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Drilling and Completion

Objectives
Identify the major components of a drilling rig Explain the purpose of the drilling mud system Calculate the appropriate mud weight for drilling a well Identify common drilling bits and their uses Identify the major components of a blow-out prevention system List six types of offshore drilling rigs and state where each is used

Objectives
Describe common drilling problems Describe common completion techniques Describe common completion equipment List three perforation methods and their advantages and disadvantages Describe two stimulation techniques and their appropriate uses

Outline
Rotary drilling rig The fluid circulation system The drillstring Bits Blow-out preventors People on the rig Types of rigs Drilling problems Completions Well stimulation

Components of the Drilling Rig

Main Drilling Rig Equipment Systems

Crown Block Deadline Wireline

2 3

Hoisting System

Fast Line 4

5 6

Traveling Block Pipe elevators


7

Drawworks 11

Deadline Anchor

9 9 10

Drum

Storage Reel

Drum Brake

The Drill String


Swivel Kelly Kelly Bushing K.B. Elevation Rotary Table

Drill Pipe Drill Collars Bit

Top Drive System

Top driv e

A! frame

Guide rails

Rig floor

Drill pipe

Circulation System
Mud House

Standpipe Mud pump Rotary hose

Swivel

Kelly Discharge

Chemical tank

Mud return line

Drill pipe Annulus

Shale shaker Mud pit Shaleslide Reserve pit Drill Collar Borehole Bit

Drilling Fluids

Purposes of Drilling Mud


Clean drill cuttings from hole Lubricate drill string Cool bit Control flow of gas and fluid from the formation (hydrostatic pressure)

Preparation of Drilling Mud


Water- or oil-based fluid Treated with other chemicals to prevent formation damage Thickened with polymers to lift formation cuttings from well Weighted with clays and other materials to increase density for well control

Hydrostatic Pressure of Mud (Fluid) Column


mud

A force in the wellbore that controls formation pressure

hydrostatic pressure, psi


= mud weight, ppg x depth, ft x 0.052

Example 1
Calculate the hydrostatic pressure exerted by a 10.3 ppg mud at 8,000 ft.

hydrostatic pressure, psi


= mud weight, ppg x depth, ft x 0.052

Hydrostatic Pressure = 10.3 ppg x 8,000 ft x 0.052 = 4,285 psi

Overbalanced Drilling
Hydrostatic pressure exerted by column of fluid is greater than formation pressure
Prevents oil, gas and/or water from flowing into well Usually, 200 to 300 psi of excess pressure is desired Drilling mud filtrate invasion can damage the formation
mud

Balanced Drilling
Hydrostatic pressure exerted by column of fluid is approximately equal to formation pressure
Reduces chances of drilling mud damage Increases risk of flow into wellbore (kick)
mud

Underbalanced Drilling
Hydrostatic pressure exerted by column of fluid is less than formation pressure
Formation flows oil, gas and/or water during drilling Can be a safety hazard (controlled blowout) without proper control equipment
mud

Formation Fracture Pressure


Pressure at which a formation will crack or fracture
During drilling, the hydrostatic pressure should be less than the fracture pressure, or significant mud loss can occur into the formation. The well could blow out.
mud

Calculating Mud Weight


Reservoir pressure, depth Fracture gradient The fracture gradient is derived formation pressure from measurements, depth Fracture pressure Fracture pressure = depth x formation pressure Needed hydrostatic pressure
Reservoir pressure < Hydrostatic pressure < Fracture pressure

hydrostatic pressure mud weight = 0.052 depth

Example 2
What mud weight (density) should be used to control a formation at 9000 ft? Reservoir pressure = 5000 psi Fracture gradient = 0.58 psi/ft Fracture pressure Fracture pressure = depth x fracture gradient = 9000 ft x 0.58 psi/ft = 5220 psi

Example 2 Solution
Reservoir pressure = 5000 psi Hydrostatic pressure Fracture pressure = 5220 psi In this case, we allow 100 psi over reservoir pressure. Mud weight

