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# Modified Fennema-Sherman Attitude Scales

## by Diana Doepken, Ellen Lawsky, and Linda Padwa

In an effort to study students' attitudes towards math, Elizabeth Fennema and Julia A. Sherman constructed the following attitude scale in the early 1 !"'s. #he scale consists of four subscales\$ a confidence scale, a usefulness scale, a scale that measures mathematics as a male domain and a teacher %erce%tion scale. Each of these scales consists of 1& items. Si' of them measure a %ositi(e attitude and si' measure a negati(e attitude. #his scale could gi(e a teacher and an indi(idual student useful information about that %articular student's attitude)s* towards math. +ecause this scale was originally written twenty years ago and the subtle meanings and connotations of words ha(e changed in that time %eriod, it is im%ortant that this scale not be used for research. ,e also ada%ted the scale to %ro(ide tools to e'amine a student's attitude towards science. Following the scales is the scoring -ey.
Introductory note (for use with these scales)

Fennema-Sherman Mathematics Attitude Scales .sing this scale will hel% you and I find out how you feel about yourself and mathematics. /n the following %ages is a series of sentences. 0ou are to mar- your answer sheets by telling how you feel about them. Su%%ose a statement says\$ Example 1: I li e mathematics! As you read the sentence, you will -now whether you agree or disagree. If you strongly agree, circle A ne't to 1umber 1. If you agree, but not so strongly, or you only 2sort of2 agree, circle +. If you disagree with the sentence (ery much, circle E for strongly disagree. If you disagree, but not so strongly, circle 3. If you are not sure about a 4uestion or you can't answer it, circle 5. 1ow, maryour sheet, then go on and do E'am%le &. 3o not s%end much time with any statement, but be sure to answer every statement. ,or- fast, but carefully. #here are no 2right2 or 2wrong2 answers. #he only correct res%onses are those that are true for you. ,hene(er %ossible, let the things that ha(e ha%%ened to you hel% you ma-e a choice.

## A Modified Fennema-Sherman Mathematics Attitude Scale

1 . & . 7 . 9 . : . ; . ! . = . . 1 " . 1 1 . 1 & . 1 7 . 1 9 . 1 : . 1 ; . 1 ! . 1 = . 1 I am sure that I can learn math. 6y teachers ha(e been interested in my %rogress in math. 8nowing mathematics will hel% me earn a li(ing. I don't thin- I could do ad(anced math. 6ath will not be im%ortant to me in my life's wor-. 6ales are not naturally better than females in math. <etting a teacher to ta-e me seriously in math is a %roblem. 6ath is hard for me. It's hard to belie(e a female could be a genius in mathematics. I'll need mathematics for my future wor-. ,hen a woman has to sol(e a math %roblem, she should as- a man for hel%. I am sure of myself when I do math. I don't e'%ect to use much math when I get out of school. I would tal- to my math teachers about a career that uses math. ,omen can do >ust as well as men in math. It's hard to get math teachers to res%ect me. 6ath is a worthwhile, necessary sub>ect. I would ha(e more faith in the answer for a math %roblem sol(ed by a man than a woman. A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 E E E E E E E E E E E E E E E E E E E E

I'm not the ty%e to do well in math. . & 6y teachers ha(e encouraged me to study more " math. .

& 1 . & & . & 7 . & 9 . & : . & ; . & ! . & = . & . 7 " . 7 1 . 7 & . 7 7 . 7 9 . 7 : . 7 ; . 7 ! . 7 =

#a-ing math is a waste of time. I ha(e a hard time getting teachers to tal- seriously with me about math. 6ath has been my worst sub>ect. ,omen who en>oy studying math are a little strange. I thin- I could handle more difficult math. 6y teachers thin- ad(anced math will be a waste of time for me. I will use mathematics in many ways as an adult. Females are as good as males in geometry. I see mathematics as something I won't use (ery often when I get out of high school. I feel that math teachers ignore me when I try to tal- about something serious. ,omen certainly are smart enough to do well in math. 6ost sub>ects I can handle /8, but I >ust can't do a good >ob with math. I can get good grades in math. I'll need a good understanding of math for my future wor-. 6y teachers want me to ta-e all the math I can. I would e'%ect a woman mathematician to be a forceful ty%e of %erson. I -now I can do well in math. Studying math is >ust as good for women as for men.

