
Ri Ro
j JM
R
o
j i x



21 . 1 . 3 . eq
Where:

JM j IM i < < < < 1 , 1
j i, : Grid points in tangential and radial direction respectively
IM, JM : Number of grid points in tangential and radial directions respectively.
x
P(i,j)

A
C
B
D
i
A(IM,JM)
B(IM,1) C(1,1)
D(1,JM)
P(i,j)
j
Y
28
e : Distance between the inner cylinder (drill pipe) and outer cylinder (well bore wall).

3.1.13 Transformation of the Equations

Equation of motion and apparent viscosity equation 12 . 1 . 3 . eq are numerically
transformed from a Cartesian system to a computational domain. According to 43 . .C eq
(Appendix C):
( ) ( )
z
P
J W W
J
W W
J
app app

,
_

,
_


22 . 1 . 3 . eq

Where:
1
+
n
y
app
K

&
&

( )

W W W W
J
2
1
2 2
2
+
&

2 2

x y +

x x y y +
2 2

x y +

y x y x J

Detailed derivations can be found in Appendix C.


3.1.14 Discretization of the Equation of Motion
The same way of discretizing as was used for the Cartesian coordinate system will
be used for the transformed equation:
29
0
10 1 , 1 9 1 , 1 8 , 1 7 1 , 6
1 , 1 5 , 1 4 1 , 3 1 , 1 2 , 1


+ + + +
+ +
A W A W A W A W A
W A W A W A W A W A
j i j i j i j i
j i j i j i j i j i

23 . 1 . 3 . eq

Where coefficients
10 1
A A can be found in 16 . .D eq (Appendix D) .
Solution algorithms will the same as well. Using relaxation factor:

+ + + +

'

+ + + + +
+ +
+
+ +
+
+

+
+
+
10
,
1
1 , 1
9
1 , 1
1
8
, 1
7
1 ,
6
1 , 1
5
, 1
1
4
1 ,
1
3
1 , 1
2
1
, ,
1
A W A W A W A W A W A
W A W A W A W A
A
W W
j i
n
j i
n
j i
n
j i
n
j i
n
j i
n
j i
n
j i
n
j i
n
j i
n
j i
n


24 . 1 . 3 . eq


3.1.15 Grid Refinement Analysis
A gird refinement analysis showed that using grid numbers more than 100 in
radial and in tangential direction does not result in a significant change in flow rate. In
order to check the results for different grid numbers, a concentric annulus was considered
and the results of the numerical simulation was compared with the results of analytical
solution for Newtonian and non-Newtonian as it is shown in 6 . 1 . 3 . Fig and 7 . 1 . 3 . Fig .


30
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
1.2
1.4
1.6
1.8
0 100 200 300 400
Number of Grids in Tangential Direction
%
E
r
r
o
r

i
n

f
l
o
w

r
a
t
e
(

c
o
m
p
a
r
e
d

w
i
t
h

a
n
a
l
y
t
i
c
a
l

s
o
l
u
t
i
o
n
s
)
n=1.0
n=0.5

Fig. 3.1.7 Grid refinement in tangentialdirection (number of grids in radial direction=60).
Comparison of the value for volume flow rate of simulation with analytical solutions for
concentric annulus for a Newtonian (n=1) and a power-law (n=0.2) fluid.


31
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
1.2
1.4
1.6
1.8
0 100 200 300 400
Number of Grids in Radial Direction
%
E
r
r
o
r

i
n

f
l
o
w

r
a
t
e
(

c
o
m
p
a
r
e
d

w
i
t
h

a
n
a
l
y
t
i
c
a
l

s
o
l
u
t
i
o
n
s
)
n=1.0
n=0.5

Fig. 3.1.8 Grid refinement in radial direction (number of grids in tangential direction=60).
Comparison of the value for volume flow rate of simulation with analytical solutions for
concentric annulus for a Newtonian (n=1) and a power-law (n=0.2) fluid.


3.1.16 Flow Rate Calculations
Flow rate is a integral of velocity times its associated area. From
46 . .F eq (Appendix F):

,
_


1
2
1
2
,
4
IM
i
JM
j
j i
AQBDPC
W
wdA Q 25 . 1 . 3 . eq
Where,
AQBDPC
is the flow area related to each grid point and is obtained as follows:

+ + AB O AQB O CD O CPD O CD O AB O AQBDPC
3 3 2 2 1 1

26 . 1 . 3 . eq

And terms on the right hand side can be evaluated as following:
32




( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
1 , 1 1 , 1 1 , 1 1 , 1 1 , 1 1 , 1 1
2
1
+ + + + + + + + + +

+
j i j i j i j i j i j i
x x y y y x AB O 27 . 1 . 3 . eq
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
1 , 1 1 , 1 1 , 1 1 , 1 1 , 1 1 , 1 1
2
1
+ + + +

+
j i j i j i j i j i j i
x x y y y x CD O 28 . 1 . 3 . eq
( )( )
( )
( )( )
( )

,
_

,
_

,
_

2
2
2
2
1
1
2
sin
1
1
2
1
JM
R
i
R
o
j JM
R
o
CD O
Arc
JM
R
i
R
o
j JM
R
o
CPD O 29 . 1 . 3 . eq
( ) ( )
( )
( )
( )
1 , 1 1 , 1 1 , 1 1 , 1 1 , 1 1 , 1 2
1
2
2
1
+ + + +

,
_


j i j i j i j i j i j i
x x y
JM
j e
y y x CD O 30 . 1 . 3 . eq
( )( )
( )
( ) ( ) ( )
( )

,
_

,
_

,
_

2
3
2
3
1
1
2
sin
1
1
2
1
JM
R
i
R
o
j JM
R
o
AB O
Arc
JM
R
i
R
o
j JM
R
o
AQB O 31 . 1 . 3 . eq
( ) ( )
( )
( )
1 , 1 1 , 1 1 , 1 1 , 1 1 , 1 1 , 1 3
1 2
1
+ + + + + + + + + +

,
_


j i j i j i j i j i j i
x x y
JM
j e
y y x AB O 32 . 1 . 3 . eq
Where, e JM IM j i , , , , are shown in Fig.3.1.5.

3.2 Newtonian Fluid Flow in Eccentric Annulus with Inner Pipe Rotating

The objective of this section is to investigate laminar Newtonian fluid flow in a
concentric annulus with inner pipe rotation. Navier-Stokes equations for laminar flow of
a Newtonian fluid in Cartesian coordinate system are considered. All the equations are
transformed to a computational domain in the boundary fitted coordinate system.
Geometry, on the other hand is transformed algebraically. Having equations and
33
geometry in the computational domain, SIMPLE algorithm (Patankar Spalding, 1972) is
applied to solve the equations.

3.2.1 Assumptions

1-Laminar and fully developed flow
2-Isothermal and steady state conditions
3-Flowing direction is in the annulus along the axial direction of the well bore.
4- Incompressible fluid
5- Flow domain is an eccentric annulus.
6- Drill pipe is rotating at a constant angular velocity
7-No slippage at the walls

3.2.2 Governing Equations
Considering Navier-Stokes equations in a Cartesian coordinate system for
Newtonian fluid, momentum equations in z y x , , will be:
( ) ( )
x
g
x
p
z
w
y
v
x
u
z
w u
y
v u
x
u
t
u
+

1
1
]
1

,
_

2
2
2
2
2
2 2
1 . 2 . 3 . eq
( ) ( )
y
g
y
p
z
w
y
v
x
u
z
w v
y
v
x
u v
t
v
+

1
1
]
1

,
_

2
2
2
2
2
2 2
2 . 2 . 3 . eq
( ) ( )
z
g
z
p
z
w
y
v
x
u
z
w
y
v w
x
u w
t
w
+

1
1
]
1

,
_

2
2
2
2
2
2 2
3 . 2 . 3 . eq
And Continuity equation is:
0

,
_

z
w
y
v
x
u
t

3 . 2 . 3 . eq
34
The first term on the left hand side of all the momentum equations is zero because
the flow is under steady state. Also on the right hand side of the same equations the last
term in the second parenthesis is zero due to flow is fully developed. Also the last term
on 1 . 2 . 3 . eq and 2 . 2 . 3 . eq is zero because there is not any gravity in x and y directions.
In continuity equation, the first term is also zero because of a steady state flow.
The last term on the left hand side of this equation is also zero because fluid is fully
developed.
Gravity in
y x,
directions is zero. Also we wish to eliminate gravity in
z
direction
in order to consider only frictional pressure loss so
4 . 2 . 3 21 . 3 . eq
will take the new form:
( ) ( )
x
p
y
v
x
u
z
w u
y
v u
x
u

1
1
]
1

,
_

2
2
2
2 2


5 . 2 . 3 . eq

( ) ( )
y
p
y
v
x
u
z
w v
y
v
x
u v

1
1
]
1

,
_

2
2
2
2 2


6 . 2 . 3 . eq

( ) ( )
z
P
y
v
x
u
z
w
y
v w
x
u w

1
1
]
1

,
_

2
2
2
2 2


7 . 2 . 3 . eq

0

y
v
x
u

8 . 2 . 3 . eq


3.2.3 Boundary Conditions

'



0
: ) (
0
: ) (
. .
w
Cos r v
Sin r u
boundary inner string drill the On
w v u
boundary outer wall bore well the On
Cs B


9 . 2 . 3 . eq

35

Fig.3.2.1 Boundary conditions for an eccentric annulus with rotating drill pipe

3.2.4 Transformation of Equations

Using boundary fitted coordinates flow equations can be transformed from the
real domain onto a computational domain.
According to Hoffman
[10]
:

y x y x
J

1

10 . 2 . 3 . eq

J
y
x



11 . 2 . 3 . eq

J
x
y


12 . 2 . 3 . eq
J
y
x


13 . 2 . 3 . eq
J
x
y


14 . 2 . 3 . eq
( )

y f y f J f
x
f
x

15 . 2 . 3 . eq


r

Cos r

Sin r


x
y
36
( )

y f x f x f J f
y
f
y

16 . 2 . 3 . eq
( )
( )( ) {
( )( )}



f y f y x y x y y x y
f x f x y y y y y y y J
f y f y y f y J
x
f
n
n
n
+
+ +
+ +

2 2
2 2 3
2 2 2
2
2
2
2
2
17 . 2 . 3 . eq
( )
( )( ) {
( )( )}



f y f y x x x x x x x
f x f x y x y x x y x J
f x f x x f x J
x
f
n
n
n
+ +
+ +
+

