You are on page 1of 165

Independent Task Force Report No.

63
Jeb Bush and Thomas F. McLarty III, Chairs
Edward Alden, Project Director
U.S.
Immigration
Policy
www.cfr.org
Edward Alden
Council on Foreign Relations
Mary Boies
Boies & McInnis LLP
Robert C. Bonner
The Sentinel HS Group;
Gibson, Dunn & Crutcher LLP
Jeb Bush
Jeb Bush and Associates, LLC
Allan E. Goodman
Institute of International Education
Gordon H. Hanson
University of California, San Diego
Michael H. Jordan
MHJ Holdings Co.
Donald Kerwin
Migration Policy Institute
Richard D. Land
The Ethics & Religious
Liberty Commission
Elisa Massimino
Human Rights First
Thomas F. McLarty III
McLarty Associates
Eliseo Medina
Service Employees
International Union
Steve Padilla
Aquarius Group Inc.
Robert D. Putnam
Harvard University
Andrew D. Selee
Woodrow Wilson International
Center for Scholars
Margaret D. Stock
U.S. Army Reserve
Frances Fragos Townsend
Baker Botts, LLP
Kathleen Campbell Walker
Brown McCarroll, LLP
Raul H. Yzaguirre
Arizona State University
The Council on Foreign Relations sponsors Independent Task Forces to assess
issues of current and critical importance to U.S. foreign policy and provide policy-
makers with concrete judgments and recommendations. Diverse in backgrounds
and perspectives, Task Force members aim to reach a meaningful consensus on
policy through private and nonpartisan deliberations. Once launched, Task Forces
are independent of CFR and solely responsible for the content of their reports. Task
Force members are asked to join a consensus signifying that they endorse the gen-
eral policy thrust and judgments reached by the group, though not necessarily every
nding and recommendation. Each Task Force member also has the option of put-
ting forward an additional or dissenting view. Members afliations are listed for
identication purposes only and do not imply institutional endorsement. Task Force
observers participate in discussions, but are not asked to join the consensus.
Task Force Members


U
.
S
.

I
m
m
i
g
r
a
t
i
o
n

P
o
l
i
c
y
I
n
d
e
p
e
n
d
e
n
t

T
a
s
k

F
o
r
c
e

R
e
p
o
r
t

N
o
.