Hydrostatic Pressure Mud Weight = 0.052 x Depth

5000 + 100 Mud Weight = = 10.9 ppg 0.052 x 9000

The Drill String and Bit

Basic Bottomhole Drilling Assembly

Provides rotation to bit

Provide weight on bit

Grinds layers of rock to make hole

Common Types of Drill Bits

Insert Mill tooth

Polycrystalline diamond compact (PDC)

Insert Bit
Radial seal Roller bearing or bushing Thrust face

Carbide tooth Cone Shirttail

Bit leg
Grease reservoir Reservoir cap Diaphragm

Jet nozzle Grease reservoir cap

Shank

Bit information
(size, type, serial number)

Milled-Tooth Bit

Polycrystalline Diamond Compact (PDC) Bit


Junk slot Interchangeable nozzle

Breaker slot

PDC cutter

The Blow-Out Prevention System

Blow-Out Preventers
Bell nipple Fill line Flow line Annular preventer Pipe ram Shear/blind ram Kill line Pipe ram Emergency kill line Choke Drilling spool BOP riser Emergency choke Casing head

People on the Rig

Drilling Personnel
Company Man
Geologists Service Company Tool Pusher

Drilling Personnel
Geologists Service Company

Mud Loggers

Mud Engineer

Cementing Service Crews

Casing Crews

Drilling Personnel
Company Man
Geologists Service Company Tool Pusher

Drilling Personnel
Tool Pusher

Driller

Crane Operator

Motorman

Rig Mechanic

Rig Electrician

Derrickman

Rotary Helpers (Roughnecks)

Roustabouts

Types of Drilling Rigs

Offshore Rig Types


Jacket with Swamp barge tender

Jack-up

Semi- Fixed sub Platform Drillship

Drilling Rigs

Land Rigs Lake/Swamp Barges Semisubmersibles

Drill Ship

Jack Ups

Monohull Tenders

Land Rig

Semisubmersible

Sedco 702 in TAD-mode offshore New Zealand

Semisubmersible

Types of Wells

Vertical Well
Wellhead To production equipment

Tubing Casing Packer Perforations

Hydrocarbons

Deviated Well Projectories

S-shape

Tangent Horizontal

Downhole Assembly for Building Hole Angle


Low-speed, high-torque motor

String stabilizer Bent sub

Kickoff sub Upper bearing housing with stabilizer Bit

Hole Orientation Surveys


Single shot (basic) ! Run every 400 - 500 ft and at bit trips to record hole angle Magnetic multi-shot ! Tool run before bit trip ! Records hole angle while pulling out of hole Gyroscope ! Electronic survey of hole angle and direction

Horizontal Well Completions


20-40 ft radius 1.5-3/ft 300-750 ft 125-700 ft radius 8-20/100 ft 1500-3000 ft 1000-3000 ft radius 2-6/100 ft

Short radius

Medium radius Long radius


2000-5000 ft

Slimhole Drilling
Advantages
! Less site preparation ! Easier equipment mobilization ! Reduction in the amount of consumables (drill bits, cement, muds, fuel) ! Less cuttings disposal ! Smaller, lighter equipment

Disadvantages
! Plugs and packers required ! More crowded annular space ! Tubular corrosion and loss of mechanical integrity

Multilateral Well Completions

Planar Lateral, Single Layer

Stacked Lateral, Multiple Layers

Planar Opposed Lateral, Single Layer

Choosing Well Projectories


Vertical wells
Thick, permeable formations Hydraulic fracture

Horizontal wells Multilaterals


Naturally fractured reservoirs Thin, permeable formations

Thick, low-permeabilty formations

Thin zones overlain by gas or underlain by water

Drilling Problems
Stuck pipe Fishing Lost circulation

Causes of Stuck Pipe


Borehole Pressure differential between borehole and formation Pbh > Pf

Pf

Pbh

Drillpipe

Causes of Stuck Pipe


Borehole

Drillpipe

Clays absorb water, swell, reduce size of borehole

Causes of Stuck Pipe


Proposed Borehole

Drillpipe

Unstable formations, badly worn bits result in undergauged hole

Causes of Stuck Pipe


Proposed Borehole

Drillpipe

Tectonic stresses cause borehole to collapse

Causes of Stuck Pipe


Proposed Borehole Dogleg in trajectory snags pipe

Drillpipe

Reasons for Fishing


Dropped Items
(floor tools, drill string parts)