2 2
2 2 3
2 2 2
2
2
2
2
2
18 . 2 . 3 . eq
Applying 18 . 2 . 3 10 . 2 . 3 . eq to equations of motion and continuity, yields:
-momentum equation:
) 2 (
1
u e du cu bu au J + + +

( ) ( ) ( ) 0
1
2 1 4 3
2
2
2
1
+ + + + + +

p a p a uv a uv a u a u a
19 . 2 . 3 . eq

-momentum equation:
) 2 (
1
v e dv cv bv av J + + +

( ) ( ) ( ) 0
1
4 3
2
4
2
3 2 1
+ + + + + +

p a p a v a v a uv a uv a
20 . 2 . 3 . eq

Z -momentum equation:
) 2 (
1
w e dw cw bw aw J + + +

( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) 0
1
4 3 2 1

+ + + +
Z
P
J
vw a vw a uw a uw a

21 . 2 . 3 . eq
37


Continuity Equation:
0
4 3 2 1
+ + + +

v a v a u a u a

22 . 2 . 3 . eq
Where:
2 2

x y a +

y y x x b +
2 2

x y c +


y x y x
J

1


cx bx ax + 2

cy by ay + 2

( )

x y J d
23 . 2 . 3 . eqs
( )

y x J e
1

y a
1

y a
2

x a
3

x a
4



38

3.2.5 Numerical Procedure

This set of equations ( ) 2 . 22 . 3 19 . 2 . 3 . eqs exhibit a mixed elliptic-parabolic
behavior, and hence the standard relaxation technique which is widely used for those
types of equations is not particularly helpful.
To solve these kinds of equations, Patankar and Spalding (1972) proposed a
method called SIMPLE (Semi Implicit Pressure Linked Equation) algorithm. SIMPLE
algorithm is basically an iterative approach, where some innovative physical reasoning is
used to make the next iteration from the results of the previous iteration. The idea is to
start with discrete continuity equation and substitute into it the discrete u and v
momentum equations. Discrete momentum equations contain pressure differences hence
we can get an equation for the discrete pressures. SIMPLE algorithm actually solves for a
related quantity called the pressure correction.

3.2.6 Discretization of Momentum and Continuity Equation

Using ordinary discretization of equations in these types of equations may create a
checkerboarding problem as described by Patankar-Spalding
[15]
. A popular remedy for
checkerboarding is the use of a staggered mesh. The key feature here is to calculate
pressure and velocity at different grid points as shown in 2 . 2 . 3 . Fig .

39

Fig.3.2.2 Staggered grid for velocity and pressure


The original formulation of the SIMPLE method by Patankar and Spalding
involved a finite-volume approach. In this study, a finite-difference approach is used
which would essentially give the same results as obtained by finite-volume method. We
choose to use a forward or backward differencing for the grid points close to the walls.
For other points, central differencing with second order accuracy is used. The
computational domain is assumed to have equal spaces in , direction meaning:
1 .

-momentum equation after some arrangements will be:

( )
( ) ( ) [ ]
j i j i j i j i j i
P P a P P a
c a J
A U
, 2 , 2 , 2 , 1 2 , 1
2
1
+
+
+
+

24 . 2 . 3 . eq

Where:

( ) c a J
A
A
+

2
1
2

( ) j
( ) i

i,j
i, , j -1

i-1, j

j i
U
, 1
U
j i j i
W P
, ,
,
1 , j i
V

40

( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( )

,
_

+ + +
+

,
_
+ + +
+

+ +

+ + +
+ + +
+ + + + +
j i j i
j i j i j i j i j i j i
j i j i j i j i j i j i
j i j i j i j i j i j i
U V U V
a
U V U V
a
U U
a
U U
a
U U
e
U U
d
U U c
U U U U
b
U U a J A
, 3 , 1
1
2 , 1 2 , 1
3 2
2 , 1
2
2 , 1
2 2
, 3
2
, 1
1
, 3 , 1
1
2 , 1 2 , 1 2 , 1 2 , 1
2 , 3 2 , 3 2 , 1 2 , 1 , 3 , 1 1
2
2 2 2
2 2
2


And,

2
2
2
2
1 , 2 1 , 2
1 , 1 ,
1 , 1 , 2
1 , 1 , 2
+

+


+ +
+

j i j i
j i j i
j i j i
j i i i
V V
V
V V
V
V V
V
V V
V


-momentum equation:
( )
1
]
1

,
_

,
_

+
+ +

j i j i j i j i
j i
P P a P P a
c a J
B V ,
*
, 2
*
4
2 ,
*
,
*
3 2 1 ,
2
1

25 . 2 . 3 . eq


Where:



( ) b a J
B
B
+

2
1
2



( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( )
( )
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
2
1 , 2
2
1 , 2
4 2
3 ,
2
1 ,
3
3 , 1 ,
2
1 , 2 1 , 2
1
1 , 2 1 , 2
1
3 , 1 , 3 , 1 ,
3 , 2 3 , 3 2 , 2 1 , 2 1 , 2 1 , 2 1
2 2
2 2
2 2
2
+ +

+
+ + +
+ + + +
+
+

,
_

+
+

,
_
+ + +
+

+ +
j i j i j i j i
j i j i j i j i
j i j i j i j i j i j i
j i j i j i j i j i j i
V V
a
V V
a
V V V V
a
V V V V
a
V V
e
V V
d
V V c
V V V V
b
V V a J B

41

And,

2
2
2
2
2 , 1 2 , 1
, 1 , 1
2 , 1 , 1
2 , 1 , 1
+

+


+ +
+

j i j i
j i j i
j i j i
j i j i
U U
U
U U
U
U U
U
U U
U




z
-momentum equation:
2 ,
C W
j i
26 . 2 . 3 . eq


Where:
( ) c a J
C
C
+

2
1
2


( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( )

,
_

,
_

,
_

,
_

,
_

,
_
+ + +
+

+ +

+

+

+
+ + +
+ + + + +
z
p
J
W V W V
a
W V W V
a
W U W U
a
W U W U
a
W W
e
W W
d
W W c
W W W W
b
W W a J C
j i j i j i j i
j i j i j i j i
j i j i j i j i j i j i
j i j i j i j i j i j i

1 ~
2
~
2
2
~
2
2 2
2
, 2 , 2
4
2 , 2 ,
3
2 , 2 ,
2
1 , 2 1 , 2
1
, 2 , 2
1
2 , 2 , 2 , 2 ,
2 , 2 2 , 2 2 , 2 2 , 2 , 2 , 2 1



2
2
~
2 , 1 2 , 1
2 , 1 2 , 1
+

+ + +
+

j i j i
j i j i
U U
U
U U
U

2
2
2 , 1 2 , 1
2 , 1 2 , 1
+

+ + +

j i j i
j i j i
U U
U
U U
U

42
2
2
~
1 , 2 1 , 2
1 , 2 1 , 2
+

+ + +
+

j i j i
j i j i
U V
V
V V
V

2
2
1 , 2 1 , 2
1 , 2 1 , 2
+

+ + +

j i j i
j i j i
U V
V
V V
V


Continuity equation:

( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) 0
1 , 2 1 , 4 1 , 1 , 3 2 , 1 , 1 2 , 1 , 1 1
+ + +
+ + j i j i j i j i j i j i j i j i
V V a V V a U U a U U a 27 . 2 . 3 . eq

Where could be calculated from 23 . 2 . 3 . eqs .


3.2.7 Pressure Correction Equation

The primary idea behind SIMPLE is to create a discrete equation for pressure (or
alternatively, a related quantity called the pressure correction) from the discrete
continuity equation( ) 27 . 2 . 3 . eq . Since the continuity equation contains discrete face
velocities, we need some way to relate these discrete velocities to the discrete pressure
field. The SIMPLE algorithm uses the discrete momentum equations to derive this
connection. Let
* *
,V U and
*
W be the discreteU ,V andW fields resulting from a solution of
the discrete V U, andW momentum equations. Let
*
P represent the discrete pressure field
which is used in the solution of the momentum equations. Thus
1 , , 1
,
j i j i
V U and
j i
W
,
satisfy:

( )
1
]
1

,
_

,
_

+
+ + j i j i j i j i j i
P P a P P a
c a J
A U ,
*
2 ,
*
2
, 2
*
,
*
1
*
2
, 1
*
2
1

28 . 2 . 3 . eq
( )
1
]
1

,
_

,
_

+
+ + j i j i j i j i j i
P P a P P a
c a J
B V ,
*
, 2
*
4
2 ,
*
,
*
3
*
2
1 ,
*
2
1

29 . 2 . 3 . eq
43
2
*
,
*
C W
j i
30 . 2 . 3 . eq

( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) 0
1 , 2 1 , 4 1 , 1 , 3 2 , 1 , 1 2 , 1 , 1 1
+ + +
+ + j i j i j i j i j i j i j i j i
V V a V V a U U a U U a 31 . 2 . 3 . eq



If the pressure field
*
P is only a guess or a prevailing iterate, the discrete
* *
,V U and
*
W obtained by solving the momentum equations will not, in general, satisfy the
discrete continuity equation( ) 31 . 2 . 3 . eq . A correction is proposed to the starred velocity
field such that the corrected values satisfy continuity equation:
U U U +
*
32 . 2 . 3 . eq
V V V +
*
33 . 2 . 3 . eq
W W W +
*
34 . 2 . 3 . eq

Correspondingly, we wish to correct the existing pressure field
*
p with
P P P +
*
35 . 2 . 3 . eq

Subtracting 26 . 2 . 3 24 . 2 . 3 . eqs , from 30 . 2 . 3 28 . 2 . 3 . eqs , we obtain:
( )
( ) ( ) [ ]
j i j i j i j i j i
P P a P P a
c a J
A U
, 2 , 2 , 2 , 1 2 , 1
2
1
+
+
+
+

36 . 2 . 3 . eq
( )
( ) ( ) [ ]
j i j i j i j i j i
P P a P P a
c a J
B V
, , 2 4 2 , , 3 2 1 ,
2
1
+
+
+
+

37 . 2 . 3 . eq
2 ,
C W
j i
38 . 2 . 3 . eq



We now make the main simplification of SIMPLE algorithm by doing following
approximation:
44
0
0
0
2
2
2



C
B
A
39 . 2 . 3 . eqs


So, 38 . 2 . 3 36 . 2 . 3 . eqs will take the form

( )
( ) ( ) [ ]
( )
( ) ( ) [ ]
0
2
1
2
1
,
, , 2 4 2 , , 3 1 ,
, 2 , 2 , 2 , 1 , 1