6
3
CFR CLAY CMYK
CFR CLAY RGB
CFR WHITESAND CMYK
CFR WHITESAND RGB
CFR MARBLE CMYK
CFR MARBLE RGB
Spine Should Adjust
Text should be centered on Spine
Bar Code goes in white box
U.S. Immigrarion Policy
Inoepenoenr Task Force Reporr No. 6
[eb Bush ano Thomas F. McLarry III,
Chuirs
Eowaro Aloen, lroject Director
U.S. Immigrarion Policy
The Council on Foreign Relarions (CFR) is an inoepenoenr, nonparrisan membership organizarion, rhink
rank, ano publisher oeoicareo ro being a resource for irs members, governmenr ofcials, business execu-
rives, |ournalisrs, eoucarors ano sruoenrs, civic ano religious leaoers, ano orher inreresreo cirizens in oroer
ro help rhem berrer unoersrano rhe worlo ano rhe foreign policy choices facing rhe Unireo Srares ano orher
counrries. Founoeo in :j::, CFR carries our irs mission by mainraining a oiverse membership, wirh special
programs ro promore inreresr ano oevelop experrise in rhe nexr generarion of foreign policy leaoers, con-
vening meerings ar irs heaoquarrers in New York ano in Vashingron, DC, ano orher ciries where senior
governmenr ofcials, members of Congress, global leaoers, ano prominenr rhinkers come rogerher wirh
CFR members ro oiscuss ano oebare ma|or inrernarional issues, supporring a Sruoies Program rhar fosrers
inoepenoenr research, enabling CFR scholars ro proouce arricles, reporrs, ano books ano holo rounorables
rhar analyze foreign policy issues ano make concrere policy recommenoarions, publishing Ioreign jjuirs,
rhe preeminenr |ournal on inrernarional affairs ano U.S. foreign policy, sponsoring Inoepenoenr Task
Forces rhar proouce reporrs wirh borh noings ano policy prescriprions on rhe mosr imporranr foreign
policy ropics, ano provioing up-ro-oare informarion ano analysis abour worlo evenrs ano American foreign
policy on irs websire, www.cfr.org.
The Council on Foreign Relarions rakes no insrirurional posirion on policy issues ano has no afliarion wirh
rhe U.S. governmenr. All sraremenrs of facr ano expressions of opinion conraineo in irs publicarions are rhe
sole responsibiliry of rhe aurhor or aurhors.
The Council on Foreign Relarions sponsors Inoepenoenr Task Forces ro assess issues of currenr ano crirical
imporrance ro U.S. foreign policy ano provioe policymakers wirh concrere |uogmenrs ano recommenoa-
rions. Diverse in backgrounos ano perspecrives, Task Force members aim ro reach a meaningful consensus
on policy rhrough privare ano nonparrisan oeliberarions. Once launcheo, Task Forces are inoepenoenr of
CFR ano solely responsible for rhe conrenr of rheir reporrs. Task Force members are askeo ro |oin a consen-
sus signifying rhar rhey enoorse rhe general policy rhrusr ano |uogmenrs reacheo by rhe group, rhough nor
necessarily every noing ano recommenoarion. Each Task Force member also has rhe oprion of purring
forwaro an aooirional or oissenring view. Members afliarions are lisreo for ioenricarion purposes only
ano oo nor imply insrirurional enoorsemenr. Task Force observers parricipare in oiscussions, bur are nor
askeo ro |oin rhe consensus.
For furrher informarion abour CFR or rhis Task Force, please wrire ro rhe Council on Foreign Relarions,
Communicarions, jS Easr 6Srh Srreer, New York, NY :oo6j, or call rhe Direcror of Communicarions ar
:::..joo. Visir CFRs websire ar www.cfr.org.
Copyrighr :ooj by rhe Council on Foreign Relarions, Inc.
All righrs reserveo.
Prinreo in rhe Unireo Srares of America.
This reporr may nor be reproouceo in whole or in parr, in any form beyono rhe reprooucrion permirreo
by Secrions :o; ano :oS of rhe U.S. Copyrighr Law Acr (:; U.S.C. Secrions :o; ano :oS) ano excerprs by
reviewers for rhe public press, wirhour express wrirren permission from rhe Council on Foreign Relarions.
For informarion, wrire ro rhe Publicarions Ofce, Council on Foreign Relarions, jS Easr 6Srh Srreer, New
York, NY :oo6j.
This reporr is prinreo on paper cerrieo by SmarrVooo ro rhe sranoaros of rhe Foresr Srewaroship Council,
which promores environmenrally responsible, socially benecial, ano economically viable managemenr of
rhe worlos foresrs.
Task Force members are askeo ro |oin a consensus signifying rhar rhey
enoorse rhe general policy rhrusr ano |uogmenrs reacheo by rhe group,
rhough nor necessarily every noing ano recommenoarion. They parric-
ipare in rhe Task Force in rheir inoivioual, nor insrirurional, capaciries.
Task Force Members
Eowaro Aloen
Mary Boies
Roberr C. Bonner*
[eb Bush
Allan E. Coooman
Coroon H. Hanson
Michael H. [oroan
Donalo Kerwin
Richaro D. Lano
Elisa Massimino*
Thomas F. McLarry III
Eliseo Meoina*
Sreve Paoilla
Roberr D. Purnam
Anorew D. Selee
Margarer D. Srock
Frances Fragos Townseno
Karhleen Campbell Valker*
Raul H. Yzaguirre
*The inoivioual has enoorseo rhe reporr ano submirreo an aooirional or oissenring view.
Ioreword ix
clnowledgments xiii
cronyms xv
Task Force Reporr :
Inrrooucrion
Immigrarion ano U.S. Narional Inreresrs j
The Neeo for Comprehensive Immigrarion Reform
Recommenoarions S
Conclusion: Mainraining rhe Focus :::
dditionul or Dissenting \iews ii
Endnotes ii,
Tusl Iorce Members iz8
Tusl Iorce Observers i8
Conrenrs
ix
Few issues on rhe American polirical agenoa are more complex or
oivisive rhan immigrarion. There is no shorrage of problems wirh cur-
renr policies ano pracrices, from rhe oifculries ano oelays rhar con-
fronr many legal immigranrs ro rhe large number of illegal immigranrs
living in rhe counrry. Moreover, few issues rouch as many areas of U.S.
oomesric life ano foreign policy. Immigrarion is a marrer of homelano
securiry ano inrernarional comperirivenessas well as a oeeply human
issue cenrral ro rhe lives of millions of inoiviouals ano families. Ir curs ro
rhe hearr of quesrions of cirizenship ano American ioenriry ano plays a
large role in shaping borh Americas realiry ano irs image in rhe worlo.
Immigrarions emergence as a foreign policy issue coincioes wirh
rhe increasing reach of globalizarion. Nor only musr counrries rooay
compere ro arrracr ano rerain ralenreo people from arouno rhe worlo,
bur rhe view of rhe Unireo Srares as a place of unparalleleo openness
ano opporruniry is also crucial ro rhe mainrenance of American leao-
ership. There is a consensus rhar currenr policy is nor serving rhe
Unireo Srares well on any of rhese fronrs. Yer agreemenr on reform
has proveo elusive.
The goal of rhe Inoepenoenr Task Force on U.S. Immigrarion Policy
was ro examine rhis complex issue ano crafr a nuanceo srraregy for
reforming immigrarion policies ano pracrices. The Task Force reporr
argues rhar immigrarion is viral ro rhe long-rerm prosperiry ano secu-
riry of rhe Unireo Srares. In rhe global comperirion ro arrracr highly
ralenreo immigranrs, rhe Unireo Srares musr ensure rhar ir remains rhe
oesrinarion of rsr choice. The reporr also nos rhar immigranrs, who
bring neeoeo language ano culrural skills, are an increasingly impor-
ranr asser for rhe U.S. armeo forces. Vhar is more, allowing people ro
come ro rhis counrry ro visir, sruoy, or work is one of rhe suresr means
ro builo frienoships wirh furure generarions of foreign leaoers ano ro
show Americas besr face ro rhe worlo.
Foreworo
x Foreworo
The Task Force nos rhar gerring legal immigrarion righr will also
help policymakers rackle rhe issue of illegal immigrarion. As rhe rer-
rorisr arracks of Seprember :: oemonsrrareo, porous boroers can be a
serious securiry vulnerabiliry, ano even as rhe Unireo Srares welcomes
immigranrs, ir musr be able ro conrrol who is enrering rhe counrry.
The Task Force nos rhar rhe wioespreao presence of illegal immi-
granrs has weakeneo rhe rule of law, creareo unfair comperirion for
rhe American workforce, ano srraineo rhe eoucarion ano healrh buo-
gers of many srares. Ir also nos rhar raking sreps ro resolve rhe fes-
rering problem of illegal immigrarion is necessary for improving U.S.
relarions wirh Mexico.
The Task Force reporr recommenos rhar Congress ano rhe aominis-
rrarion launch a new efforr ro pass comprehensive immigrarion reform
legislarion, builr arouno a grano bargain wirh rhree elemenrs: improve-
menrs ro rhe legal immigrarion sysrem so rhar ir funcrions more ef-
cienrly ro arrracr ano rerain ralenreo ano ambirious immigranrs, a robusr
enforcemenr regime rhar secures Americas boroers ano srrongly ois-
courages employers from hiring illegal workers, ano a program of legal-
izarion rhar will allow many of rhose alreaoy living in rhe Unireo Srares
illegally ro earn rhe righr ro remain. The reporr calls for new measures
ro bring in rhe besr foreign sruoenrs by removing many of rhe quoras
ano orher roaoblocks currenrly in place. Ir also recommenos reconsio-
erarion of some of rhe posr-jj:: boroer measures rhar have oiscourageo
rravel ro rhe Unireo Srares. Moreover, rhe reporr urges opening avenues
for lower-skilleo workers ro come ro rhe Unireo Srares borh remporar-
ily ano permanenrly, bur wirh new mechanisms for ao|usring rhe num-
bers baseo on rhe neeos of rhe American economy. Finally, ir calls for
conrinueo improvemenrs in enforcemenr, incluoing rhe crearion of vir-
rual boroers ro moniror enrry, an elecrronic vericarion sysrem for rhe
workplace, ano much rougher sancrions againsr employers who oelib-
erarely hire illegal immigranrs.
On behalf of rhe Council on Foreign Relarions, I rhank Task Force
chairs [eb Bush ano Mack McLarry, whose experience, wisoom, ano
passion for gerring immigrarion policy righr have unoerpinneo rhis
efforr. CFR is also inoebreo ro all Task Force members, a group of prom-
inenr inoiviouals whose insighrs ano experrise were inoispensable. I am
grareful ro Anya Schmemann, oirecror of CFRs Task Force program,
who skillfully guioeo rhis pro|ecr from srarr ro nish. Finally, I rhank
xi Foreworo
Eowaro Aloen, CFRs Bernaro L. Schwarrz senior fellow, for ably ano
parienrly oirecring rhe pro|ecr ano wriring rhe reporr. All involveo have
proouceo a oocumenr rhar offers a clear ano pracrical way forwaro as
rhe Obama aominisrrarion ano Congress work ro oevelop much neeoeo
changes ro rhe U.S. immigrarion sysrem.
Richard N. Haass
lresident
Council on Foreign Relarions
[uly :ooj
xiii
Some years ago, I hao rhe pleasure of working as a newspaper eoirorial
wrirer, a |ob rhar requireo meering oaily wirh a group of srrong-willeo,
inoepenoenr |ournalisrs ano rrying ro hash our a common srance on rhe
big issues of rhe oay. Over rhe course of rhe many meerings, emails, ano
relephone conversarions rhar leo ro rhis reporr, I have hao many occa-
sions ro be rhankful for rhar experience.
The reporr of rhe Inoepenoenr Task Force on U.S. Immigrarion Policy
is rhe prooucr of a grear oeal of oeoicareo work ano efforr by rhe mem-
bers of rhe Task Force, ano I am immensely grareful for rhe rime ano care
rhey oevoreo ro rhis pro|ecr. In parricular, I rhank our chairs, [eb Bush
ano Mack McLarry, for rheir leaoership ano acumen in builoing consen-
sus on whar has roo ofren been an exrremely oivisive issue. Ir has been a
pleasure ano a privilege ro work wirh rhem ano ro learn from rhem.
The reporr benereo immensely from a series of oursioe meerings.
Kay King ano her ream organizeo a preview evenr wirh CFR members
in Vashingron, leo by Task Force member Anorew D. Selee, ano a ses-
sion wirh ambassaoors ano orher senior Vashingron oiplomars who
shareo rheir views on how U.S. immigrarion policies have affecreo rheir
counrries. Task Force member Eliseo Meoina arrangeo a meering wirh
represenrarives of church, labor union, ano human righrs groups ro hear
rheir perspecrives. Nancy D. Boourrha ano her ream organizeo a pre-
view evenr for CFR members in New York, leo by Task Force observer
Shannon K. ONeil. Irina A. Faskianos ano her ream organizeo a series
of review sessions wirh CFR members across rhe counrry. I especially
rhank Task Force members Roberr C. Bonner ano Coroon H. Hanson
for hosring meerings in Los Angeles ano San Diego, respecrively, ano
former Task Force member (now commerce secrerary) Cary Locke for
leaoing rhe meering in Searrle.
Parricia Dorff ano Lia C. Norron assisreo in eoiring rhe reporr, ano
rhen reaoieo ir for publicarion. CFRs Communicarions, Corporare,
Acknowleogmenrs
xiv Acknowleogmenrs
Exrernal Affairs, ano Ourreach reams workeo ro ensure rhar rhe reporr
reaches rhe wioesr auoience possible.
I am also rhankful ro rhe long lisr of people who mer wirh me ano
various represenrarives of rhe Task Force, lenoing rheir aovice ano
experrise ro rhe ropic, incluoing Doris Meissner, who briefeo us on rhe
Migrarion Policy Insrirures ne reporr. I nore in parricular rhe mem-
bers of my CFR Rounorable on U.S. Boroer, Visa, ano Immigrarion
Policies, which has mer regularly on rhese issues.
Anya Schmemann ano Swerha Srioharan of rhe Task Force Pro-
gram, ano my research associare Anorew Rorras, were insrrumenral
ro rhis pro|ecr from beginning ro eno, from rhe selecrion of Task Force
members ro rhe convening of meerings ro rhe careful eoiring of mulriple
orafrs. Anoy also provioeo invaluable research assisrance, unfailingly
responoing ro my requesrs ro oelve inro some orher obscure region of
immigrarion law.
I am also grareful ro CFR Presioenr Richaro N. Haass for giving me
rhe opporruniry ro oirecr rhis imporranr efforr. Ve rhank Davio M.
Rubensrein for his supporr of rhe Task Force program ano Bernaro
L. Schwarrz for his generous supporr of CFRs work on American
compeririveness.
Edward Alden
lroject Director
xv
AgJOBS Agriculrural [ob Opporruniries, Beners, ano Securiry
CAFTA Cenrral American Free Traoe Agreemenr
CBP Cusroms ano Boroer Prorecrion
DHS Deparrmenr of Homelano Securiry
DREAM Developmenr, Relief, ano Eoucarion for Alien Minors
EU European Union
GDP gross oomesric prooucr
ICE Immigrarion ano Cusroms Enforcemenr
IRCA Immigrarion Reform ano Conrrol Acr
MPI Migrarion Policy Insrirure
NAFTA Norrh American Free Traoe Agreemenr
NEC Narional Economic Council
NRC Narional Research Council
NSEERS Narional Securiry Enrry-Exir Regisrrarion Sysrem
OECD Organizarion for Economic Cooperarion ano
Developmenr
SBODAC Secure Boroers ano Open Doors Aovisory Commirree
USCIS U.S. Cirizenship ano Immigrarion Services
WHTI Vesrern Hemisphere Travel Iniriarive
Acronyms
Tusl Iorce Report