A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A

+ + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + +

5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5

3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3

E E E E E E E E E E E E E E E E E E

. 7 3oing well in math is not im%ortant for my future. . 9 " . 9 1 . 9 & . 9 7 . 9 9 . 9 : . 9 ; . 9 ! . 6y teachers would not ta-e me seriously if I told them I was interested in a career in science and mathematics. I am sure I could do ad(anced wor- in math. 6ath is not im%ortant for my life. I'm no good in math. I study math because I -now how useful it is. 6ath teachers ha(e made me feel I ha(e the ability to go on in mathematics. I would trust a female >ust as much as I would trust a male to sol(e im%ortant math %roblems. 6y teachers thin- I'm the -ind of %erson who could do well in math. A A A A A A A A A + + + + + + + + + 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 E E E E E E E E E

## Science Attitude Scale as Modified from the Fennema-Sherman Attitude Scale

1. &. 7. 9. :. ;. !. =. . 1 ". 1 1. 1 I am sure that I can learn science. 6y teachers ha(e been interested in my %rogress in science. 8nowing science will hel% me earn a li(ing. I don't thin- I could do ad(anced science. Science will not be im%ortant to me in my life's wor-. 6ales are not naturally better than females in science. <etting a teacher to ta-e me seriously in science is a %roblem. Science is hard for me. It's hard to belie(e a female could be a genius in science. I'll need science for my future wor-. ,hen a woman has to sol(e a science %roblem, she should as- a man for hel%. I am sure of myself when I do science. A A A A A A A A A A A A + + + + + + + + + + + + 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 E E E E E E E E E E E E

&. 1 7. 1 9. 1 :. 1 ;. 1 !. 1 =. 1 . & ". & 1. & &. & 7. & 9. & :. & ;. & !. & =. & . 7 ". 7 1. 7 &. 7 7. 7 9. 7 :. 7 ;. 7 !. 7 =.

I don't e'%ect to use much science when I get out of school. I would tal- to my science teachers about a career which uses math. ,omen can do >ust as well as men in science. It's hard to get science teachers to res%ect me. Science is a worthwhile, necessary sub>ect. I would ha(e more faith in the answer for a science %roblem sol(ed by a man than a woman. I'm not the ty%e to do well in science. 6y teachers ha(e encouraged me to study more science. #a-ing science is a waste of time. I ha(e a hard time getting teachers to tal- seriously with me about science. Science has been my worst sub>ect. ,omen who en>oy studying science are a little strange. I thin- I could handle more difficult science. 6y teachers thin- ad(anced science will be a waste of time for me. I will use science in many ways as an adult. Females are as good as males in science. I see science as something I won't use (ery often when I get out of high school. I feel that science teachers ignore me when I try to tal- about something serious. ,omen certainly are smart enough to do well in science. 6ost sub>ects I can handle /8, but I >ust can't do a good >ob with science. I can get good grades in science. I'll need a good understanding of science for my future wor-. 6y teachers want me to ta-e all the science I can. I would e'%ect a woman scientist to be a forceful ty%e of %erson. I -now I can do well in science. Studying science is >ust as good for women as for men.

A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A

+ + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + +

5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5

3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3

E E E E E E E E E E E E E E E E E E E E E E E E E E

7 . 9 ". 9 1. 9 &. 9 7. 9 9. 9 :. 9 ;. 9 !.

3oing well in science is not im%ortant for my future. 6y teachers would not ta-e me seriously if I told them I was interested in a career in science and mathematics. I am sure I could do ad(anced wor- in science. Science is not im%ortant for my life. I'm no good in science. I study science because I -now how useful it is. Science teachers ha(e made me feel I ha(e the ability to go on in science. I would trust a female >ust as much as I would trust a male to sol(e im%ortant science %roblems. 6y teachers thin- I'm the -ind of %erson who could do well in science.

A A A A A A A A A

+ + + + + + + + +

5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5

3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3

E E E E E E E E E

## "ey to Modified Fennema-Sherman Scale for Math and Science

"ey: 5 ? @ersonal confidence about the sub>ect matter . ? .sefulness of the sub>ect's content 6 ? Sub>ect is %ercei(ed as a male domain # ? @erce%tion of teacher's attitudes # ? Auestion reflects %ositi(e attitude - ? Auestion reflects negati(e attitude &ate'ory \$uestion Attitu of % de \$uestion 1 5 # & # # 7 . # 9 5 : . ; 6 # ! # = 5 6 1" . # 11 6 -

1& 17 19 1: 1; 1! 1= 1 &" &1 && &7 &9 &: &; &! &= & 7" 71 7& 77 79 7: 7; 7! 7= 7 9" 91 9& 97 99 9: 9; 9!

5 . # 6 # . 6 5 # . # 5 6 5 # . 6 . # 6 5 5 . # 6 5 6 . # 5 . 5 . # 6 #

# # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # #

Scorin' (irections: Each %ositi(e item recei(es the score based on %oints

A? +? 5?7 3?& E?1 : 9 #he scoring for each negati(e item should be re(ersed A?1 +?& 5?7 3?9 E?: Add the scores for each grou%, #, 5, ., 6, to get a total for that attitude. #he highest %ossible score for each grou% of statements is ;" %oints.

Woodrow Wilson Leadership Program in Mathematics lpt@www.woodrow.org The Woodrow Wilson National Fellowship Foundation webmaster@woodrow.org N !"#\$% Princeton N& '#!()*!"#\$ ,-'./(!"*''-Tel+,-'./(!"*0''0 Fa1+