+
+

+
+

+
+
j i
j i j i j i j i j i
j i j i j i j i j i
W
P P a P P a
c a J
V
P P a P P a
c a J
U

40 . 2 . 3 . eqs



We now consider the discrete continuity equation. The starred velocities
* *
, V U
obtained by solving the momentum equations using the prevailing pressure field
*
P do
not satisfy the discrete continuity equation. Thus substituting 33 . 2 . 3 . 32 . 2 . 3 . eq and eq into
continuity equation:

0
1 , 2
1 , 2
*
1 ,
1 ,
*
4 1 ,
1 ,
*
1 ,
1 ,
*
3
2 , 1
2 , 1
*
, 1
, 1
*
2 , 1
, 1
*
, 1
, 1
*
1

1
]
1

,
_

,
_

+ +
1
]
1

,
_

,
_

+ +
1
]
1

,
_

,
_

+ +
1
]
1

,
_

,
_

+
+

+
+
+
+
j i
j i
j i
j i
j i
j i
j i
j i
j i
j i
j i
j i
j i
j i
j i
j i
V V V V a V V V V a
U U U U a U U U U a


41 . 2 . 3 . eq


Now substituting 37 . 2 . 3 . 30 . 2 . 3 . eq and eq into 41 . 2 . 3 . eq , after some arrangements it
yields:



45
( ) ( ) ( ) [ ]
2 , 2 , 4 2 , 2 2 , 2 3 , 2 , 2 2
1
,
1
+ + + +
+ + + + +
j i j i j i j i j i j i j i
P P f P P f P P f
f
P 42 . 2 . 3 . eq

( ) ( ) ( )
( ) c a J
a a a a a a a a a a a
f
+
+ + +

1
4 3 4 3 4 2 2 1 2 2 1
1
2
2 2 2 2 2



( )
( ) c a J
a a a a a a
f
+
+

1
2
4 4 3 2 1 1
2
2


( ) c a J
a a a a
f
+
+

1
4 3 2 1
3
2


( )
( ) c a J
a a a a a a
f
+
+ +

1
4 3
2
3 2 1 2
4
2





3.2.8 Summary of SIMPLE Algorithm

The overall procedure for the SIMPLE algorithm is the following and shown
in 3 . 2 . 3 . Fig :
1. Guess the pressure and velocity fields
* * * *
, , , W V U P .
2. Discretize and solve the momentum equations 30 . 2 . 3 28 . 2 . 3 . eqs to obtain new
* * *
, , W V U fields.
3. Discretize and solve the pressure correction equation 42 . 2 . 3 . eq , and obtain the
P field.
4. Correct the pressure field using 35 . 2 . 3 . eq and the velocities
using 3.2.33 - 2.32 . 3 eq. . The corrected velocity field satisfies the discrete continuity
equation exactly.
5. If the solution is converged, stop. Else go to step 2.
46







Fig.3.2.3 Overall SIMPLE Algorithm


Correct pressure and velocities
32 . 2 . 3 .
*
eq U U U +
33 . 2 . 3 .
*
eq V V V +
35 . 2 . 3 .
*
eq P P P +
Solve pressure correction equation
( ) ( ) ( ) [ ] 42 . 2 . 3 .
1
2 , 2 , 4 2 , 2 2 , 2 3 , 2 , 2 2
1
,
eq P P f P P f P P f
f
P
j i j i j i j i j i j i j i + + + +
+ + + + +

START
STOP
Convergence ?
Initial guess p*, u*, v*
Solve discritized momentum equations
( )
28 . 2 . 3 . ,
*
2 ,
*
2
, 2
*
,
*
1
*
2 , 1
*
2
1
eq j i j i j i j i j i
P P a P P a
c a J
A U
1
]
1

,
_

,
_

+
+ +

( )
29 . 2 . 3 . ,
*
, 2
*
4
2 ,
*
,
*
3
*
2 1 ,
*
2
1
eq j i j i j i j i j i
P P a P P a
c a J
B V
1
]
1

,
_

,
_

+
+ +


2
*
,
*
C W j i 30 . 2 . 3 . eq
Yes
No
Set:
U U
*

V V
*

W W
*

P P
*

47





CHAPTER 4

RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS


4.1 Newtonian Fluid

4.1.1 Results for Newtonian Fluid
As eccentricity increases, frictional pressure drop decreases. This value could be
about 50% less than the pressure drop of a concentric annulus with the same flow rate.
When the annulus becomes eccentric, one side of annuls is wider than the other side.
Since fluid always tends to bulge through the wider area, most of the fluid flows through
the wider area of the annulus (as shown in Fig.4.1.1), where there is less restriction. In
other words the portion of the fluid that is taking the highest restriction of the geometry is
less than the portion under lower restriction. Figure.4.1.3 shows the results of the
simulation for Newtonian fluid in eccentric annuli.












Fig.4.1.1 Velocity profile of Newtonian fluid for concentric to fully eccentric annuli
[ m OD 1778 . 0 , Sec m Q / 0001 . 0
3
, S Pa. 00102 . 0 ]
48





































Fig.4.1.2 Velocity profile of Newtonian fluid for concentric and fully eccentric annuli
[ m OD 1778 . 0 , Sec m Q / 0001 . 0
3
, S Pa. 00102 . 0 ]




49
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1.0
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2
Eccentricity
P
r
e
s
s
.
D
r
o
p
(
E
c
c
e
n
t
r
i
c
/
C
o
n
c
e
n
t
r
i
c
)
(Ri/Ro)=0.8
(Ri/Ro)=0.5
(Ri/Ro)=0.2


Fig.4.1.3 Present study results for Newtonian fluid [ m OD 1778 . 0 , Sec m Q / 0001 . 0
3
,
S Pa. 00102 . 0 ]


4.1.2 Comparison of the Results for Newtonian

Figure 4.1.4 shows the comparison of the present and past studies with the
analytical solution of Piercy et al.
[17]
. All the cases can predict quite reasonable results.
Considering the trend of the error for different studies, in the study of Azouz
[3]
error
seems to be quite constant for different eccentricities. However this is quite different for
the other two studies where with increasing of the eccentricity, error decreases. Since the
error can be generate from different sources, one can not explain the reason of these
discrepancies.
50
Present Study
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2
Eccentricity
E
r
r
o
r
%
Ri/Ro=0.8
Ri/Ro=0.5
Ri/Ro=0.2
Escudier et al.
0.00
0.10
0.20
0.30
0.40
0.50
0.60
0.70
0.80
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2
Eccentricity
E
r
r
o
r
%
Ri/Ro=0.8
Ri/Ro=0.5
Ri/Ro=0.2
Azouz




Fig.4.1.4 Eccentricity vs. error in pressure drop of the different studies compared with
Piercy et al. for a Newtonian fluid




51
4.2 Power-Law Fluid

4.2.1 Results for Power-Law Fluid
As it is shown in figures 4.2.1-4.2.4, the same trend that was observed for
Newtonian fluids can be found for the power-law fluid as well. It seems that for power-
law fluids the effect of eccentricity on pressure loss is less pronounced compared to
Newtonian fluids. As fluids become more shear thinning (decreasing n), their velocity
profiles in the wide and narrow parts of the annulus becomes flatter; thus increasing their
overall viscosity. Consequently, these fluids are subject to less reduction in frictional
pressure losses in eccentric annulus.











Fig.4.2.1 Velocity profile of power-law fluid for concentric to fully eccentric annuli [ 5 . 0
o
i
R
R
,
Sec m Q / 006 . 0
3
,
n
S Pa K . 6 . 0 , 2 . 0 n ]





52



Fig.4.2.2 Velocity profile of power-law fluid for concentric and fully eccentric annuli [ 5 . 0
o
i
R
R
,
Sec m Q / 006 . 0
3
,
n
S Pa K . 6 . 0 , 2 . 0 n ]




53
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2
Eccentricity
P
r
e
s
s
.
D
r
o
p
(
E
c
c
e
n
t
r
i
c
/
C
o
n
c
e
n
t
r
i
c
)
n=0.2
n=0.5
n=0.8

Figure 4.2.3-Results for power-law fluid. [ 5 . 0
o
i
R
R
, Sec m Q / 006 . 0
3
,
n
S Pa K . 6 . 0 ]




54
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2
Eccentricity
P
r
e
s
s
.
D
r
o
p
(
E
c
c
e
n
t
r
i
c
/
C
o
n
c
e
n
t
r
i
c
)
Ri/Ro=0.2
Ri/Ro=0.5
Ri/Ro=0.8

Figure 4.2.4-Results for power-law fluid. [ 5 . 0 n , Sec m Q / 006 . 0
3
,
n
S Pa K . 6 . 0 ]


4.2.1 Comparison of Results of Power-Law

The dimensionless parameter, friction factor Reynolds number ( ) Re . . . f e i is used
for comparison of the present work with previous studies where, Re . f can be written as:
( ) ( )
z
P
K
R R
Q
R R
f
n
i o
n
i o

,
_



+1 2 2
2
Re .

.
Comparison of the different results (as figures 4.2.5-4.2.6) show that they are all
in good agreements and the different is less than 1%.
55
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1
Eccentricty
f
.
R
e
Escudier et al.
Azouz
Present Study
n=0.8
n=0.5
n=0.2
Ri/Ro=0.5

Figure 4.2.5 Comparison of Re . f predictions with previous studies
[3,5]
for a power-law fluid
with [ 5 . 0
o
i
R
R
, Sec m Q / 006 . 0
3
,
n
S Pa K . 6 . 0 ]

56
3.5
4
4.5
5
5.5
6
6.5
7
7.5
8
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1
Eccentricty
f
.
R
e
Escudier et al.
Azouz
Present Study
Ri/Ro=0.2
Ri/Ro=0.5
Ri/Ro=0.8
n=0.5

Figure 4.2.6 Comparison of Re . f predictions with previous studies
[3,5]
for a power-law fluid
with [ Sec m Q / 006 . 0
3
, 5 . 0 n ,
n
S Pa K . 6 . 0 ]



4.3 Results and Comparison for Yield Power- Law Fluid

Like power- law and Newtonian fluids, the same trend is observed for yield
power- law fluid. For the following case (Fig. 4.3.1), reduction in frictional pressure loss
for eccentric annulus compared to concentric case is 40%. A comparison between the
results of this study with Haciislamoglu
[7]
for this case shows a good agreement between
the two studies and the differences is less than 2%.