Inrrooucrion
The Unireo Srares, a counrry shapeo by generarions of immigranrs ano
rheir oescenoanrs, is baoly mishanoling irs immigrarion policy, wirh
serious consequences for irs sranoing in rhe worlo. The urgency of rhis
issue has leo rhe Council on Foreign Relarions ro convene an Inoepen-
oenr Task Force ro oeal wirh whar is oroinarily regaroeo as a oomesric
policy marrer. Americas openness ro ano respecr for immigranrs has
long been a founoarion of irs economic ano milirary srrengrh, ano a viral
rool in irs oiplomaric arsenal. Virh rraoe, rechnology, ano rravel con-
rinuing ro shrink rhe worlo, rhe manner in which rhe Unireo Srares han-
oles immigrarion will be increasingly imporranr ro American foreign
policy in rhe furure. The Tusl Iorce believes thut the continued juilure to
devise und implement u sound und sustuinuble immigrution policy threutens
to weulen mericus economy, to jeopurdize its diplomucy, und to imperil its
nutionul security.
Vhy is rhe counrry facing rhis crisis? Immigrarion shoulo be seen
as one of Americas grear success srories. The Unireo Srares has for
generarions welcomeo large numbers of immigranrs, founo prooucrive
employmenr for rhem, ano successfully inregrareo rhem inro irs popula-
rion. Unlike many orher aovanceo counrries, high levels of immigrarion
have largely mainraineo whar woulo orherwise be a shrinking popula-
rion of working-age aoulrs, a huge economic aovanrage for rhe Unireo
Srares. This counrry has been especially gooo ar arrracring ambirious,
skilleo people. For ralenreo immigranrs across rhe worlo, rhe Unireo
Srares has long been rhe oesrinarion of rsr choice. Many innovarive
ano successful new American companiesCoogle, Inrel, eBay, ano
counrless orhershave been builr by recenr immigranrs. Ar rhe same
rime, rhe abunoanr opporruniries for immigranrs ro aovance ano suc-
ceeo here have largely spareo rhe Unireo Srares from rhe kinos of inrer-
nal securiry rhrears rhar have faceo European counrries, where some
immigranrs are more marginalizeo.
U.S. Immigrarion Policy
Americas arrracriveness ro immigranrs is essenrial ro irs prosperiry,
ano will be especially imporranr in helping rhe Unireo Srares recover
ano emerge srronger from rhe currenr global economic oownrurn. In a
worlo in which many of rhe barriers ro free rraoe have been eliminareo,
ano high-wage counrries are in oirecr comperirion wirh lower-wage
counrries, innovarion is rhe essence of mainraining economic aovanrage.
Innovarion requires, more rhan anyrhing else, an abunoance of smarr
people wirh oiverse knowleoge ano experience. No single counrry, how-
ever impressive irs eoucarional sysrem, conrains wirhin irs boroers a
preponoerance of rhe worlos mosr ralenreo inoiviouals. The Tusl Iorce
believes thut one oj the centrul reusons the Lnited Stutes uchieved und hus been
uble to retuin its position oj globul leudership is thut it is constuntly replenish-
ing its pool oj tulent, not just with the ublest und hurdest worling jrom inside
its borders, but with the best jrom uround the world. Muintuining mericun
economic und politicul leudership depends on muintuining thut ow oj tulent.
Immigrarion has paio oirecr oiplomaric beners for rhe Unireo
Srares as well. Americas openness ro foreign sruoenrs, invesrors, busi-
nesspeople, ano visirors is a oiplomaric asser rhar no orher counrry has
replicareo. The Srare Deparrmenr keeps on irs websire a lisr of currenr
ano former foreign leaoers eoucareo ar American universiries rhar runs
inro rhe hunoreos. These U.S.-eoucareo foreign leaoers are enormously
helpful for American foreign policy, provioing a core of inoiviouals in
imporranr posirions across rhe worlo inclineo ro be symparheric ro rhe
Unireo Srares ano irs aims. Colin Powell, rhe former secrerary of srare,
has saio rhar foreign sruoenrs rerurn home wirh an increaseo unoer-
sranoing ano lasring affecrion for rhe Unireo Srares. I can rhink of no
more valuable asser ro our counrry rhan rhe frienoship of furure worlo
leaoers who have been eoucareo here. Roberr Cares, rhe secrerary of
oefense, has echoeo rhar |uogmenr: In rhe lasr half cenrury, allowing
sruoenrs from orher counrries ro sruoy here has been rhe mosr posi-
rive rhing America has oone ro win frienos from arouno rhe worlo.
The currenr secrerary of srare, Hillary Clinron, saio in a recenr speech
rhar rhe beners of such exchanges are so grear rhar I am commirreo ro
srreamline rhe visa process, parricularly for science ano rechnology sru-
oenrs, so rhar even more qualieo sruoenrs will come ro our campuses
in rhe furure. There is srrong evioence rhar when sruoenrs from non-
oemocraric counrries are eoucareo abroao in oemocraric counrries like
rhe Unireo Srares, rhose who rerurn home rake rhose values wirh rhem
ano play an imporranr role in rrying ro builo oemocraric insrirurions
j Inrrooucrion
in rheir own counrries.
!
U.S. immigrarion policy has also been one of
rhe more effecrive ways ro encourage oevelopmenr in poorer counrries.
The Unireo Srares has raiseo rhe living sranoaros of millions of people
arouno rhe worlo simply by allowing rhem ro move here ano earn higher
wages. Remirrances from rhe Unireo Srares ano orher aovanceo coun-
rries ro rhe oeveloping worlo owarf ofcial oevelopmenr aio as a source
of funos for many oeveloping counrries, amounring ro more rhan Soj
billion in :ooS.
2
Many immigranrs who succeeo here eno up rerurning
home, bringing back neeoeo skills ano builoing economic links berween
rheir counrries of birrh ano rhe Unireo Srares, which help generare eco-
nomic oevelopmenr rhar reouces rhe pressure ro migrare.
Despire such exrraoroinary beners, rhe conrinueo inabiliry of rhe
Unireo Srares ro oevelop ano enforce a workable sysrem of immigrarion
laws rhrearens ro unoermine rhese achievemenrs. The Tusl Iorce nds thut
the inudequucies oj L.S. immigrution policy huve deprived the Lnited Stutes oj
some oj the benets thut would otherwise be reulized us u result oj its generous
immigrution regime. This is mosr apparenr in rhe large popularion of immi-
granrs living illegally in rhis counrry. Alrhough rhe numbers have begun
ro fall in rhe currenr economic oownrurn, illegal immigrarion remains a
serious problem. Nearly rwelve million people are srill living ano working
in rhe Unireo Srares wirhour rhe aurhorizarion ro oo soa siruarion rhar
oiminishes respecr for rhe law, creares porenrial securiry risks, weakens
labor righrs, srrains U.S. relarions wirh irs Mexican neighbor, ano unfairly
buroens public eoucarion ano social services in many srares.
There are serious oisagreemenrs in rhis counrry over whar shoulo be
oone regaroing rhe currenr popularion of illegal migranrs, oifferences
rhar have helo hosrage almosr every orher elemenr of rhe immigrarion
agenoa. Bur rhere is no oisagreemenr rhar rhe srarus quo is inrolerable.
The wioespreao presence of illegal immigranrs offenos funoamenral
norions of fairness, ano calls inro quesrion whar ir means ro be a sover-
eign narion. Ar rhe same rime, U.S. efforrs ro crack oown on rhe prob-
lem have ar rimes leo ro harsh or arbirrary measures rhar are ar ooos
wirh Americas respecr for rhe oigniry ano righrs of inoiviouals, mosr of
whom are here in an orherwise lauoable efforr ro berrer rheir lives ano
rhe lives of rheir families. The lure of higher wages or grearer polirical
ano culrural freeoom in rhe Unireo Srares will conrinue ro arrracr many
ro rake rhe risks of migraring illegally. Bur, increasingly, rhey face a oan-
gerous gaunrler of immigranr smugglers, sreppeo-up boroer enforce-
menr, ano rhe rhrear of criminal prosecurion for rhe rewaro of whar is
6 U.S. Immigrarion Policy
ofren an insecure |ob rhar lacks basic workplace prorecrions. Furrher,
wirh rhe Unireo Srares rrying ro righren irs legal visa ano immigrarion
regime ro help prevenr rerrorisr arracks by exrremisrs coming inro rhe
Unireo Srares from overseas, illegal migrarion also creares an unaccepr-
able securiry risk, making ir oifculr for rhe governmenr ro know any-
rhing abour millions of people who are crossing U.S. boroers or alreaoy
living in rhe counrry.
Alrhough rhe Unireo Srares has been unable ro conrrol illegal immi-
grarion, rhe legal sysrem of enrry is plagueo by backlogs ano oelays, so
rhar many people cannor come ro rhis counrry in a rimely fashion, or
eno up living here in a prolongeo remporary srarus rhar provioes lirrle
cerrainry for rhemselves or rheir families. This is rhe case borh because
of srarurory resrricrions on rhe number of people alloweo ro immi-
grare by counrry ano caregory each year, ano because of unnecessary
oelays in processing creareo by inefciencies in rhe governmenr ano
rhe large volume of immigrarion-relareo applicarions. These oelays can
orive some of rhe mosr ralenreo inoiviouals ro orher counrries, ano can
force many families inro long ano painful separarions. There is a wioe-
spreaoano accurareperceprion rhar rhe immigrarion sysrem is nor
working nearly as well as ir shoulo be, eirher for Americans or for many
of rhe immigranrs. This counrry can, ano musr, oo berrer.
The Tusl Iorce envisions un mericu thut, recognizing both its rich trudi-
tions us un immigrunt nution und the muny benets brought by immigru-
tion, generously welcomes immigrunts through un orderly und ejcient legul
system. |t envisions u nution thut enjorces sensible und understunduble visu
und immigrution luws thut welcome those who wish to visit, study, invest, und
worl here. |t envisions un mericu thut ejjectively controls und secures its
borders, denying entry to those who ure not permitted und denying jobs to
those who ure not uuthorized to worl here.
As was apparenr in rhe heareo oebares rhar accompanieo rhe congres-
sional efforr ro overhaul U.S. immigrarion laws in :oo6 ano :oo;, such
a vision will nor easily be realizeo. There are many conicring inreresrs
in immigrarion policy, ano reconciling such oifferences is likely ro be no
easier in rhe furure rhan ir has been ro oare. Bur rhe srakes are roo high ro
fail. If rhe Unireo Srares conrinues ro mishanole irs immigrarion policy,
ir will oamage one of rhe viral unoerpinnings of American prosperiry
ano securiry, ano coulo conoemn rhe counrry ro a long, slow oecline in
irs srarus in rhe worlo. The Task Force is encourageo by rhe signals from
rhe Obama aominisrrarion ano Congress rhar immigrarion reform will
be a rop prioriry.
; Inrrooucrion
Legislarion is a crirical parr of improving rhe immigrarion sysrem,
ano Congress has alreaoy laio some of rhe imporranr grounowork. The
Tusl Iorce believes thut the busic logic underlying the zoo6 und zoo; ejjorts
ut comprehensive immigrution rejorm bills remuins soundthere needs to
be u grund burguin thut uddresses three issues. Iirst, there should be legis-
lution thut rejorms the legul immigrution system so thut it operutes more
ejciently, responds more uccurutely to lubor murlet needs, und enhunces
L.S. competitiveness. Second, the integrity oj the system needs to be restored
through un enjorcement regime thut strongly discouruges employers und
employees jrom operuting outside thut legul system. Iinully, there must
be u humune und orderly wuy to ullow muny oj the roughly twelve million
migrunts currently living illegully in the Lnited Stutes to eurn the right to
remuin here legully.
Alrhough legislarion is imporranr, no legislarive reform will succeeo
wirhour a commirmenr ro improve signicanrly rhe currenr sysrem
for hanoling legal immigrarion ano enforcing U.S. laws againsr illegal
immigrarion. Much as rhe governmenr has recenrly provioeo oesper-
arely neeoeo resources for improving securiry ar rhe counrrys boroers
ano enforcing immigrarion laws more effecrively, rhe Unireo Srares
musr also invesr in builoing ano aominisrering a mooern, efcienr
sysrem ro hanole legal immigrarion ano remporary visa applicarions.
No enforcemenr efforr will succeeo properly unless rhe legal channels
for coming ro rhe Unireo Srares can be maoe ro work berrer. The Tusl
Iorce believes thut the L.S. government must invest in creuting u worling
immigrution system thut ulleviutes long und counterproductive bucllogs und
deluys, und ensures thut whutever luws ure enucted by Congress ure enjorced
thoroughly und ejjectively.
The reporr rhar follows is oivioeo inro rhree secrions. Firsr, ir ois-
cusses how American narional inreresrs are ar srake in irs hanoling of
immigrarion, ano assesses how well currenr U.S. policies are serving
rhose inreresrs. Secono, ir lays our an argumenr for moving forwaro on
comprehensive immigrarion reform in a way rhar opens ooors ro legal
immigranrs ano closes rhem for rhose who rry ro skirr rhe rules. Lasr, ir
presenrs a ser of recommenoarions borh for changes ro U.S. immigra-
rion laws, ano for ongoing, incremenral improvemenrs in rhe funcrion-
ing of immigrarion policies. Vhile nor inrenoeo as a comprehensive
blueprinr, rhe reporr lays our a series of principles ano concrere recom-
menoarions rhar rhe Task Force believes musr be ar rhe hearr of rhe U.S.
efforr ro oevelop an immigrarion policy rhar berrer serves Americas
narional inreresrs.
S U.S. Immigrarion Policy
TBLE 1. SELECT| O^ OI WORLD LEDERS
W| TH MER| C^ EDLCT| O^
Country Name Title University/College
Colombia lvaro Uribe Velez Presioenr Harvaro Universiry
Czech Republic Vclav Klaus Presioenr Cornell Universiry
Ceorgia Mikhail Saakashvili Presioenr Columbia Universiry
Chana Ko Annan Secrerary-Ceneral Macalesrer College,
of rhe Unireo MIT
Narions (former)
Creece Kosras Karamanlis Prime Minisrer Tufrs Universiry
Inoonesia Susilo Bambang Presioenr Vebsrer Universiry
Yuohoyono
Israel Ben|amin Prime Minisrer MIT
Neranyahu
Israel Shimon Peres Presioenr New York Universiry,
Harvaro Universiry
[apan Taro Aso Prime Minisrer Sranforo Universiry
[oroan Naoer al-Dahabi Prime Minisrer Auburn Universiry
Mexico Felipe Caloern Presioenr Harvaro Universiry
Pakisran Benazir Bhurro Prime Minisrer Harvaro Universiry
(former)
Phillipines Cloria Presioenr Ceorgerown
Macapagal-Arroyo Universiry
Republic Ban Ki-moon Secrerary-Ceneral Harvaro Universiry
of Korea of rhe
Unireo Narions
Sauoi Arabia Banoar bin Sulran Secrerary-Ceneral [ohns Hopkins
bin Aboulaziz of rhe Narional Universiry
Securiry Council
Taiwan Ma Ying-|eou Presioenr New York Universiry,
Harvaro Universiry
Unireo Kingoom Davio Milibano Secrerary of Srare MIT
for Foreign ano
Commonwealrh
Affairs
Sources. U.S. Deparrmenr of Srare, original research.
j
Immigrarion ano U.S. Narional Inreresrs
For any sovereign narion, oecioing who will be alloweo ro live in rhe
counrry is a funoamenral quesrion. The Unireo Srares cannor permir
everyone in rhe worlo who woulo like ro live here ro oo so. Aparr from
rhe nire capaciry of rhis counrry ano irs insrirurions ro absorb such an
inux, a complerely laissez-faire approach of rhis sorr woulo oevalue
whar ir means ro be a cirizen. Cirizenship in any counrry comes wirh
a series of righrs ano obligarions, ano ir is up ro Americas oemocraric
insrirurions ro oecioe who shoulo be invireo ro parricipare.
Thar premise, however reasonable ano wioely shareo, is also rhe
funoamenral source of many of rhe problems rhar plague U.S. immi-
grarion policy. Immigrarion laws are oesigneo ro mainrain limirs ro
enrry. They are inrenoeo ro enforce quoras rhar resrricr who can come
here ano ro keep our rhose who are oeemeo unoesirablefrom rhe
small number of rerrorisrs ano criminals who pose a genuine rhrear,
ro rhe much larger number who rry ro |ump rhe queue in an orherwise
lauoable efforr ro improve rheir lives ano rhe lives of rheir families.
Like any rarioning sysrem, enforcing such limirs is exrremely oifculr,
parricularly in rhe face of rapio popularion growrh, ease of rravel, ano
a more closely inregrareo global economy. Efforrs ar immigrarion
reform musr acknowleoge rhe limirs of any governmenrs abiliry ro
conrrol such large oemographic ano economic forces. U.S. immigra-
rion laws can be maoe much berrer, bur, given rhe scale of rhe rask,
rhey will always be imperfecr.
The Unireo Srares, as a narion builr ano shapeo by immigranrs, has
for much of irs hisrory hao a more open ooor rhan mosr orher aovanceo
counrries. Yer Americans, like people everywhere, have ofren been
ambivalenr abour immigrarion. Alrhough rhe rale of rhe impoverisheo
immigranr maoe gooo is a funoamenral parr of U.S. hisrory, rhe Unireo
Srares has been no more immune rhan any orher narion ro rhe fears rhar
:o U.S. Immigrarion Policy
come when people who speak oifferenr languages, have oifferenr cul-
rures, ano embrace oifferenr fairhs come ro live rogerher. Ano rhough
immigrarion brings many beners, a growing popularion places pres-
sures on public services, ano resulrs in new comperirion for some |obs
even as ir creares many orhers ano helps rhe economy ro grow. Concerns
over rhe cosrs of immigrarion inevirably rise eirher when rhe growrh in
rhe number of immigranrs is large, or when rhe economy is experienc-
ing a oownrurn. The Unireo Srares currenrly faces borh.
The Unireo Srares has been absorbing close ro one million new legal
immigranrs ano unril recenrly as many as ve hunoreo rhousano more
illegal immigranrs each year. In absolure rerms, rhose are rhe largesr
immigranr ows in rhe worlo. Those numbers are shrinking in rhe cur-
renr recession, which has orieo up rhe |ob opporruniries rhar are rhe
magner for many immigranrs, especially for rhose nor coming here ro
re|oin rheir families. Preliminary evioence suggesrs rhar illegal migra-
rion ro rhe Unireo Srares in parricular has sloweo oramarically over
rhe pasr rwo years.
3
Less clear is wherher rhe weakening economy ano
rougher enforcemenr measures are persuaoing illegal migranrs alreaoy
living in rhe Unireo Srares ro rerurn home, rhough rhere is some anec-
ooral evioence rhar rhis is rhe case.
+
Bur even wirh a oecline, immigra-
rion ro rhe Unireo Srares will srill remain subsranrial compareo ro mosr
counrries in rhe worlo.
Immigrarion ro rhe Unireo Srares is large by any measure, bur ir is
imporranr ro keep rhe gures in perspecrive. As a proporrion of rhe
popularion, rhe number of immigranrs in rhe Unireo Srares is close ro
rhar of orher open, aovanceo counrries: Ausrralia, New Zealano, ano
Canaoa all in facr have higher percenrages rhan rhe Unireo Srares, ano
France ano Cermany are abour rhe same.
5
Immigrarion has long been consioereo primarily a oomesric policy
issue. During perioos of high immigrarion, like rooay, rhe counrry has
worrieo abour irs capaciry ro inregrare new immigranrs ano ro make
rhem parr of a cohesive American sociery. High levels of immigrarion
also pur pressure on many srare ano local services, parricularly eouca-
rion ano hospirals, srare governmenrs are forceo ro pay rhe cosrs for feo-
eral immigrarion policies over which rhey have no conrrol. High levels of
immigrarion also affecr oifferenr parrs of rhe counrry in oifferenr ways.
Large, coasral ciries have long been a magner for immigranrs ano are
accusromeo ro oealing wirh rhe challenges rhrown up by immigrarion,
:: Immigrarion ano U.S. Narional Inreresrs
bur rhe spreao of immigranrs inro smaller ciries ano rowns across rhe
counrry has fosrereo new social rensions in rhese places.
Economically, rhe effecrs of immigrarion are also felr unequally.
U.S. companies bener from a larger, oiverse workforce. Immigranrs
are concenrrareo ar rhe lower- ano higher-skill enos of rhe labor force,
which renos ro complemenr a U.S. labor force rhar is more concen-
rrareo in rhe mioole. Abour 6o percenr of narive-born Americans have
a high school oiploma or some posrseconoary eoucarion, whereas
immigranrs are clusrereo ar rhe exrremes, wirh many having eirher
less rhan a high school eoucarion or a college oegree or higher.
6
High
levels of immigrarion pur some oownwaro pressure on wages, par-
ricularly rhose of lower-skilleo Americans who have also seen rheir
|ob opporruniries ano wages unoer pressure from liberalizeo global
rraoing rules, rhough rhere is oisagreemenr among economisrs on rhe
I| CLRE 1. H| STOR| CL LECL | MM| CRT| O^
TO THE L^| TED STTES, 182u2uu7
!
S
2
0
!
S
3
0
!
S
+
0
!
S
5
0
!
S
6
0
!
S
7
0
!
S
S
0
!
S
9
0
!
9
0
0
!
9
!
0
!
9
2
0
!
9
3
0
!
9
+
0
!
9
5
0
!
9
6
0
!
9
7
0
!
9
S
0
!
9
9
0
2
0
0
0
2
0
0
7
M
i
l
l
i
o
n
s
2.0
!.S
!.6
!.+
!.2
!.0
0.S
0.6
0.+
0.2
0
Source. Migrarion Policy Insrirure, :ooS.
:: U.S. Immigrarion Policy
size of rhese effecrs.
7
Such oomesric social ano economic facrors are
obviously imporranr in shaping U.S. immigrarion policies ano inu-
encing oecisions abour rhe mix of immigranrs rhe Unireo Srares wanrs
ro aomir.
Bur rhere is anorher oimension rhar is equally imporranr. Immigra-
rion has become increasingly cenrral ro American foreign policy, ano
crafring a more workable immigrarion policy is viral ro U.S. foreign as
well as oomesric inreresrs. The Task Force consioers rhe six issues rhar
followrhe economy, narional securiry, Americas image in rhe worlo,
irs core values, oevelopmenr policy, ano rhe viral relarionship wirh
Mexicoro be rhe cenrral foreign policy oimensions ar srake in how
rhe Unireo Srares oeals wirh immigrarion.
TBLE 2. TOl ^T| O^S BY ^LMBER ^D lERCE^TCE
OI | MM| CR^TS
World Rank
Percentage Immigrants Immigrants
Number of of Worlds as Percentage as Percentage
Country Immigrants Immigrants of Population of Population
Unireo Srares 3S,355,000 20.56 +2 !2.S!
Russia !2,0S0,000 6.+7 57 S.+S
Cermany !0,!++,000 5.++ +3 !2.3!
Ukraine 6,S33,000 3.66 36 !+.70
France 6,+7!,000 3.+7 50 !0.!S
Sauoi Arabia 6,36!,000 3.+! !9 25.25
Canaoa 6,!06,000 3.27 25 !S.76
Inoia 5,700,000 3.06 !67 .52
Unireo Kingoom 5,+0S,000 2.90 55 S.9S
Spain +,790,000 2.57 +6 !0.79
Ausrralia +,097,000 2.20 23 !9.93
Peoples Republic 3,S52,000 2.06 !S7 .29
of China
Source. UN World lopulution lolicies zoo reporr.
: Immigrarion ano U.S. Narional Inreresrs
THE ECONOMY
Immigrarion has helpeo make rhe U.S. economy, oespire irs recenr oif-
culries, inro rhe worlos srrongesr ano mosr oynamic, mainraining rhar
economic aovanrage is rhe founoarion of Americas inuence ano power
in rhe worlo. If rhe Unireo Srares loses irs economic eoge, irs power will
oiminish. Cerring immigrarion policy righr is rherefore crirical ro U.S.
economic ano polirical leaoership.
More rhan half rhe recenr growrh in rhe U.S. labor force has come
from immigrarion, ano nearly all rhe furure growrh will come eirher
from immigranrs or from currenr workers oelaying reriremenr.
S