Stuck Drillpipe
(twisted off, backed off, cemented)

Logging tools

Lost Circulation

Fissures in formation

Borehole

Add plugging materials such as cellulose chips to circulating mud

Completion Methods

Well Completion Techniques


Cased hole Liner (cemented, slotted or perforated) Openhole Tubingless or slimhole Gravel pack (special case required for control of formation sand)

Casing Scheme
Surface Conductor/ stovepipe Surface casing Immediate casing Production casing Production liner

Cementing
l l

Provides zonal isolation. Supports axial load of casing. Protects casing against corrosion and erosion Provides support to borehole in plastic or unconsolidated formations

Hole Casing Cement

gas zone

oil zone

Casing/Cementing Procedure
Mud Set Cement Casing Mud circulating Float shoe Cement Displacement Top plug Bottom plug New hole Cement Drill pipe Top plug Drill bit Bottom plug Continue Drilling

Cementing Problems
Contamination of cement by mud Reduction in cement bonding to formation caused by mud cake, solids Channeling caused by laminar flow in annulus Lost circulation caused by additional hydrostatic head of high-density cement

Casing Cement

Openhole Completion
Oil Sand

Casing Shoe

Cement Casing

Slotted Liner Completion


Hanger (usually with a packer) Casing Shoe Slotted Liner

Oil Sand

Liner Shoe

Cement Casing

Cemented Liner Completion


Hanger (usually with a packer) Casing Shoe Cemented Liner

Oil Sand

Liner Shoe

Gravel Pack
GP Packer Crossover

Blank Pipe Screens Sump Packer

Washpipe

Gravel (sand) Fracture created, sometimes propped

Comparison of Completions
Completion Type Cased Hole Advantages Pressure control Isolation of zones Control of stimulation Wellbore Stability Less expensive than casing entire hole Pressure and stimulation control (when cemented) Wellbore stability Maximum flow area Minimize damage Slimhole - Lower Cost Disadvantages More expensive Limited communication to reservoir Possible cement damage Cementing more difficult No control of flow if not cemented Slots plugged w/formation Limited control of stimulation No control of flow Limited or no control of stimulation Hole collapse in weak formations Limited workover capability due to small hole Limited stimulation rate No zone isolation

Liner

Open Hole

Perforating
Establishes communication with the reservoir by #shooting$ holes through the casing

Perforated Casing

Wellbore Conditions While Perforating


Overbalanced Underbalanced

Overbalanced Perforating
Completion fluid in wellbore Perforations can be plugged with debris in wellbore Oil or gas reservoir

Casing Cement Perforating gun Pressure controls well during completion

Pres< phyd > pres

Underbalanced Perforating
Completion fluid in wellbore Perforations will be clean from surge in wellbore Oil or gas reservoir

Casing Cement Perforating gun Well will be live! and need control after perforating

Pres> phyd < pres

Completion Equipment
Wellhead Tubing Packers Bridge plugs Seating nipples

Components of a Typical Well


Wing valve Choke Pressure gauge Tee Master valve Casing valve Tubing head Casing head

To production equipment

Tubing Casing Perforations

Packer

Wing valve

Wellhead
Dual master valves

Choke assembly

Tubing hanger

Tubing head Casing head

Braden head Casing strings Tubing

Well Components
Angel! Wellhead monitors and controls well pressures Christmas tree!