57
0.6
0.65
0.7
0.75
0.8
0.85
0.9
0.95
1
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1
Eccentricity
P
r
e
s
s
.
D
r
o
p
(
E
c
c
e
n
t
r
i
c
.
/
C
o
n
c
e
n
t
r
i
c
)
Present Study
Haciislamoglu


Figure 4.3.1 Comparison of the present study with Haciislamoglu
[7]
.
[ inch OD 10 , inch ID 5 , Sec m Q / 012618 . 0
3
, 7 . 0 n , S Pa K . 25 . 0 , Pa
y
394 . 2 ]



4.4 Comparison with Experimental data of Ahmed
[1]


Following is a comparison between the experimental results of Ahmed
[1]
for
bentonite in a fully eccentric annulus. The difference between the results was
considerably high and up about 15%. This discrepancy can be due to the time
dependency of some of bentonite or the reason could be transition to turbulent flow.
58
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
0 5 10 15 20 25
Q[GPM]
P
r
e
s
s
u
r
e

D
r
o
p
[
i
n
c
h

o
f

w
a
t
e
r
]
Experimental Data
Present Study


Figure 4.4.1 Comparison of the present study with experimental data of
Ahmed
[1]
[ m OD 035052 . 0 , m ID 01745 . 0 , % 98 . 0 ty Eccentrici , 671 . 0 m ,
S Pa K . 2610958 . 0 , Pa
y
1 . 2 , m L 6576 . 3 ].



Note: Extensive numerical simulation using the program indicates that the
numerical procedure used in this study is not able to accurately predict the flow rate for
fluids with yield stress when the plug region is relatively large.


4.5 Conclusions

For a given flow rate increasing eccentricity of the inner pipe decreases the
pressure drop in annuli;
59
Pressure loss reduction due to eccentricity for highly shear thinning ( ) 2 . 0 n
non-Newtonian fluids is approximately 30%, while for Newtonian fluids can
be as high as 50%;
The reduction of pressure loss due to eccentricity, is more significant at higher
radius ratios

,
_

1 . .
o
i
R
R
e i ;
Using Cartesian grid networks simplifies the equation of motion and
numerical procedure, however at the same time less accuracy was observed;
Due to complexity of the pipe rotation case, it is recommended to do more
simplification to find the source of instability.



























60





REFFEERENCES


[1] Ahmed, R. Experimental Study and Modeling of Yield Power-Law Fluid Flow in
Pipes and Annuli. The University of Tulsa, Drilling Research Projects, Advisory Board
Meeting, May 23-24, 2005, Tulsa, Oklahoma

[2] Alderman, N.J., Ram, B.D., Hughes, T.L., Maitland, G.C. The rheological properties
of oil well drilling Fluids. In: Proc. Xth Int. Cong. Rheology, Sydney, 1988, pp. 140-
142.

[3] Azouz, I . Numerical Simulation of Laminar and Turbulent Flows of Wellbore
Fluids in Annular Passages of Arbitrary Cross-Section. 1994 Drilling Research Projects,
Ph.D. Dissertation.

[4]Escudier, M .P , Gouldson, I.W., Oliveira, P.J., Pinho, F.T. Effects of Inner Rotation
on Laminar Flow of a Newtonian Fluid trough an Eccentric Annuli. .International
Journal of Heat and Fluid Flow 21 (1999) 92-103

[5]Escudier, M .P , Oliveira, P.J., Pinho, F.T. Fully Developed Laminar Flow Of
Purely Viscous Non-Newtonian Liquids Through Annuli, Including Of Eccentricity And
Inner-Cylinder Rotation. Heat and Fluid Flow 23(2001) 52-73
61

[6] Fredrickson, A. G., Bird, R.B.: Non-Newtonian Flow in Annuli, Ind. And Chem.,
Vol. 50, March 1958,pp.347-352.

[7] Haciislamoglu, M. Non-Newtonian Fluid Flow in Eccentric Annuli and Its
Application to Petroleum Engineering Problems. Dec. 1989.

[8] Haige et al., Experimental Study of Slim Hole Annular Pressure loss and Its Field
Applications. SPE Paper No.59265

[9]Hanks, W.R., The Axial Laminar Flow of Yield-Pseudoplastic Fluids in a Concentric
Annulus. Ind. Eng. Chem. Process Des. Dev., Vol. 18, No. 3, 1979


[10]Hoffmann, K.A. Computational Fluid Dynamics for Engineers. Vol.1, 1993

[11]Hussain, Q.E. Sharif, M.A.R. Analysis of Yield-Power- Law Fluid in Irregular
Eccentric Annuli. Journal of Energy Resources Technology 120 (1998) 201-207

[12]Lamb, H., 1945, Hydrodynamics, 6th edn., Dover Publications, New York, pp. 585-
587.

62
[13] Luo, Y., Peden J. Flow of Drilling Fluids Through Eccentric Annuli, SPE 16692,
62nd Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Dallas, September 1987.

[14]Miska, S.Z. Advanced Drilling, Teaching Note, University of Tulsa, 2004.

[15]Ooms, G., Kampman-Reinhartz, B.E.,1996. Influence of drill pipe rotation and
eccentricity on pressure drop over borehole during drilling. Eur. J. Mech. B 15 (5), 695-
711.

[16]Patankar, S.V., 1980. Numerical Heat Transfer and Fluid Flow Hemisphere,
Bristol, PA, pp. 1-197.

[17]Piercy, N.A.V., Hooper, M.S., Winny, H.F. 1933. Viscous flow through pipes with
core. London Edinburgh Dublin Phil. Mag. J. Sci., 15 647-676.

[18]Pilehvari, A.: Modeling of Laminar Helical Flow of A Power-Law Fluid Using the
Finite Element Method, Technical Report, The University of Tulsa, 1989.

[19]Skelland, A. H. P. Non-Newtonian Flow and Heat Transfer, 1967, John Wiley &
Sons, Inc. New York.

[20]Wei, X., Miska S.Z., Takach N.E. The Effect Of Drill Pipe Rotation On Annular
Frictional Pressure Loss.
63

[21]Welty, J. R., Wicks, C. E. and Wilson, R. E., Fundamentals of Momentum, Heat &
Mass Transfer, New York, John Wiley & Sons, (1976).

[22]Yamada Resistance of a flow through an Annulus with an Inner Rotating Cylinder
Bulletin of JSME. May, 1960.



































64





APPENDIX A


EQUATION OF MOTION IN CARTESIAN COORDINATES FOR LAMINAR
FLOW OF NON-NEWTONIAN FLUID IN ANNULUS














1 . . A eq



Flow
Direction
65


Since the flow is purely axial (i.e. no flow in x and y directions), only z component of
equation of motion is needed.
{
{
) ( 0
) ( 0
0
0 ) ( 0
considered not is Gravity
z
zz
yz
xz
Continuity
z
v
z
z
v
z
y
v
z
x
Flow State Steady
z
g
z y x z
p
z
v
v
y
v
v
x
v
v
t
v
z
y
x

,
_

,
_

3 2 1
3 2 1
3 2 1

2 . . A eq



In 2 . . A eq , the last term
z
g will be eliminated, because we only want to investigate frictional
pressure loss.
Therefore 2 . . A eq will take the form:
z
p
z y x
zz yz xz

,
_

3 . . A eq

ij
is shear stress acting on plane i in direction of j and is expressed as (Welty, 1976
[21]
):

,
_

,
_

,
_


z
v
z
v
y
v
z
v
x
v
x
v
z z
zz
z
y
yz
x z
xz



4 . . A eq
66
Because flow is only in one direction, 0
y x
v v and also from continuity equation, 0

z
v
z

3 . .A eqs
will take the form:
0


zz
z
yz
z
xz
y
v
x
v



5 . . A eq
Now substituting, 5 . .A eq into 3 . .A eq :
z
p
y
v
y x
v
x
z z

,
_

,
_

6 . . A eq
Denoting: w v
z
, 6 . . A eq will be:
z
p
y
W
y x
W
x

,
_

+
,
_

7 . . A eq











67





APPENDIX B


DISCRETIZING EQUATION OF MOTION IN CARTESIAN COORDINATES
FOR LAMINAR FLOW OF NON-NEWTONIAN FLUID IN ANNULUS


Recalling equation of motion( ) AppendixA , A.7 eq. :
0

,
_

+
,
_

z
P
y
w
y x
w
x
1 . . B eq
The above finite differential equation can be app be approximated by a difference
equation. Beginning with the first term:
j i j i j i
x
W
x
W
x
W
x
,
2
1
,
2
1
, +

,
_


,
_


,
_

2 . .B eq
Also we can say:
2
, , 1
,
2
1
j i j i
j i

+
+
3 . . B eq
2
, , 1
,
2
1
j i j i
j i

4 . .B eq
Now, using a second-order central differencing:
x
w w
x
W
j i j i
j i


,
_

+
+
, , 1
,
2
1
5 . .B eq
x
W W
x
W j i j i
j i


,
_

, 1 ,
,
2
1
6 . .B eq
Substituting 6 . 3 . . B B eqs into 2 . .B eq yields:
68
( )
( )( ) ( )( ) [ ]
j i j i j i j i j i j i j i j i
j i
W W W W
x
x
W
x
, 1 , , , 1 , , 1 , , 1
2
,
2
1
+ +
+ +


,
_

7 . . B eq
Similarly for y derivative in 2 . .B eq :
( )
( )( ) ( )( ) [ ]
1 , , , 1 , , 1 , , 1 ,
2
,
2
1
+ +
+ +

,
_

j i j i j i j i j i j i j i j i
j i
W W W W
y
y
W
y
8 . . B eq
Substituting equation 7 . . B eq and 8 . . B eq into 1 . . B eq :
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
0
2
1
2
1 , ,
, 1 ,
2
, 1 ,
, 1 ,
2
, 1 ,
, , 1
2
, , 1
, , 1

,
_

+ +

+
+

+
+
z
P
y
W W
y
W W
x
W W
x
W W
j i j i
j i j i
j i j i
j i j i
j i j i
j i j i
j i j i
j i j i



9 . .B eq

The above equation can be rearranges as:
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
0
2 2
2 2
2 2 2 2
2
, 1 ,
1 ,
2
, 1 ,
1 ,
2
, , 1
, 1
2
, , 1
, 1
2
, 1 ,
2
, 1 ,
2
, , 1
2
, , 1
,

,
_

+
+

,
_

+
+

,
_

+
+

,
_

+
+

,
_

+
+

+
+

+
+

+
+

+
+
+ +
z
P
y
W
y
W
x
W
x
W
y y x x
W
j i j i
j i
j i j i
j i
j i j i
j i
j i j i
j i
j i j i j i j i j i j i j i j i
j i