Unlike [apan ano mosr of Europe, which face a sreaoy oecline in rheir
working-age popularions, Americas high immigrarion rares, ano rela-
rively high birrh rares among more recenr immigranrs, have mirigareo
much of rhar oecline.
9
Even counrries seen as new economic rivals ro
rhe Unireo Srares, such as China ano Korea, face signicanr oeclines
in rheir working-age popularions ano are becoming more inreresreo
in arrracring immigranrs rhemselves. The Tusl Iorce nds thut, though
immigrution will not substuntiully urrest the uging oj the mericun populu-
tion, openness to immigrution meuns thut the Lnited Stutes will juce jewer
oj the economic und sociul pressures thut will mount us u growing number
oj mericuns retire und ure supported by u smuller worling-uge populu-
tion. Vhen rhe Unireo Narions examineo global oemographic rrenos
in :ooo, ir founo rhar rhe Unireo Srares was one of rhe few counrries
aomirring enough migranrs ro expano irs working-age popularion,
rhough even rhe Unireo Srares (ano every orher aovanceo counrry)
is far shorr of aomirring enough immigranrs ro mainrain irs rario of
working people ro rhe rerireo eloerly.
!0
The Unireo Srares, along wirh orher aovanceo counrries, is proouc-
ing many |obs in rhe service, rerail, ano leisure secrors rhar are nor
parricularly arrracrive for narive-born workers, bur are a rsr srep on
rhe economic laooer for an unskilleo immigranr. Immigranrs are par-
ricularly overrepresenreo in secrors such as agriculrure, consrrucrion,
|anirorial ano mainrenance work, ano fooo prepararion. The Bureau
of Labor Srarisrics preoicrs rhar rhe ma|oriry of rhe fasresr-growing
|obs over rhe nexr oecaoe will be ones rhar oemano lirrle or no higher
eoucarion, incluoing healrh, leisure, ano hospiraliry services (rhough
orher low-skilleo occuparions such as srock clerks ano cashiers will
: U.S. Immigrarion Policy
oecline). Of rhe rwenry occuparions rhar will see rhe largesr increase in
rhe number of new |obs, rwelve require only on-rhe-|ob rraining.
!!
Ar
rhe same rime, rhe porenrial oomesric pool of such workers has shrunk
as a sreaoily higher percenrage of narive-born inoiviouals have gone on
ro higher eoucarion.
There has been much oebare over wherher more Americans woulo
be willing ro oo such |obs if rhey were more highly paio. The besr answer
is perhaps, bur rhere are many reasons why encouraging more Ameri-
cans ro oo unskilleo work woulo be oifculr, woulo harm rhe economy,
ano woulo nor be in rhe counrrys inreresrs. Among rhe narive born,
fewer rhan :o percenr of rhe popularion fail ro complere high school or
irs equivalenr, ano |usr over 6o percenr are eoucareo beyono rhe high
school level.
!2
Despire rhe growing number of low-skilleo immigranrs
living in rhe Unireo Srares, unskilleo workers have conrinueo ro oecline
as a percenrage of rhe overall labor force. Berween :ooo ano :ooj, for
example, rhe number of American-born working-age aoulrs wirhour
a high school eoucarion fell by abour one million.
!3
Efforrs ro furrher
resrricr immigrarion by low-skilleo workers ano ro lure more eoucareo
people inro unskilleo labor by raising wages for rhose |obs mighr be suc-
cessful, bur only ar rhe cosr of lowering rhe overall size ano prooucriviry
of rhe economy by employing people ar |obs below rheir skill levels. The
ner cosrs ro rhe U.S. economy as a whole woulo be signicanr. There is a
long hisrory in rhe Unireo Srares in which rhe inux of new immigranrs
has inouceo narive-born resioenrs ro furrher rheir eoucarion, enhance
rheir skills, ano move up rhe occuparional laooer, reversing rhis parrern
woulo seno rhe U.S. economy backwaro, nor forwaro.
!+
In some cases,
businesses mighr aoapr ro immigrarion resrricrions by making capiral
improvemenrs rarher rhan paying for a more expensive labor force,
which woulo offser some of rhe prooucriviry oeclines, bur many of rhe
fasr-growing secrors for lower-skilleo work are by rheir narure labor
inrensive, wirh limireo prospecrs for capiral subsrirurions.
Immigrarions economic impacr is nor |usr a quesrion of overall num-
bers. All counrries, rhe Unireo Srares incluoeo, rry ro arrracr skilleo, eou-
careo immigranrs who are likely ro make rhe grearesr conrriburions ro rhe
economy. In rhis efforr, rhe Unireo Srares has hisrorically been exrremely
successful. The Tusl Iorce nds thut immigrution hus brought to the Lnited
Stutes un inordinute shure oj the worlds best tulent, which hus been u windjull
in u globul economy where heuvy udvuntuges uccrue to the most innovutive
compunies und the countries where they ure bused. There is no quesrion rhar
:j Immigrarion ano U.S. Narional Inreresrs
rhe Unireo Srares has en|oyeo an enormous brain gain from immigrarion.
In :ooo, roughly ::.j million legal immigranrs in rhe Unireo Srares hao
more rhan a high school eoucarion, ano accounreo for half of all rhe eou-
careo immigranrs living in rhe Organizarion for Economic Cooperarion
ano Developmenr (OECD) counrries. The secono highesr, Canaoa, hao
|usr over :o percenr.
!5
More rhan one-quarrer of U.S. immigranrs have a
bachelors oegree or higher. The Unireo Srares has also oone berrer rhan
mosr European counrries in arrracring eoucareo immigranrs, rhough
rhar aovanrage has been shrinking in recenr years.
Orher counrries are recognizing rhe beners rhar have accrueo ro
rhe Unireo Srares from being a magner for foreign ralenr. The Euro-
pean Union (EU) is crearing, rhough nor wirhour some conrroversy, a
blue caro rhar will provioe easier enrry inro rhe EU for highly skilleo
workers ano will allow rhem ro work anywhere in Europe.
!6
Canaoa has
implemenreo a poinrs sysrem inrenoeo ro ioenrify immigranrs whose
skills are neeoeo in rhe counrry ano ro make ir easier for rhem ro immi-
grare. Similar sysrems have been launcheo recenrly in Ausrralia, New
Zealano, ano rhe Unireo Kingoom, ano are being consioereo in several
orher European counrries.
!7
In mosr cases, rhose sysrems oo nor incluoe
haro caps on rhe number of skilleo immigranrs who can be aomirreo
each year. In conrrasr, rhe primary U.S. vehicle for arrracring skilleo
immigranrs, rhe H-:B visa program, is currenrly cappeo ar 6j,ooo per
year, wirh anorher :o,ooo visas reserveo for rhose who earneo aovanceo
oegrees from American universiries. In :oo; ano :ooS, oespire some
exibiliry in rhe quora, ir mer less rhan half rhe oemano for rhese work-
ers from U.S. companies ano was lleo quickly afrer ir openeo each year.
This year, wirh rhe severe recession sharply reoucing |ob openings, rhe
quora is likely ro be large enough ro meer mosr of rhe oemano for skilleo
foreign workers.
!S

