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HUM 120 Study Guide 12 The High Middle Ages

1. What is feudalism, and how does it relate to chivalry? Feudalism is a military and politcail sytem based on personal loyality and kinship. This feudalism system arouse a conde of conduct called chihivalry. Chicalry was a warrior code that imspried the vassal to honror his lord and to respect his peers. Chivalry was
the code of conduct for knight's at the time when the Fuedal System (medieval Europe) operated


escribe the relationship between the Church and the secular world. What does the te!tbook mean when it describes the "i#h $iddle %#es as &The %#e of 'ynthesis?(
during the Middle Ages even the illiterate masses would know !y heart every character among the "e!rew patriarchs all the gospel stories as well as a num!er of more current morality tales with a strong religious message# $hus Christianity provided the preeminent meme that loosely held together the disparate cultural influences from the Classical world and from the !udding natural sciences and philosophies# %ndeed every large town or city had its &othic cathedral whose spires topped the skyline as a manifest sym!ol of the towering social and cultural role of Christianity in !lending the secular and the sacred# For these reasons the late Medieval era has !een called '$he Age of Synthesis#( The High Middle Ages are often referred to as the age of synthesis because of the attempt to bring secular and spiritual culture and life together in one unified form

). What were the leadin# philosophical ideas of this period and who were the main proponents of these theories? $uch of this was directly influenced by the newly translated materials that were comin# out of *a#hdad durin# this period. +hilosophers such as %ristotle who had been lost to western audiences were suddenly back on the scene. The Greek philosopher whose works
became the heart of Scholasticism was Aristotle. Scholasticisms primary goal was to Bring Aristotles ideas into accord with Christian doctrine

)ust as Augustine put a Christian spin on *lato's ideas $homas A+uinas would do the same thing with Aristotle# ,uring this period there was a raging de!ate a!out the relationship !etween reason and faith# A!elard !egan the

whole argument !y distinguishing !etween faith and reason and the de!ate intensified from there# A+uinas utili-ed Aristotle's empirical method to argue that &od essentially gives humans two paths to truth. faith and reason# /ike Aristotle A+uinas !elieves that humans can trust their senses to interpret the world around them and that our senses provide us with reason and knowledge# 0nfortunately according to A+uinas there are some matters that cannot !e analy-ed or solved !y reason alone1 reason has its limits and when our senses cannot help us we must rely on faith#

,. What styles of literature dominated the -omanes.ue and /othic periods? urin# the -omanes.ue period, the styles of literature that dominated are monastic and feudal wrint#i that perpetuales thte feudal nad monastic values of the 0arly $iddle %#es. urin# the /othic period, the two styles of literature that dominated are vernacular and courtly writin# which introduces urban and courtly themes while movin# away from the world of the monasteries.

1. What are the definin# characteristics of -omanes.ue and /othic churches?

$he 2oman+ue church architects ncorporate 32oman3 designs in their own works such as revived such !asic 2oman elements as the !asilica plan and employed rounded arches vaulted ceilings and columns for !oth support and decoration# $he &othic churches want to create a space that represents &od's presence# $his is achieved through many architectural innovations such as the ri!!ed vault the pointed arch and flying !uttresses#

2. +ope /re#ory ori#inated the style of 3#re#orian chant,3 the basis for medieval church music, alle#edly after bein# inspired by the cooin# of a dove he believed was sent to him by /od. %lthou#h #re#orian chant remained the basis for most spiritual music, how did music develop and chan#e in the "i#h $iddle %#es?