10 . .B eq

Or:
( ) 0
1 , 1 1 , 1 , 1 1 , 1 1 4 3 2 1 ,

+ + + + + + +
+ +
z
P
W A W A W A W A A A A A W
j i j i j i j i j i
11 . . B eq
Where:
( )
2
, , 1
1
2 x
A
j i j i

+


( )
2
, , 1
2
2 x
A
j i j i




( )
2
, 1 ,
3
2 y
A
j i j i

+


( )
2
, 1 ,
4
2 y
A
j i j i




69
Rearranging 11 . . B eq :

,
_

+ + +
+ + +

+
+
+
+
+
z
P
W A W A W A W A
A A A A
W j i
n
j i
n
j i
n
j i
n
j i
n
1 ,
1
4
1 ,
3
, 1
1
2
, 1
1
4 3 2 1
,
1
1
12 . . B eq
Where 1 , + n n are the old and the new computational steps (iterations)
respectively.
To apply relaxation factor to 12 . .B eq , first we add
j i
n
j i
n
W W
, ,
to the right hand side of that
equation:

,
_

+ + +
+ + +
+
+
+
+
+
+
z
P
W A W A W A W A
A A A A
W W W j i
n
j i
n
j i
n
j i
n
j i
n
j i
n
j i
n
1 ,
1
4
1 ,
3
, 1
1
2
, 1
1
4 3 2 1
, , ,
1
1
13 . . B eq
Moving
j i
n
W
,
into the parenthesis in 13 . . B eq yields:
( )

,
_

+ + +

+ + +
+ + +
+
+
+
+
+
+
z
P
W A A A A
W A W A W A W A
A A A A
W W
j i
n
j i
n
j i
n
j i
n
j i
n
j i
n
j i
n
,
4 3 2 1
1 ,
1
4
1 ,
3
, 1
1
2
, 1
1
4 3 2 1
, ,
1
1

14 . .B eq

Equation 14 . B can be represented as:
Residual
, ,
1
+
+
j i
n
j i
n
W W 15 . .B eq
Where:
( )

,
_

+ + +

+ + +
+ + +

+
+
+
+
z
P
W A A A A
W A W A W A W A
A A A A
j i
n
j i
n
j i
n
j i
n
j i
n
,
4 3 2 1
1 ,
1
4
1 ,
3
, 1
1
2
, 1
1
4 3 2 1
1
Residual

16 . .B eq

Residual in 15 . .B eq will decrease as we approach the solution. And when the
convergence is achieved, value of residual will reach very close to zero. Based on this fact we can
increase/decrease rate of convergence by multiplying residual by an over/under relaxation factor
shown by . As a result, 14 . . B eq will take the form:
70
( )

,
_

+ + +

+ + +
+ + +
+
+
+
+
+
+
z
P
W A A A A
W A W A W A W A
A A A A
W W
j i
n
j i
n
j i
n
j i
n
j i
n
j i
n
j i
n
,
4 3 2 1
1 ,
1
4
1 ,
3
, 1
1
2
, 1
1
4 3 2 1
, ,
1


17 . .B eq


Minimum Shear Rate Calculation

Recalling YPL Rheology model equation:
n
y
K & + 18 . .B eq
In the plug region, shear rate is very small. There for the contribution of the second term
on the right hand side of 18 . .B eq is negligible compared to
y
.Denoting the shear rate in the plug
region by
min
& , we get:
y
n
K <<
min
& 19 . .B eq
Or,
y
n
K <<
min
& 20 . .B eq
As a reasonable estimation, in 19 . .B eq can be approximated by
8
10 . Therefore,
19 . .B eq takes the form :
n
y
K
min
8
10 & 21 . .B eq
Or,
n
y
K
1
8
min
10

,
_


& 22 . .B eq
Equation 22 . B can not be used for fluids without yield stress, because the value will be
zero. So a new cut off value has to be defined. For fluids with zero yield stress, wall shear rate
can be used as a value to estimate the cut off value. As a reasonable approximation:
wall
& &
8
min
10

23 . .B eq
71
Where,
wall
& is in the order of average wall shear rate for annular flow and can be
calculated as:
h
wall
D
V 8
& 24 . .B eq
Where, V is mean velocity in annulus and
h
D is hydraulic diameter for a concentric
annulus and can be expressed as:
( )
i o h
R R D 2
25 . .B eq

Where,
o
R is well bore radius and
i
R is outer radius of drill pipe. To calculateV , narrow
slot approximation solution can be used. Referring to Miska
[14]
for fluids with constant density
the relationship between shear stress and pressure gradient
l
p

in a rectangular slot is:

,
_


l
p
y
26 . .B eq Where, y is a vertical distance from the center of the rectangular slot. If h is the
height of the slot, at the wall
2
h
y and then:

,
_


l
p h
w
2
27 . .B eq
Mean velocity is calculated as:
( )
( )
2 2
1
2
2
2 1 2 1
2
1
i o
y w
n
n
y w
w
R R
n
n
n
n
K
wh
V
n

,
_

+
+
,
_

28 . .B eq
Where,
w
can be calculated from 27 . .B eq .
In conclusion cut off value for shear rate can be defined as:
72

'

,
_

Stress Yield with Fluids for


K
Stress Yield without Fluids for
n
y
wall
1
8
8
min
10
10

&
& 28 . .B eq
Where,
wall
& can be calculated from 24 . .B eq


























73






APPENDIX C

TRANSFORMATION OF EQUATION OF MOTION FROM CARTESIAN
COORDINATES TO A BOUNDARY FITTED COORDINATE SYSTEM


Considering A.7 eq. ( ) AppendixA :
z
P
y
W
y x
W
x
app app

1
]
1

+
1
]
1



1 . .C eq

Where:
2 2
1

,
_

,
_

+

y
w
x
w
K
n
y
app

&
&
&

There has to be a corresponding relationship between each point in y x , coordinate to
boundary fitted( ) , system therefore,
( )
( )
( )
( ) y x
y x
y y
x x
,
,
,
,




2 . .C eqs

x
f
x
f
x
f

3 . .C eq
y
f
y y
f

4 . . C eq
Now 1 . .C eq can be written as:
74
z
P
x
F
x
F

2 1

5 . .C eq

Where:
x
W
F
app


1

6 . . C eq

y
W
F
app


2

7 . . C eq
Applying the same procedure as in 3 . .C eqs to 5 . .C eqs :
z
P
y
F
y
F
x
F
x
F

2 2 1 1
8 . .C eq
Defining J as:
x y y x
J



9 . . C eq
And multiplying 8 . .C eq by
J
1
, yields:

,
_

,
_

z
P
J y
F
y
F
x
F
x
F
J
1 1
2 2 1 1

10 . .C eq
According to chain rule:

,
_

+
,
_

,
_

+
,
_

,
_

,
_

y J
F
x J
F
y J
F
x J
F
F
y J
F
x J
F
y J
F
x J
y J
F
x J
F
y J
F
x J
F

1 1 1 1
1 1 1 1
2 1 2 1
2 1 2 1
2 1 2 1

11 . .C eq

Equation 11 . .C eq can be rearranged as:
75
1
1
]
1

,
_

+
,
_

,
_

+
,
_

1
1
]
1

,
_

,
_

y J
F
x J
F
y J
F
x J
F
y J
F
x J
F
y J
F
x J
F
F
y J
F
x J
F
y J
F
x J

1 1 1 1
1 1 1 1
2 1 2 1
2 1 2 1
2 1 2 1

12 . .C eq

At this point we need to derive the following equations. According to the partial
differential rules:
1
]
1

1
]
1

1
]
1

+
+
dy
dx
d
d
dy dx d
dy dx d
y x
y x
y x
y x



13 . .C eq
And similarly:

1
]
1

1
1
]
1

1
]
1

+
+







d
d
y y
x x
dy
dx
d y d y dy
d x d x dx
14 . .C eq
From 13 . .C eq and 14 . .C eq :

1
1
]
1

1
1
]
1

1
]
1

1
]
1

1
1
]
1

1
]
1

1
]
1

1
1
]
1



y y
x x
dy
dx
d
d
y y
x x
C eq
dy
dx
d
d
C eq
y x
y x y x
y x
1
1
14 . .
13 . .


1
1
]
1

1
]
1





y y
x x
x x
y y
x y y x
1


1
1
]
1

1
1
1
1
1
]
1

y y
x x
x y y x
x
x y y x
x
x y y x
y
x y y x
y
15 . .C eq
Applying definition of J in 9 . . C eq into 15 . .C eq :

1
]
1

1
1
1
1
]
1





y y
x x
J J
J J
x x
y y
15 . .C eq
76
Equation 15 . C can be written as:

x J
y J
x J
y J x
y
x
y





16 . .C eqs

Consider the second bracket of the right hand side of 12 . .C eq :
1
1
]
1

,
_

,
_

+
1
]
1

,
_

+
,
_

y J y J
F
x J x J
F

1 1 1 1
2 1
17 . .C eq
Now plugging 16 . .C eqs into it 17 . .C eq yields:
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) [ ] [ ] 0
2 1 2 1
+ +
1
]
1

+
1
]
1



x x F y y F x x F y y F 18 . .C eq
Therefore 12 . .C eq reduces to:
1
1
]
1

,
_

,
_

1
]
1

y J
F
x J
F
y J
F
x J
F
F
y
F
x
F
y
F
x J

2 1 2 1
2 1 2 1
1

19 . .C eq

Plugging 19 . .C eq into 18 . .C eq , yields:
z
P
J y J
F
x J
F
y J
F
x J
F

,
_

,
_


1
2 1 2 1


20 . .C eq
Now we need to write all derivatives in 20 . .C eq in terms of , only. So we need to
convert
x

,
y

,
x

,
y

into derivatives with respect to , .