Some counrries have also quire consciously rrieo ro rake aovanrage
of American missreps, for insrance, by aggressively recruiring foreign
sruoenrs who coulo nor ger visas ro arreno American universiries afrer
jj::, or by offering permanenr srarus ro woulo-be immigranrs ro rhe
Unireo Srares caughr in rhe lengrhy backlogs for green caros.
!9
Canaoa
has increaseo rhe posrsruoy work perioo ro rhree years ano promiseo
ro facilirare permanenr resioence for foreign sruoenr graouares. Brir-
ain, which is secono only ro rhe Unireo Srares in arrracring foreign
sruoenrs, has invesreo aggressively ro increase rhose numbers, aiming
ro aoo :oo,ooo foreign sruoenrs berween :oo6 ano :o::. The Brirish
:6 U.S. Immigrarion Policy
governmenr recenrly offereo a new incenrive by ooubling ro rwo years
rhe rime rhar foreign sruoenrs can remain ro work in rhe counrry afrer
rhey graouare. As former prime minisrer Tony Blair pur ir, Ir is abour
gerring rhe skilleo people we neeo inro our economy, ano builoing links
arouno rhe worlo rhar coulo lasr a liferime. However, rhe Unireo King-
oom has also recenrly inrroouceo far more srringenr enrry requiremenrs
for inrernarional sruoenrs, leaoing ro concerns in rhe higher-eoucarion
secror rhar rhe new resrricrions mighr negarively affecr inrernarional
sruoenr ows inro rhe counrry.
There are new comperirors as well. [apan, which has long resisreo
immigrarion, announceo plans lasr summer ro more rhan oouble irs
number of foreign sruoenrs ro oo,ooo by :o:o. Ir aims ro simplify
immigrarion proceoures, ro hire more English-speaking professors, ano
ro assisr sruoenrs in noing |obs afrer rhey graouare. Some in rhe coun-
rry are proposing a rarger of one million foreign sruoenrs.
20
Singapore
has ser a goal of arrracring :jo,ooo foreign sruoenrs by :o:j, Malaysia
is aiming for :oo,ooo.
2!
Borh [apan ano Singapore subsioize ruirion for
foreign as well as for oomesric sruoenrs. Inoia is making grearer efforrs
ro keep irs aovanceo sruoenrs ar home. Even China is planning ro offer
scholarships for :o,ooo foreign sruoenrs ano hopes ro arrracr joo,ooo
by :o:o. The Unireo Srares is now facing a global comperirion for ralenr,
ano rhough ir holos many aovanrages, ir is no longer rhe only choice for
rhe mosr ralenreo immigranrs seeking aovancemenr.
The Unireo Srares has rrieo in some ways ro respono ro rhis com-
peririon. The Deparrmenr of Homelano Securiry (DHS), for insrance,
recenrly increaseo a posrgraouarion work program known as Oprional
Pracrical Training from rwelve monrhs ro rwenry-nine monrhs for for-
eign sruoenrs graouaring wirh oegrees in science, rechnology, engineer-
ing, or marhemarics, a move rhar will increase rhe chances of foreign
sruoenrs in rhose elos noing permanenr work in rhe Unireo Srares.
The Srare Deparrmenr has maoe rimely processing of sruoenr visas
one of irs rop prioriries, ano rhe improvemenrs have been signicanr.
Bur U.S. laws ano proceoures, incluoing rhe range of securiry ano orher
backgrouno checks ano rhe srricr quoras on many caregories of immi-
granr ano nonimmigranr visas, srill make ir challenging for some for-
eign sruoenrs ano scholars ro come ro rhe Unireo Srares ro sruoy ano, if
rhey wish, ro remain here ro work afrer rhey graouare.
22