Tubing

Packers

Casing Perforations

Wellhead

Tubing head Suspend casing and tubing in well Casing head

Wellhead
Wing valve Controls production line Master valve Stops fluid flow, shutting in well

To production equipment

Casing valve

Wellhead
Pressure gauges Choke Tee

To production equipment

Tubing
Tubing Casing

Type and size depend on well conditions Diameter must be designed for expected flow rate
Pressure drop in tubing can restrict flow/injection rate.

Fluids flow into tubing Producing perforations

Packers
Packers
Protect annulus from fluid flow Provide seal in well to isolate formation for production or stimulation May be permanent or retrievable

Fluids flow into tubing Producing perforations

Packers
Straddle Packers
Isolated perforations Prevent fluid from entering tubing Used in gas zones, cases of excess water production

Packers
Fluids flow into tubing Producing perforations

Single Packer
Most common retrievable packer in use Commonly made of elastomers Hold down buttons
0

prevent movement of the packer Sealing or packing element expands against the casing either hydraulically or mechanically

Friction blocks

Slips

Dual Packer
Dual tubing strings Prevents commingling of produced fluids Unidirectional slips Sealing or packing element

Bridge Plug
Isolates intervals above and below or plugs off formation Retrievable plugs ! safety valves to plug well during repairs or abandonment ! can be repeatedly set and released without coming out of hole Permanent plugs ! commonly used for zone abandonment ! must be drilled out of hole

Standard Seating Nipple


Provides a place to set! tools or equipment in well
! Temporary plugs, downhole pumps, pressure gauges, etc.

Prevents unwanted passage of certain diameter tools Isolates zone to control pressure Serves as a safety device for logging tools not to exit the end of tubing
! Equipment normally run on slick line (small, non-electric wireline)

Well Stimulation

Reasons to Stimulate
Increase production efficiency or flow capacity ! Overcome formation damage ! Enhance production from low%permeability wells Connect with natural fracture system Increase effective drainage area Produce complex reservoirs (e.g., discontinuous sand bars) Increase wellbore stability (minimize drawdown)

Stimulation Treatments
Matrix treatments ! Near-wellbore region ! Chemicals such as acids, surfactants and inhibitors Hydraulic fracturing ! Acid fracturing ! Proppant fracturing

Matrix Treatments
Wellbore

Acids remove damage Other chemicals plug excess water or gas production

Reservoir Damaged region


rd Sandstone, 1 ft Carbonates, a few feet

Matrix Acidizing
Pressure distribution for same production rate
Matrix stimulation results in radial flow

After stimulation Before stimulation


Wellbore

Pressure

Stimulated zone Distance from wellbore

Coiled Tubing

Pump Acid

(a)

(b)

Production Tubing Casing

Perforations Circulating acid down Squeezing acid away

Acid Fracturing
No proppant Acid injection above the formation parting pressure

Hydraulic Fracturing
High%conductivity pathway for reservoir fluids Width may be mm!s Shale Fracture Pack with sand or other proppants Zone (low-permeability formation) Shale Fractured zone between rock barriers Water Lf (May be several feet)

Flow Patterns

rw

Fracture

Lf

Good Stimulation Candidates


Damaged wells Shale Naturally fractured reservoirs (sometimes) Tight reservoirs with economic potential Shale Unconsolidated, high%permeability reservoirs (sometimes) Water

Poor Stimulation Candidates


Reservoirs where stimulation fluid reaction with reservoir fluid leads to severe damage Shale Low-pressure reservoirs where cleanup of hydraulic fracture fluid is difficult Reservoirs with limited reserves Shale Water Reservoirs where stimulation can penetrate water zones and cause excess water production

Effect of Reservoir Permeability on Overall Pressure Drop


Pressure High Permeability pe

pwf

Low Permeability

Flow Rate Fixed


rw Distance From Well re

Effect of Skin Factor on Pressure


Pressure pe pwf (Skin = 0) Pskin pwf (Positive Skin)
Damage Zone

Flow Rate Fixed

rw

rd

Distance From Well

re

Reading Assignment Drilling and Completion


SPE/IADC 37613, #The Evolution of Profitable Drilling in Prudhoe Bay: A Case of Adapting to Survive$ SPE 26596, #An Evaluation of Prudhoe Bay Horizontal and High-Angle Wells After 5 Years of Production$