Recalling form 2 . .C eqs :
( ) , x x
( ) , y y
( ) y x,
77
( ) y x,
According to chain rule:
1
]
1

1
]
1

1
]
1



d
d
y y
x x
dy
dx
d
y
d
y
dy
d
x
d
x
dx

1
]
1

1
]
1

1
]
1



d
d
y y
x x
dy
dx
1
21 . .C eq
And similarly:
1
]
1

1
]
1

1
]
1

dy
dx
d
d
dy
y
dx
x
d
dy
y
dx
x
d
y x
y x

22 . .C eq
From 21 . .C eq and 22 . .C eq we deduce:
1
1
]
1

1
]
1





y y
x x
y x
y x
23 . .C eq
Extending 23 . .C eq results:
1
1
1
1
]
1

1
]
1

1
]
1






y x y x
x
y x y x
y
y x y x
x
y x y x
y
x y
x y
y x y x y x
y x
1
24 . .C eq
And also 24 . .C eq in an extend form can be written as:

y x y x
x
y x y x
y
y x y x
x
y x y x
y
y
x
y
x


25 . .C eqs

Jacobean is defined as:

y x y x J 26 . .C eq
78
Utilizing 26 . .C eq we can write 25 . .C eqs as:
J
x
J
y
J
x
J
y
y
x
y
x


27 . .C eqs

Utilizing 27 . .C eq into 3 . .C eq and 4 . . C eq :
( ) J y f y f
x
f
x
f
x
f
/

28 . .C eq
( ) J x f x f
x
f
y
f
y
f
/

29 . .C eq
From 28 . .C eq and 29 . .C eq we can obtain a new form for 6 . . C eq , 7 . . C eq as:
( ) J y W y W
x
W
F
app app
/
1

29 . .C eq
( ) J x W x W
y
W
F
app app
/
2

30 . .C eq
Now plugging values for
2 1
, F F from 29 . .C eq and 30 . .C eq into 20 . .C eq :
z
P
J J
x W x W
y J J
y W y W
x J
J
x W x W
y J J
y W y W
x J
app app
app app

,
_

,
_

,
_

,
_

,
_

,
_

1 1 1
1 1


31 . .C eq

Utilizing 16 . .C eqs , 31 . C will be:
z
P
J J
x W x W
x
J
y W y W
y
J
x W x W
x
J
y W y W
y
app app
app app

,
_

,
_


32 . .C eq

79
Comparing 27 . .C eqs and 16 . .C eqs we can say:

y x y x
J
J

1
33 . .C eq
Utilizing 33 . .C eq in 32 . .C eq :
z
P
J
J
x W x W
x
J
y W y W
y
J
x W x W
x
J
y W y W
y
app app
app app

,
_

,
_

34 . .C eq
Rearranging 34 . .C eq :
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
z
P
J x x y y y W
J
x y W
J
x x y y W
J
x y W
J
app
app app
app app

,
_

+ +

,
_

+ +

2 2
2 2

35 . .C eq

Using following notations:
2 2
2 2


x y
x x y y
x y
+
+
+

36 . .C eqs

Equation 35 . .C eq will take the form:
( ) ( )
z
P
J W W
J
W W
J
app app

,
_

,
_

36 . .C eq
In 36 . .C eq we need to the transformation for
app
as well. Recalling
app
from 1 . .C eq
1
+
n
y
app
K

&
&

2 2

,
_

,
_

y
w
x
w
&
In order to transfer
app
, we need to transform & . According to 28 . .C eq and 29 . .C eq
80
J
y W y W
x
W

37 . .C eq
J
x W x W
y
W

38 . .C eq
Substituting 37 . .C eq and 38 . .C eq into & , we get:
( )

x x W W x W x W y y W W y W y W
J y
W
x
W
2 2
1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
2
2
2
+ + +

,
_

+
,
_

39 . .C eq
Rearranging 39 . .C eq :
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )

y y x x W W y x W y x W
J
y
W
x
W
+ + + +

,
_

+
,
_

2
1 2 2 2 2 2 2
2
2 2
40 . .C eq
Utilizing notations form 36 . .C eqs into 40 . .C eq :
( )

W W W W
J y
W
x
W
2
1
2 2
2
2 2
+

,
_

+
,
_

41 . .C eq
Now plugging 41 . .C eq into 1 . .C eq :
1
+
n y
app
K

&
&

Where:
( )

W W W W
J
2
1
2 2
2
+
&
42 . .C eq
So from 36 . .C eq and 42 . .C eq :
( ) ( )
z
P
J W W
J
W W
J
app app

,
_

,
_

43 . .C eq
Where:
1
+
n y
app
K

&
&

81
( )

W W W W
J
2
1
2 2
2
+
&

2 2

x y +

x x y y +
2 2

x y +

y x y x J


















82





APPENDIX D


DESCRITIZATION OF THE TRANSFORMED EQUATION OF MOTION




Recalling 43 . .C eq (Appendix C):
( ) ( )
z
P
J W W
J
W W
J
app app

,
_

,
_

1 . . D eq
Where:
1
+
n y
app
K

&
&

2 . . D eq

( )

W W W W
J
2
1
2 2
2
+
&
3 . . D eq



y x y x J
x y
x x y y
x y

+
+
+
2 2
2 2

4 . . D eq

Assuming:
1 5 . . D eq
The first term of the left hand side of 1 . . D eq can be approximated by a finite difference
equation at a point j i, as:
j i
app
j i
app
j i
app W
J
W
J
W
J
,
2
1
,
2
1
, +

,
_

,
_

,
_

6 . . D eq
83
Each term on the right hand side of 6 . . D eq can be extended to:

,
_

,
_

,
_

,
_

+ + j i
app
j i
app
j i
app
J J J
, , 1 ,
2
1 2
1
7 . . D eq
and

,
_

,
_

,
_

,
_

+ j i
app
j i
app
j i
app
J J J
, 1 , ,
2
1 2
1
8 . . D eq
In 6 . . D eq :
j i j i
j i
W W
W
, , 1
,
2
1

,
_

+
+

9 . . D eq
And also
j i j i
j i
W W
W
, 1 ,
,
2
1

+

,
_

10 . .D eq
Therefore:
( )
( )

,
_

,
_

,
_

'

,
_

,
_

,
_

,
_

+
+
j i j i
j i
app
j i
app
j i j i
j i
app
j i
app
j i
app
W W
J J
W W
J J
W
J
, 1 ,
, 1 ,
, , 1
, , 1 ,
2
1


11 . . D eq

Similar to 11 . . D eq , derivative in 1 . . D eq can be approximated as:
( )
( )

,
_

,
_

,
_

'

,
_

,
_

,
_

,
_

+
+
1 , ,
1 , ,
, 1 ,
, 1 , ,
2
1
j i j i
j i
app
j i
app
j i j i
j i
app
j i
app
j i
app
W W
J J
W W
J J
W
J


12 . . D eq

For the mixed derivation at node (i,j), we have:
84
( ) ( )

,
_

,
_

'

,
_

,
_

,
_

,
_

+ + +
+
1 , 1 1 , 1
, 1
.
1 , 1 1 , 1
, 1
.
,
.
4
1
j i j i
j i
j i j i
j i j i
W W
J
W W
J
W
J

13 . .D eq
( ) ( )

,
_

'

,
_

,
_

+ +
+
1 , 1 , 1
1 ,
, 1 1 , 1
1 , ,
1 1
4
1
j i j i
j i
app
j i j i
j i
app
j i
app
W W
J
W W
J
W
J


14 . . D eq
Plugging 14 . 11 . . D D eqs into 1 . .D eq :
z
P
J
W
J
W
J
W
J
W
J
app app app app

,
_

,
_

,
_

,
_


( )
( )
( ) ( ) +

,
_

'

,
_

,
_

,
_

,
_

'

,
_

,
_

,
_

+ + +
+

+
+
1 , 1 1 , 1
, 1
1 , 1 1 , 1
, 1
, 1 ,
, 1 ,
, , 1
, , 1
2
1
2
1
j i j i
j i
app
j i j i
j i
app
j i j i
j i
app
j i
app
j i j i
j i
app
j i
app
W W
J
W W
J
W W
J J
W W
J J




( )
( )
( ) ( )
z
P
J W W
J
W W
J
W W
J J
W W
J J
j i j i j i
j i
app
j i j i
j i
app
j i j i
j i
app
j i
app
j i j i
j i
app
j i
app

,
_

'

,
_

,
_

,
_

,
_

'

,
_

,
_

,
_

+ +
+

+
+
, 1 , 1 , 1
1 ,
, 1 1 , 1
1 ,
1 , ,
1 , ,
, 1 ,
, 1 ,
1 1
4
1
2
1




15 . . D eq

After some arrangements:
( )

,
_

,
_

,
_

,
_

,
_

,
_

'

,
_

,
_


,
_

+
+
1 , , , 1 ,
, 1 , , , 1
,
2
1
j i
app
j i
app
j i
app
j i
app
j i
app
j i
app
j i
app
j i
app
j i
J J J J
J J J J
W



85
( )

'

,
_

,
_


,
_

+
+
1 , , 1
1 , 1
4
1
j i
app
j i
app
j i
J J
W


( )

'

,
_

,
_


,
_

1 , ,
1 ,
2
1
j i
app
j i
app
j i
J J
W


( )

'

,
_

,
_


,
_

j i
app
j i
app
j i
J J
W
, 1 ,
, 1
2
1


( )

'

,
_

,
_


,
_

+
+
1 , , 1
1 , 1
4
1
j i
app
j i
app
j i
J J
W


( )

'

,
_

,
_


,
_

+
+
j i
app
j i
app
j i
J J
W
, 1 ,
1 ,
2
1


( )

'

,
_

,
_


,
_

+
+
j i
app
j i
app
j i
J J
W
, , 1
, 1
2
1


( )

'

,
_

,
_

,
_



1 , , 1
1 , 1
4
1
j i
app
j i
app
j i
J J
W


( ) 0
4
1
,
1 , , 1
1 , 1

'

,
_

,
_

,
_

+ +
+ +
z
P
J
J J
W
j i
j i
app
j i
app
j i

16 . .D eq
Rearrangement and multiplying two sides of 16 . . D eq by (-1):
( )

,
_

,
_

,
_

,
_

,
_

'

,
_

,
_

,
_

,
_

,
_

+
+
1 , 1 ,
, 1 , 1 , ,
,
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
j i
app
j i
app
j i
app
j i
app
j i
app
j i
app
j i
J J
J J J J
W



( )

'

,
_

,
_

,
_

+
+
1 , , 1
1 , 1
4
1
j i
app
j i
app
j i
J J
W


86
( )

'

,
_

,
_

,
_

1 , ,
1 ,
2
1
j i
app
j i
app
j i
J J
W


( )

'

,
_

,
_

,
_

j i
app
j i
app
j i
J J
W
, 1 ,
, 1
2
1


( )

'

,
_

,
_

,
_

+
+
1 , , 1
1 , 1
2
1
j i
app
j i
app
j i
J J
W


( )

'

,
_

,
_

,
_

+
+
j i
app
j i
app
j i
J J
W
, 1 ,
1 ,
2
1


( )

'

,
_

,
_

,
_

+
+
j i
app
j i
app
j i
J J
W
, , 1
, 1
2
1


( )

'

,
_

,
_

,
_



1 , , 1
1 , 1
4
1
j i
app
j i
app
j i
J J
W


( ) 0
4
1
,
1 , , 1
1 , 1

'