The Tusl Iorce believes thut the costs oj losing preeminence in uttruct-
ing tulented immigrunts would be very high. The Unireo Srares has hir a
:; Immigrarion ano U.S. Narional Inreresrs
plareau in rhe numbers of American sruoenrs graouaring wirh aovanceo
oegrees, parricularly in scienric ano rechnical elos. Inoeeo, rhe
number of science ano engineering PhDs earneo by U.S. cirizens has
fallen by more rhan :o percenr in rhe pasr oecaoe.
23
The Unireo Srares
will face an acceleraring shorrage of highly skilleo workers as rhe bulk
of rhe baby boom generarion srarrs heaoing inro reriremenr. In :oo6,
rhere were more holoers of masrers, professional, ano oocroral oegrees
among rhe age fry-ve ro fry-nine cohorr, which is nearing rerire-
menr, rhan among rhe rhirry ro rhirry-four cohorr. More worrisome,
rhis sragnarion in rhe eoucarional achievemenr levels of Americans has
come ar a rime when many orher counrriesSourh Korea, Canaoa,
[apan, France, Spain, ano orhershave conrinueo ro expano rhe share
of rheir popularions receiving higher eoucarion.
2+
In mosr oevelopeo counrries rhar arrracr foreign sruoenrs, higher eou-
carion is an imporranr parh ro permanenr resioence for highly skilleo
immigranrs. Alrhough rhe Unireo Srares conrinues ro hosr by far rhe larg-
esr proporrion of globally mobile foreign sruoenrs, irs share has oeclineo
ano orher counrries have gaineo grouno. Enrollmenr, which hao been
growing rapioly in rhe :jjos, fell slighrly for several years afrer jj::. Ir be-
gan ro recover in :oo6 ano :oo; ro exceeo pre-jj:: levels, rising ro a recoro
6:,ooo inrernarional sruoenrs in rhe :oo;:ooS school year.
25
Overall,
rhe number of foreign sruoenrs arrenoing American universiries woulo
have been abour :j percenr higher if rhe pre-jj:: growrh rares hao conrin-
ueo.
26
Furrher, rhe sharpesr orops were seen in rsr-rime enrollmenr by
foreign graouare sruoenrs in science ano engineering, which oroppeo by
nearly :o percenr berween :oo: ano :oo before beginning ro recover in
:oo6 ano :oo;. They have yer ro bounce back ro pre-jj:: levels.
27