Summary Well Stimulation


Reasons to stimulate Stimulation treatments ! Matrix acidizing ! Hydraulic fracturing Stimulation candidates Effects of skin factor on pressure

Summary Drilling and Completion


Rotary drilling rig Drilling fluids Types of drilling rigs Deviated wells Drilling problems Completion methods Well stimulation

Exercises Drilling and Completion

1 2 11 3 4 5 6

Exercise 1
Identify the major components of the hoisting system

9 10

Exercise 2a
Identify the parts of the circulation system

Circulation System
1 12 13 Mud House 11 Discharge 2

10 9 8 Mud pit Reserve pit

3 4

5 Shaleslide 7 6

Exercise 2b
Assuming a pressure gradient of 0.465 psi/ft to a depth of 5000 ft, and a pressure gradient of 0.5 psi/ft from 5000 ft to 10,000 ft, how deep can one drill with a mud weighing 9.0 ppg, without allowing formation fluids to enter the wellbore?

Exercise 3
Name and describe the three common bits used in rotary drilling What are they used for?

Exercise 4
Identify six types of offshore drilling rigs and what they are used for. List different well types and their uses.

Exercise 4 Identify Offshore Rig Types


(Cont!d)

Exercise 5
Describe common drilling problems and the conditions that cause them.

Exercise 6
What are some of the functions of casing? Give four reasons why casing is cemented into the well. Describe gravel packing.

Exercise 7
Describe possible wellbore and formation pressure while perforating, and explain the advantages and disadvantages of each. List and describe the equipment commonly used in completing a well.

Exercise 8
Choose the word(s) that complete the following sentences correctly: ! (Matrix acidizing/acid fracturing) is a near-wellbore treatment ! In acid fracturing, the injection pressure is (below/above) the formation parting pressure ! We (use/don!t use) proppant in acid fracturing.

Exercise 9
Describe two stimulation techniques. What kinds of wells are good candidates for stimulation? What kinds of wells are poor candidates?

Exercise 1 Solution
Identify the major components of the hoisting system

Crown Block Dead Line Fast Line Wire Line (8 Lines are Strung) Traveling Block Pipe Elevators Dead Line Anchor

Hoisting System

Drum

Draw Works Drum Brake

Storage Reel

Exercise 2a Solution
12 13 Mud House 11 Discharge 2

10 9 8 Mud pit Reserve pit

3 4

5 Shaleslide 7 6

Exercise 2b Solution
Assuming a pressure gradient of 0.465 psi/ft to a depth of 5000 ft, and a pressure gradient of 0.5 psi/ft from 5000 ft to 10,000 ft, how deep can one drill with a mud weighing 9.0 ppg, without allowing formation fluids to enter the wellbore?

Exercise 3 Solution
Name and describe the three common bits used in rotary drilling What are they used for?

Exercise 4 Solution
Identify six types of offshore drilling rigs and what they are used for. List different well types and their uses.

Exercise 5 Solution
Describe common drilling problems and the conditions that cause them.

Exercise 6 Solution
What are some of the functions of casing? Give four reasons why casing is cemented into the well. Describe gravel packing.

Exercise 7 Solution
Describe possible wellbore and formation pressure while perforating, and explain the advantages and disadvantages of each. List and describe the equipment commonly used in completing a well.

Exercise 8 Solution
Choose the word(s) that complete the following sentences correctly: ! (Matrix acidizing/acid fracturing) is a nearwellbore treatment ! In acid fracturing, the injection pressure is (below/above) the formation parting pressure ! We (use/don!t use) proppant in acid fracturing.

Exercise 9 Solution
Describe two stimulation techniques. What kinds of wells are good candidates for stimulation? What kinds of wells are poor candidates?