,
_

,
_

,
_

+ +
+ +
z
P
J
J J
W
j i
j i
app
j i
app
j i

16 . .D eq
Denoting
10
1
A A
:
0
10 1 , 1 9 1 , 1 8 , 1 7 1 , 6
1 , 1 5 , 1 4 1 , 3 1 , 1 2 , 1


+ + + +
+ +
A W A W A W A W A
W A W A W A W A W A
j i j i j i j i
j i j i j i j i j i
16 . .D eq
Where:
1 , 1 ,
, 1 , 1 , ,
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
+
+

,
_

,
_

,
_

,
_

,
_

,
_

j i
app
j i
app
j i
app
j i
app
j i
app
j i
app
J J
J J J J
A


'

,
_

,
_

+ 1 , , 1
2
4
1
j i
app
j i
app
J J
A


87

'

,
_

,
_

1 , ,
3
2
1
j i
app
j i
app
J J
A

'

,
_

,
_

j i
app
j i
app
J J
A
, 1 ,
4
2
1

'

,
_

,
_

+ 1 , , 1
5
4
1
j i
app
j i
app
J J
A

'

,
_

,
_

+ j i
app
j i
app
J J
A
, 1 ,
6
2
1

'

,
_

,
_

+ j i
app
j i
app
J J
A
, , 1
7
2
1

'

,
_

,
_

1 , , 1
8
4
1
j i
app
j i
app
J J
A

'

,
_

,
_

+ + 1 , , 1
9
4
1
j i
app
j i
app
J J
A


z
P
J A
j i


, 10

Applying Relaxation Factor:
Adding
j i j i
W W
, ,
to the right hand side of 16 . .D eq :
{
}
10 1 , 1 9 1 , 1 8 , 1 7 1 , 6
1 , 1 5 , 1 4 1 , 3 1 , 1 2
1
, , ,
1
A W A W A W A W A
W A W A W A W A
A
W W W
j i j i j i j i
j i j i j i j i j i j i j i
+ + + + +
+ + + +
+ + + +
+ +
17 . .D eq
Now
j i
W
,
taking into the braces:
88
{
}
10 , 1 1 , 1 9 1 , 1 8 , 1 7 1 , 6
1 , 1 5 , 1 4 1 , 3 1 , 1 2
1
, ,
1
A W A W A W A W A W A
W A W A W A W A
A
W W
j i j i j i j i j i
j i j i j i j i j i j i
+ + + + +
+ + + +
+ + + +
+ +
18 . .D eq
Now using relaxation factor we will have:
{
}
10 , 1 1 , 1 9 1 , 1 8 , 1 7 1 , 6
1 , 1 5 , 1 4 1 , 3 1 , 1 2
1
, ,
A W A W A W A W A W A
W A W A W A W A
A
W W
j i j i j i j i j i
j i j i j i j i j i j i
+ + + + +
+ + + +
+ + + +
+ +

19 . .D eq
Calculating Relaxation Factor
Following Azouz
[3]
:
J
app


1
20 . .D eq
J
app


2
21 . . D eq
( )
( )

'

,
_

,
_

'

,
_

,
_

,
_

,
_

+
+
1 , 1 ,
, 1 , 1
3
5 . 0
5 . 0
j i
app
j i
app
j i
app
j i
app app app
J J
J J J J



22 . .D eq
( )
( )

'

,
_

,
_

'

,
_

,
_

,
_

,
_

+
+
j i
app
j i
app
j i
app
j i
app app app
J J
J J J J
, 1 , 1
1 , 1 ,
4
5 . 0
5 . 0



23 . .D eq

,
_

,
_

+
+
,
_

1
cos 4
1
cos 4
2
1
2
4
2
2
2
3
2
1
2 1
N M
J



24 . .D eq
If ( ) 0 4
2
3
2
1
, then:
89
2
1 1
2
J

+
25 . .D eq
Otherwise,
2
1 1
2
J

+ +
26 . .D eq
Calculating Relaxation Factor in Cartesian Coordinate System
Following Azouz (1994):



y x y x J
x y
x x y y
x y

+
+
+
2 2
2 2

27 . . D eq

In this system, since there is not any transformation it can be said:

x
y
28 . . D eq
As a result:
1
0




x y
y x

29 . . D eq

So,
1 0 1
1 1 0
0 0 0
1 0 1
2 2
2 2

+ +
+ +
+ +



y x y x J
x y
x x y y
x y

30 . . D eq

( )( )
( )
app
app app
J



1
1
1
31 . . D eq
90
( )( )
( )
app
app app
J



1
1
2
32 . . D eq
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
x
J J
app
app app app app

,
_

,
_

,
_

,
_


1
0
1
1
3

33 . . D eq

( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
y
J J
app
app app app app

,
_

,
_

,
_

,
_


1
0
1
1
4

34 . . D eq

,
_

,
_

+
+
,
_

1
cos 4
1
cos 4
2
1
2
4
2
2
2
3
2
1
2 1
N M
J



35 . . D eq
If ( ) 0 4
2
3
2
1
, then:
2
1 1
2
J

+
36 . . D eq
Otherwise,
2
1 1
2
J

+ +
37 . . D eq







91





APPENDIX E


ALGEBRAIC GEOMETRY TRANSFORMATION



Algebraic Transformation of an Eccentric Annulus

Considering Fig3.8, Each point can be defined by a radius and an angle.




Fig.E.1 Determination of an arbitrary grid point
According to Fig.E.1 :
( ) ( ) [ ]
1 1
2
1
l R
o
l R
o
R
oj
+ 1 . . E eq
From Fig.E.1 :
( )
1
1

+

JM
R
i
e
R
o
j JM l 2 . . E eq
l
p

d

R
i

e
e
j

R
o


R
oj


C
m

C
j

C
1

r
j

R
o

R
i

R
oj


92
( )
1
2



JM
R
i
e
R
o
j JM l 3 . . E eq
Plugging 2 . . E eq , 3 . . E eq into 1 . . E eq :
( ) ( )
1
]
1

,
_


+
,
_

+

1 1 2
1
JM
R
i
e
R
o
j JM
R
o
JM
R
i
e
R
o
j JM
R
o
R
oj
4 . . E eq
Or,
( )
( )
( )
( )( )
( ) 1 1 2

+ +


JM
R
i
R
o
j JM
R
o
R
i
e R R
i
e R
o
o
JM
j JM
R
o
R
oj

Or,
( )( )
( ) 1


JM
R
i
R
o
j JM
R
o
R
oj
5 . . E eq
Also from Fig.E.1 :
( ) ( ) ( ) l R R e P R e d e e
o oj oj j

( )( )
( )

,
_

,
_

+

1 JM
R
i
e
R
o
j JM
R
o
R e
oj

( )( )
( ) 1
+
+
JM
R
i
e R
o
j JM
R
o
R e
oj

After arrangements:
( )
( ) 1
1

JM
j e
e
j
6 . . E eq
Also from the equation of circle we have:
( )
2 2 2
oj j
R e y x + 7 . . E eq
Representing y x , by , r :
( )
( )

cos ,
sin ,
j
j
r j i y
r j i x

8 . .E eqs
93
Plugging 8 . .E eqs into 7 . .E eq :
( ) ( )
2 2 2
cos sin
oj j j j
R e r r + 9 . .E eq
Or,
Cos e Sin e R r
j j oj j
+
2 2 2
10 . .E eq
Since the circle is decided into 1 IM divisions in tangential direction , where each
division will be represented by , and half of the circle is used:
1

IM

11 . . E eq
So can be calculated as:
( ) 1 i 12 . . E eq
Substituting from 11 . . E eq

( )
1
1

IM
i
13 . .E eq
Substituting 5 . .E eq and 6 . .E eq ,into 10 . .E eq :
( )( )
( )
( )
( )
( ) ( )
( )
( )

,
_

+
,
_

,
_

,
_



1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
2 2
IM
i
Cos
JM
j e
IM
i
Sin
JM
j e
JM
R
i
R
o
j JM
R
o
r
j


14 . .E eq
Substituting 13 . .E eq and 14 . .E eq , into 8 . .E eqs :
( )
( )( )
( )
( )
( )
( ) ( )
( )
( ) ( )
( )
( )( )
( )
( )
( )
( ) ( )
( )
( ) ( )
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
,
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
,
2
2 2
2
2 2

,
_

,
_

+
,
_

,
_

,
_

,
_

,
_

+
,
_

,
_

,
_



IM
i
Cos
IM
i
Cos
JM
j e
IM
i
Sin
JM
j e
JM
R
i
R
o
j JM
R
o
j i y
IM
i
Sin
IM
i
Cos
JM
j e
IM
i
Sin
JM
j e
JM
R
i
R
o
j JM
R
o
j i x


15 . .E eq
Where:
94
JM j IM i < < < < 1 , 1
j i, : Grid points in tangential and radial direction respectively
1 IM : Number of divisions in tangential direction.
1 JM : Number of divisions in radial direction.
It should be mentioned that 15 . .E eq is valid only for the half of the domain, and by
replacing by 2 it can be used to transform a whole eccentric annulus from real
domain to a computational domain.






























95





APPENDIX F

FFLOW RATE CALCULATION



Considering Fig.F.1:
4
,
3
,
2
,
1
,
,
4 4 4 4
A
W
A
W
A
W
A
W
Q
j i j i j i j i
j i
+ + + 1 . .F eq
Where
j i
Q
,
is the small flow rate element at one grid point,
j i
W
,
is the velocity
field at one grid point and
1
A -
4
A are shown in Fig.F.2.
Each area is made by four points, so each point has only
4
1
of an area therefore,
( )
4 3 2 1
,
,
4
A A A A
W
Q
j i
j i
+ + + 2 . .F eq


Fig.F.1
According to FigF.2:
D
B
A
C
Wij
P
Q
96
AQBDPC A A A A + + +
4 3 2 1

3 . .F eq

From 2 . .F eq , 3 . .F eq :
AQBDPC
W
Q
j i
j i
4
,
,
4 . .F eq
Now, we need to find the area of AQBDPC.