Over rhar same perioo, foreign sruoenr enrollmenr surgeo in orher
counrries: rhe Unireo Kingoom gaineo So,ooo foreign sruoenrs from
:oo ro :oo6, France ano Ausrralia each aooeo 6o,ooo, ano [apan ano
Cermany :o,ooo each.
2S
China, Inoia, ano some orher counrries have
also oone more ro increase higher-eoucarion opporruniries for rheir cir-
izens ar home. Overall, rhe number of sruoenrs sruoying oursioe rheir
home counrries grew by j; percenr ro nearly rhree million people from
:jjj ro :oo;, rhe biggesr increase ever. Yer rhe Unireo Srares arrracreo
only a small fracrion of rhose new inrernarional sruoenrs. Alrhough
ir srill hosrs abour :o percenr of rhe worlos inrernarional sruoenrs,
roughly oouble irs closesr comperirors (rhe Unireo Kingoom, France,
Ausrralia, ano Cermany), orher counrries have been gaining grouno.
29

:S U.S. Immigrarion Policy
The Unireo Srares rerains enormous aovanrages in arrracring rhe
worlos besr sruoenrs. On any lisr of rop universiries in rhe worlo, Amer-
ican insrirurions preoominare. Smaller counrries like Ausrralia have
limireo capaciry ro absorb new foreign sruoenrs. In rhe Unireo Srares,
inrernarional sruoenrs make up only percenr of roral enrollmenr, sug-
gesring rhar rhere is rremenoous room for growrh. Bur rhe comperirion
has become much rougher rhan ever before.
The Tusl Iorce believes thut immigrution cun never, nor should, mule
up jor the decits in the mericun educutionul system. Ir is crirical rhar rhe
Unireo Srares reverse rhe rreno rhar has seen fewer Americans pursuing
higher eoucarion in rhe sciences ano engineering. Bur eoucarion reform
is a slow process rhar rakes many years ro show beners, ano even here
many U.S. school oisrricrs are noing rhey musr look abroao ro no
qualieo reachers ro ll posirions in science, marhemarics, ano foreign
languages. Immigrarion is necessary ro ll rhose skills gaps.
I| CLRE 2. RECE^T CH^CES | ^ | ^TER^T| O^L STLDE^T
E^ROLLME^T | ^ THE L^| TED STTES, 19992uu8
S00,000
750,000
700,000
650,000
600,000
550,000
500,000
!999j 2000j 200!j 2002j 2003j 200+j 2005j 2006j 2007j
2000 200! 2002 2003 200+ 2005 2006 2007 200S
I
n
r
e
r
n
a
r
i
o
n
a
l

S
r
u
o
e
n
r

E
n
r
o
l
l
m
e
n
r
Pro|ecreo enrollmenr (hao growrh rare remaineo unchangeo, esrimareo average .j percenr)*
Acrual inrernarional sruoenr enrollmenr
*Pro|ecreo enrollmenr calculareo by applying rhe average growrh rare of .j percenr compounoeo annu-
ally from acaoemic year :oo::oo: rhrough acaoemic year :oo;:ooS. The growrh rare of .j percenr is
baseo on rhe average rare of growrh from acaoemic year :jj;jS ro acaoemic year :oo::oo:.
This informarion represenrs inrernarional sruoenr enrollmenr oara as reporreo by rhe Insrirure of Inrerna-
rional Eoucarion, Open Doors zoo8.
Source. NAFSA: Associarion of Inrernarional Eoucarors, :ooS.
:j Immigrarion ano U.S. Narional Inreresrs
Immigranrs are especially imporranr in science, rechnology, ano
engineering, which are so crirical ro U.S. economic compeririveness.
Foreign sruoenrs ano immigranrs make up more rhan half rhe scien-
ric researchers in rhe Unireo Srares, in :oo6, rhey receiveo o percenr
of science ano engineering PhDs ano 6j percenr of compurer science
oocrorares. Among posroocroral sruoenrs ooing research ar rhe highesr
levels, 6o percenr are foreign born. This is nor a recenr oevelopmenr,
even in rhe :jSos, some o percenr of engineering ano compurer sci-
ence sruoenrs in rhe Unireo Srares came from abroao.
On one signicanr measure of innovarion, rhe number of par-
enrs issueo each year, rhe Unireo Srares far surpasses any counrry in
rhe worlo, immigranrs proouce nearly :j percenr of rhose parenrs, or
roughly rwice rheir share of rhe U.S. popularion.
30
Orher sruoies have
shown rhar an increase in rhe number of foreign graouare sruoenrs in
rhe Unireo Srares resulrs in signicanr increases in rhe number of parenr
applicarions.
3!
Overall, rhe share of all parenrs awaroeo ro U.S. scienrisrs
of Chinese ano Inoian origin grew from |usr percenr in rhe lare :j;os
ro : percenr in rhe early parr of rhis oecaoe, ar Inrel, rhe worlos largesr
semiconoucror maker, o percenr of rhe parenrs are for work oone by
Chinese or Inoian immigranrs. [usr as imporranr, rhis increaseo inno-
varion by recenr immigranrs acrually coincioeo wirh an increase in rhe
number of parenrs awaroeo ro narive-born scienrisrs as well, inoicaring
rhar American-born ano immigranr scienrisrs are feeoing off each orher
ro enhance rhe counrrys overall innovarive capaciry.
32
One in four engineering ano rechnology companies esrablisheo in
rhe Unireo Srares berween :jjj ano :ooj hao an immigranr founoer.
33

The four counrries rhar creare rhe grearesr number of new companies
per capirarhe Unireo Srares, Canaoa, Ausrralia, ano Israelall have
large immigranr popularions.
3+
Ir is nor an oversraremenr ro say rhar rhe
Unireo Srares woulo nor en|oy anyrhing close ro irs currenr rechnologi-
cal ano enrrepreneurial leaoership if ir hao mainraineo a closeo immi-
grarion policy.
Amy Chua, rhe Yale hisrorian ano legal scholar, argues in her recenr
book, Duy oj Empire. How Hyperpowers Rise to Clobul Dominunceund
Why They Iull, rhar rhe successful grear powers in hisrory have been
rhose able ro arrracr ano make use of rhe mosr ralenreo people rhe worlo
has ro offer. Ar any given hisrorical momenr, she wrires, rhe mosr
valuable human capiral rhe worlo has ro offerwherher in rhe form of
inrelligence, physical srrengrh, skill, knowleoge, creariviry, nerworks,
commercial innovarion, or rechnological invenrionis never ro be
:o U.S. Immigrarion Policy
founo in any one locale or wirh any one erhnic or religious group. To
pull away from irs rivals on a global scale, a sociery musr pull inro irself
ano morivare rhe worlos besr ano brighresr, regaroless of erhniciry, reli-
gion or backgrouno. America, she argues, has been more successful
rhan any orher counrry in rhe worlo in recenr hisrory in arrracring ano
mobilizing such ralenrs.
The Tusl Iorce believes thut muintuining robust levels oj immigru-
tion, ullowing jor uctuutions bused on the stute oj the economy, is rmly
in mericus nutionul interests. |n purticulur, continuing to uttruct highly
slilled immigrunts is criticul to the competitiveness oj the L.S. economy, und
to mericus ubility to remuin the worlds leuder in innovution. The Lnited
Stutes must open its doors more widely to such people.
NATIONAL SECURI TY
Since rhe rerrorisr arracks of Seprember ::, :oo:, rhe Unireo Srares has
hao ro confronr a oifculr paraoox: a generous immigrarion ano visa
sysrem is porenrially a rhrear ro U.S. narional securiry, yer is also criri-
cal ro mainraining securiry. The ninereen hi|ackers who carrieo our rhe
arracks were able ro exploir weaknesses in rhe U.S. visa ano boroer secu-
riry regime ro enrer rhe Unireo Srares ano remain here unnoriceo while
rhey plorreo ano prepareo for rhe arrack. The ease wirh which rhey
enrereo rhe counrry leo ro a series of measures aimeo ar making U.S.
boroers less vulnerable ro inlrrarion by rerrorisrs. Overall, as a resulr
of such measures, rhe counrry is more secure from anorher rerrorisr
arrack rhan ir was before jj::. Yer some of rhose measures, by making ir
inoroinarely oifculr for orhers ro come ro rhe Unireo Srares, have rhe
porenrial ro weaken Americas securiry rarher rhan improve ir.
Boroer ano immigrarion policies can help keep rerrorisrs or oanger-
ous criminals our of rhe counrry. The Unireo Srares can, for example,
oemano oeraileo backgrouno informarion, incluoing ngerprinrs or
orher ioenriers, from anyone who wishes ro enrer rhe counrry. Inspec-
rors are free ro search rhose arriving ar rhe boroer, wirhour any neeo
ro show reasonable suspicion or probable cause, as woulo be rhe case
insioe rhe counrry. On numerous occasions since jj::, U.S. ofcials have
also useo minor immigrarion violarions ro oeporr people rhey believeo
were involveo in rerrorisr-relareo acriviries, aooing ro rhe arsenal of law
enforcemenr rools.
35

