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JOURNAL OF URBAN HISTORY DAVID, GOLORIELD Mito nin of Yoh Corin harlne Acie Eder BLAINE 4 BROWNELL Ofceofihe Prout Unvetnof Sook eat YSN HOLLEN LEES tito Cnseran of Pana BRECEM STAVE Hy, Une of Comat (CRAIG PASCOE Caer of Mor KATHLEEN NEILS CONZEN Unnerun owes DEBORA GARDNER Ine for Reseach nr, NewYork ‘MPARD Hor Sue Caney of os Yr to Brook TERRENCE 1 MeDONALD Mars Lasers of Mcigon ZANE L MILLER Hien, Lar of inne RICH MOSKONEN Hutry Unver of Carn Lo Angee WILLIAM SRINNER Antropol Unter of Calor Deis SUSAN MIGDEN SOCOLOW Nor Emery Cera CILBERT A STELTER Hors Uncen of Gch ANTHONY SUTCLIFFE Ezonomi an Soi om Caer of Shed TONG. TEAFORD fir, Pate nvr ‘CHARLES TILLY No Schr Svel Rasch ew ok DAVID WARD Georpin Umer of Won -adon Minny of Coercion Jape Far SAGE Periadete Pret ITTY BEDNAR LIANN LECH od ANELLE LAMASTER THE EDITORS AND PUBLISHER who senowits wid ide he cneouge ea fb Unie Nor Cain Carlen prvi spp en an nan JOURNALOF URBAN HISTORY Volume 18, Sumber 1 November 1991 Contents When Urban History Isat the Center ofthe Curriculum SAMI BASS WARNER. Jy 3 Establishing a Zionist Metropolis: Alternative Approaches to Building Tel-Aviv SILAS TROEN 0 Urban Political Reform: Did i Kll he Machine? ALAS DIGAETANO a7 “The Pushcart Evil: Pedaers, Merchants and New York Cts’: Streets, 1890-194) DANIEL A BLUESTONE 6 Ieview Essays Reform Mayors and Urban Polite ‘New York and Chicago RONALD BAYOR 9 ‘Academia Ain't Ready for Reform ARNOLD R. HIRSCH 38 Contributors 109 Sage Periodicals Press G) Acinnst AEE atone or “THE PUSHCART EVIL” Peddlers, Merchants, and New York City’s Streets, 1890-1940 DANIEL M, BLUESTONE Columbia University In 1936, William Fellowes Morgan, Jr, New York's commis sioner of markets, proualy reported the successful “conversion of the pushear pedder to a small merchant with self respect and banking ‘relations. Morgan viewed his departments recent completion ofan enclosed Park Avenue Market between 111th and {16th street as an important “advancement of social progress.” He hoped that enclosed ‘markets wold sound “the death knell of the pusheart, which long has Outlved its usefulness in this day of moder, quick, sanitary distribu. tion of foods.” The enclosed market simply represented the latest approach ina decades-old effor by various civic. political, and bus ‘ness ntereststo conquer the“pusheartevil,"regulate streetcommerce, and extend Progressive Era crusades fora beautiful clean, and eff cient city: Reform optimism aide. the figure ofthe pusheart peddler who sold “lmost anything. rom a wedding ring toa loaf of bread” faced the figure of the small merchant across a gulf much wider than the typical sidewalk—a gulf that separated burgeoning forms of middle-class commercial culture from an older and now largely working-class tradition, ALTHOWS NOTE: Mis ace mat presen a paper athe Sil cece Resch Gouna. “The Lanse of Maer: Eaton ew Yok Cl 90RD Contos Morh Seige Denter 2109 tacipande verona A eres orton line of ced cones oper eed Da Wardond Oboe fe oc enc rah fom ence comes econo pare sre 9 Eleanor Buber So and he aromas radon te oe a AS people debated the pushcart question, their different visions 0 urban commerce clashed as did their afferent perspectives on the cit its people. and the proper uses of public space. Proposals for bannin, shears favoreda modern ideal ofthe street asthe exclusive provine. of smoothly circulating “trafic.” Ths vision anticipated not only th, eradication of street busing and selling but also the eclipse of earie Social uses ofthe street for political activity. gregarious sociaiz and popular amusements. The narrow view ofthe stret asa tratise artery resembled the broader specialization of urban space duting the nineteenth century: Growing nineteenth-cenury cites had tended to separate residences from workplaces. This pater of physical separa ‘ion was complemented by a sorting of the city by economic and social las: class and ethaic neighborhoods characterized the residential landscape, white-collar work concentrated in emerging downtowns and blue-collar work moved increasingly to the periphery” City steeets. public conveyances, and public parks concentrated the cosmo. polit social diversity of the city to an extent rarely found in other atts ofthe urban landscape. In this contest, pushcart bans aimed to ‘tase the vestiges of an older and decidedly less refined tradition of urban commerce: at the same time they ough o extend upper-class ideals of public decorum and social separation :0 one ofthe least ordered spaces ofthe modern city —the street? Niveteenth-century urban developments spurred the centuries-old ffors by municipalities to regulate and contol the business of street hucksters. The provision of public markets andthe