Fig.F.2
A
B
C
D
P
Q
i+1, j

i,j
i+1, j+1

i-1, j

i+1, j-1

i-1, , j-1

i-1,j+1

i, , j+1

i, , j-1

A
1

A
2

A
3

A
3

97

Fig.F.3

According to FigF.3:
5 6 1 1
A A CD O AB O AQBDPC +

5 . .F eq
And also from the same figure:

CD O CPD O A
2 2 6
6 . .F eq

AB O AQB O A
3 3 5
7 . .F eq
Plugging, 6 . .F eq , 7 . .F eq into 5 . .F eq :

+ + AB O AQB O CD O CPD O CD O AB O AQBDPC
3 3 2 2 1 1

8 . .F eq

From the mathematics books:
D

B

A

C


O
1

A
5
A
6
O
2
O
3
98


Fig.F.4

( )( ) ( )( )
3 2 3 1 3 2 3 1
3 2 3 2
3 1 3 1
2
1
det
2
1
x x y y y y x x
y y x x
y y x x
ABC

,
_

9 . .F eq
Applying 9 . .F eq to 8 . .F eq :
( )( ) ( ) ( )
B A B O B A B O
x x y y y y x x AB O

1 1 1
2
1
10 . .F eq
Substituting the coordinate of each point in 10 . .F eq :
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
1 , 1 1 , 1 1 , 1 1 , 1 1 , 1 1 , 1 1
0 0
2
1
+ + + + + + + + + +


j i j i j i j i j i j i
x x y y y x AB O 11 . .F eq
Simplifying 11 . .F eq :
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
1 , 1 1 , 1 1 , 1 1 , 1 1 , 1 1 , 1 1
2
1
+ + + + + + + + + +

+
j i j i j i j i j i j i
x x y y y x AB O 12 . .F eq
Similarly for calculating the area of

CD O
2
:
( )( ) ( )( )
D C D O D C D O
x x y y y y x x CD O

2 2 2
2
1
13 . .F eq
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
1 , 1 1 , 1 1 , 1 1 1 , 1 1 , 1 1 , 1 2
0
2
1
+ + + +


j i j i j i j j i j i j i
x x y e y y x CD O 14 . .F eq
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
1 , 1 1 , 1 1 , 1 1 1 , 1 1 , 1 1 , 1 2
2
1
+ + + +


j i j i j i j j i j i j i
x x y e y y x CD O 15 . .F eq
Substituting for
1 j
e from 10 . .E eq , Appendix E:
A
B
C
99

( ) ( ) ( )
( ) 1
1
1 , 1

+
+

JM
R
i
e
R
o
j JM
R
o
R e e
j o j
16 . .F eq
Or,
( ) ( )
( ) 1
1
1 , 1

+ +
+

JM
R
i
e
R
o
j JM
R
o
R e e
j o j
17 . .F eq
Substituting for
1 , j o
R from 10 . .E eq , Appendix E:
( )( )
( ) 1
1
1 ,

JM
R
i
R
o
j JM
R
o
R
j o
18 . .F eq
Substituting 18 . .F eq into 17 . .F eq :
( ) ( )
( )
( ) ( )
( ) 1
1
1
1
1

+ +
+

+
+

JM
R
i
e
R
o
j JM
R
o
JM
R
i
R
o
j JM
R
o
e e
j
19 . .F eq
Or,
( ) ( )
( )
( ) ( )
( ) 1
1
1
1
1

+ +

+
+

JM
R
i
e
R
o
j JM
JM
R
i
R
o
j JM
e e
j
20 . .F eq
Or,
( ) ( )
( ) 1
1
1

+
+

JM
R
i
e
R
o
R
i
R
o
j JM
e e
j
21 . .F eq
Simplifying 21 . .F eq
( )
( ) 1
1
1

JM
j JM e
e e
j
22 . .F eq
Or,
( )
( ) 1
2
1

JM
j e
e
j
23 . .F eq
Substituting 23 . .F eq into 15 . .F eq :
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
1 , 1 1 , 1 1 , 1 1 1 , 1 1 , 1 1 , 1 2
2
1
+ + + +


j i j i j i j j i j i j i
x x y e y y x CD O
Or,
100
( ) ( )
( )
( )
( )
1 , 1 1 , 1 1 , 1 1 , 1 1 , 1 1 , 1 2
1
2
2
1
+ + + +

,
_


j i j i j i j i j i j i
x x y
JM
j e
y y x CD O 24 . .F eq
After simplification:
( ) ( )
( )
( )
( )
1 , 1 1 , 1 1 , 1 1 , 1 1 , 1 1 , 1 2
1
2
2
1
+ + + +

,
_


j i j i j i j i j i j i
x x y
JM
j e
y y x CD O 25 . .F eq
Calculating CPD O
2
:
We know that:
( )
2
2
1 ,
2

j o
R
CPD O

26 . .F eq
From Sinus law for calculating the area of a triangle:
( ) sin
2
1
2
1 , 2

j o
R CD O 27 . .F eq
As a result we can get:
( )

,
_

2
1 ,
2
2
sin
j o
R
CD O
Arc 28 . .F eq
Recalling for
1 , j o
R from 10 . .E eq , Appendix E:
( )( )
( ) 1
1
1 ,

JM
R
i
R
o
j JM
R
o
R
j o
29 . .F eq
Substituting 29 . .F eq and 28 . .F eq into 26 . .F eq :
( )( )
( )
( )( )
( )

,
_

,
_

,
_

2
2
2
2
1
1
2
sin
1
1
2
1
JM
R
i
R
o
j JM
R
o
CD O
Arc
JM
R
i
R
o
j JM
R
o
CPD O 30 . .F eq
Similarly, we can calculate

CD O
1
:
( )( ) ( )( )
D C D O D C D O
x x y y y y x x CD O

1 1 1
2
1
31 . .F eq
101
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
1 , 1 1 , 1 1 , 1 1 , 1 1 , 1 1 , 1
0 0
2
1
+ + + +

j i j i j i j i j i j i
x x y y y x
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
1 , 1 1 , 1 1 , 1 1 , 1 1 , 1 1 , 1
2
1
+ + + +
+
j i j i j i j i j i j i
x x y y y x
Therefore,
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
1 , 1 1 , 1 1 , 1 1 , 1 1 , 1 1 , 1 1
2
1
+ + + +

+
j i j i j i j i j i j i
x x y y y x CD O 32 . .F eq
Also we can calculate

AB O
3
, following the same procedure that we already did for

CD O
2
:
( ) ( ) ( )( )
B A B O B A B O
x x y y y y x x AB O

3 3 3
2
1
33 . .F eq
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
1 , 1 1 , 1 1 , 1 1 1 , 1 1 , 1 1 , 1 3
0
2
1
+ + + + + + + + + + +


j i j i j i j j i j i j i
x x y e y y x AB O 34 . .F eq
Substituting for
1 + j
e from 10 . .E eq , Appendix E:
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) 1
1
1 , 1

+ +
+
+ +
JM
R
i
e
R
o
j JM
R
o
R e e
j o j
35 . .F eq
Substituting for
1 , + j o
R from 10 . .E eq , Appendix E:
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) 1
1
1 ,

+

+
JM
R
i
R
o
j JM
R
o
R
j o
36 . .F eq
Substituting 36 . .F eq into 35 . .F eq :
( ) ( ) ( )
( )
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) 1
1
1
1
1

+ +
+

+
+
+
JM
R
i
e
R
o
j JM
R
o
JM
R
i
R
o
j JM
R
o
e e
j
37 . .F eq
Simplifying 37 . .F eq :
( ) 1
1

+
JM
j e
e
j
38 . .F eq
Substituting 38 . .F eq into 34 . .F eq :
102
( ) ( )
( )
( )
1 , 1 1 , 1 1 , 1 1 , 1 1 , 1 1 , 1 3
1 2
1
+ + + + + + + + + +

,
_


j i j i j i j i j i j i
x x y
JM
j e
y y x AB O 39 . .F eq
To calculate AQB O
3
, similar procedure for calculating CPD O
2
can be used as:
We know that:
( )
2
2
1 ,
3
+

j o
R
AQB O

40 . .F eq
From Sinus law for calculating the area of a triangle:
( )
( )

,
_

2
1 ,
3
2
1 , 3
2
sin sin
2
1
j o
j o
R
AB O
Arc R AB O 41 . .F eq
Or,
( )
2
2
1 ,
3
+

j o
R
AQB O

42 . .F eq
As a result:
( )

,
_

2
1 ,
3
2
sin
j o
R
AB O
Arc 43 . .F eq
Recalling for
1 , + j o
R from 10 . .E eq , Appendix E:
( )( )
( ) 1
1
1 ,



+
JM
R
i
R
o
j JM
R
o
R
j o
44 . .F eq
Substituting 44 . .F eq and 43 . .F eq into 42 . .F eq :
( )( )
( )
( ) ( ) ( )
( )

,
_

,
_

,
_

2
3
2
3
1
1
2
sin
1
1
2
1
JM
R
i
R
o
j JM
R
o
AB O
Arc
JM
R
i
R
o
j JM
R
o
AQB O 45 . .F eq
And finally from 4 . .F eq , 3 . .F eq , 12 . .F eq , 25 . .F eq , 30 . .F eq , 32 . .F eq , 39 . .F eq , 45 . .F eq
103
AQBDPC
W
Q
j i
j i
2
,
,
46 . .F eq
Where:

+ + AB O AQB O CD O CPD O CD O AB O AQBDPC
3 3 2 2 1 1

( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
1 , 1 1 , 1 1 , 1 1 , 1 1 , 1 1 , 1 1
2
1
+ + + + + + + + + +

+
j i j i j i j i j i j i
x x y y y x AB O
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
1 , 1 1 , 1 1 , 1 1 , 1 1 , 1 1 , 1 1
2
1
+ + + +

+
j i j i j i j i j i j i
x x y y y x CD O
( )( )
( )
( )( )
( )

,
_

,
_

,
_

2
2
2
2
1
1
2
sin
1
1
2
1
JM
R
i
R
o
j JM
R
o
CD O
Arc
JM
R
i
R
o
j JM
R
o
CPD O
( ) ( )
( )
( )
( )
1 , 1 1 , 1 1 , 1 1 , 1 1 , 1 1 , 1 2
1
2
2
1
+ + + +

,
_


j i j i j i j i j i j i
x x y
JM
j e
y y x CD O
( )( )
( )
( ) ( ) ( )
( )

,
_

,
_

,
_

2
3
2
3
1
1
2
sin
1
1
2
1
JM
R
i
R
o
j JM
R
o
AB O
Arc
JM
R
i
R
o
j JM
R
o
AQB O 7 . 16 . 3 . eq
( ) ( )
( )
( )
1 , 1 1 , 1 1 , 1 1 , 1 1 , 1 1 , 1 3
1 2
1
+ + + + + + + + + +

,
_


j i j i j i j i j i j i
x x y
JM
j e
y y x AB O 8 . 16 . 3 . eq