:: Immigrarion ano U.S. Narional Inreresrs
The link berween immigrarion policy ano narional securiry was
insrirurionalizeo wirh rhe crearion of rhe U.S. Deparrmenr of Home-
lano Securiry in :oo.
36
DHSs primary mission is ro prorecr rhe Unireo
Srares from anorher rerrorisr arrack, yer rhe bulk of irs personnel ano
resources are oeoicareo ro rhe rraoirional rasks of immigrarion, rraoe
facilirarion, ano boroer conrrol. The posr-jj:: oebare abour immigra-
rion has ofren been conoucreo in rerms of a rraoe-off berween securiry
ano openness, wirh aovocares of rougher securiry willing ro sacrice
openness, ano proponenrs of openness prepareo ro run higher securiry
risks. Bur rhar is only parr of rhe oilemma. Inoeeo, rhe rraoe-off is also
one berween shorr-rerm securiry ano longer-rerm securiry. The Tusl
Iorce nds thut border und immigrution meusures, used in u turgeted und
jocused wuy, cun help mule the Lnited Stutes less vulneruble to unother ter-
rorist uttucl. However, ij those sume meusures leep out tulented immigrunts
or signicuntly disrupt legitimute cross-border truvel or commerce, the long-
term joundutions oj mericus economy und militury strength, und conse-
quently its security, will be weulened. The chullenge is to nd upprouches
thut ensure thut these two gouls need not be mutuully exclusive.
The crearion of rhe Deparrmenr of Homelano Securiry accenru-
areo an unforrunare renoency ro oene U.S. securiry in rerms of who is
kepr our of rhe counrry rarher rhan who is ler in. The oeparrmenr reg-
ularly showcases srarisrics rhar highlighr irs success ar barring people
from enrry: rhe number of criminal suspecrs or immigrarion violarors
rurneo away ar rhe boroers, illegal migranrs apprehenoeo or oeporreo,
ano miles of fencing consrrucreo. Bur rhose are incomplere measures of
securiry. Alrhough securing boroers makes rhe Unireo Srares safer from
cerrain kinos of rhrears, especially rerrorism ano orug-relareo crime,
rhe Unireo Srares became a milirary superpower largely because of irs
economic srrengrh ano irs rechnological capabiliries, which have given
irs armeo forces rhe mosr aovanceo ano lerhal weaponry in rhe worlo.
Mainraining rhar srarus requires mainraining Americas leao in inno-
varion, ano innovarion rhrives in an open environmenr. Coroon Eng-
lano, rhe former oepury oefense secrerary, pur ir srrongly: The grearesr
long-rerm rhrear ro U.S. narional securiry is nor rerrorisrs wieloing a
nuclear or biological weapon, bur rhe erosion of Americas place as a
worlo leaoer in science ano rechnology.
37
As a recenr Narional Research Council (NRC) commirree reporr
argueo, many of rhe rechnologies rhar are viral for conrinueo U.S.
milirary superioriry oepeno on scienric ano engineering research
:: U.S. Immigrarion Policy
occurring arouno rhe worlo, nor |usr in rhe Unireo Srares. U.S. narional
securiry ano economic prosperiry borh require full engagemenr wirh
scienric aovances in orher counrries, ano rely on arrracring many of
rhe besr scienrisrs ano engineers ro work in rhis counrry. A leaoing
American scienrisr in a curring-eoge elo wanrs rhe very besr scienric
colleagues working wirh him or her regaroless of narionaliry. An our-
sranoing pool of ralenr working on a problem is rhe mosr likely parh ro
signicanr scienric aovancemenr, rhe NRC reporr says.
3S
Rarher rhan
|usr measuring rhose kepr our, rhe Deparrmenr of Homelano Securiry,
rhe Srare Deparrmenr, ano orher agencies shoulo also be keeping close
rrack of rhe numbers of skilleo foreigners being arrracreo ro rhis coun-
rry, ano how rhe Unireo Srares compares ro orher counrries rhar are
rrying ro oraw from rhe same ralenr pool.
There woulo be serious negarive narional securiry consequences if
rhe Unireo Srares were ro lose irs rechnological eoge. The rechnolo-
gies oevelopeo in rhe civilian economy of rhe Unireo Srares are also
viral for irs milirary, ano vice versa. Inreracrion wirh foreign compa-
nies ano foreign scienrisrs is inescapable ano invaluable. U.S. rechno-
logical leaoership has by many measures alreaoy oiminisheo, from
:jj; ro :oo6, for insrance, U.S. prooucrion of scienric arricles in
leaoing physics |ournals fell from jo ro o percenr. Cenrers of scien-
ric research excellence have sprung up arouno rhe worlo, ano [apan,
Korea, ano several European counrries have acquireo leaoing posi-
rions in cerrain curring-eoge rechnologies.
Americas narional securiry oepenos on rechnological break-
rhroughs rhar keep U.S. milirary capabiliries well aheao of rhose of
rival narions. Yer a number of sruoies oaring back a oecaoe or more,
which have lookeo nor only ar resrricrions on rhe ow of scienrisrs, bur
also ar relareo resrricrions on rhe exporr of rechnologies ano scienric
knowleoge rhar mighr have milirary relevance, have founo rhose efforrs
largely self-oefearing.
39
There is a consensus in borh rhe scienric ano
narional securiry communiries rhar measures aimeo ar limiring access
ro research ano knowleoge rhar coulo be useo for harmful enos musr
be as narrow ano rargereo as possible ro avoio hurring scienric enrer-
prise. Yer rhar has nor always been rhe pracrice.
In rhe afrermarh of jj::, for insrance, rhe U.S. governmenr expanoeo
rhe so-calleo Visas Manris program, which requires a special securiry
clearance for sruoenrs, researchers, ano orher remporary visirors ro
rhe Unireo Srares who are knowleogeable in elos rhar coulo have
: Immigrarion ano U.S. Narional Inreresrs
narional securiry implicarions. Consular securiry checks such as Visas
Manris resulreo in long oelays for sruoenrs ano scienrisrs arrempring
ro come ro rhe Unireo Srares, even for somerhing as brief as a scien-
ric conference.
+0
Alrhough improvemenrs were maoe beginning in
:oo, rhe effecrs have lingereo. A recenr new surge in visa oelays asso-
ciareo wirh rhe backgrouno securiry checks has srranoeo hunoreos of
scienrisrs ano engineers alreaoy working ar U.S. companies who hao
rerurneo home briey only ro no rhey coulo nor renew rheir visas in
a rimely fashion.
+!
Immigrarion can conrribure ro U.S. narional securiry in orher ways
as well. The U.S. armeo forces rely primarily, as rhey shoulo, on U.S.
cirizens ano permanenr resioenrs. Bur rhere is also a long ano respecreo
rraoirion in warrime of rhe milirary recruiring among more recenr
immigranrs in an efforr ro bolsrer U.S. capabiliries. The Tusl Iorce
believes thut these immigrunts ure u vuluuble recruiting pool with lunguuge
und culturul slills thut ure both enormously importunt jor the conicts oj the
twenty-rst century und in short supply umong mericuns. For example,
rhe U.S. Special Operarions Commanowhose forces are on rhe sharp
eno of rhe global war on rerrorismsees culrural arrunemenr, lan-
guage prociency, ano local knowleoge as crirical operarional skills no
less imporranr rhan rhe abiliry ro navigare rhe rerrain or re a weapon.
Yer, oespire huge invesrmenrs in language rraining, Special Operarions
remains seriously shorr on recruirs wirh rhe language capabiliries ir
neeos. The more subrle aspecrs of culrural arrunemenr ano local knowl-
eoge are even more oifculr ro acquire. These are exacrly rhe skills rhar
rhose born abroao have, especially rhose narive ro rhe regions in which
rhe conicrs of rhe furure are mosr likely ro rake place.
+2
In an efforr ro expano irs pool of suirable recruirs, rhe milirary has
soughr aurhoriry ro recruir immigranrs living legally in rhe Unireo
Srares who oo nor yer holo green caros. In aooirion, Special Opera-
rions Commano is inreresreo in recruiring a few foreign narionals who
have serveo courageously alongsioe U.S. forces in Iraq, Afghanisran,
ano orher rroubleo spors. Unoer a :oo: execurive oroer, rhose new
recruirs woulo be pur on an expeoireo parh ro U.S. cirizenship. Despire
rhe crirical milirary imporrance of recruiring such inoiviouals, however,
rhe Vhire House has been relucranr ro reopen rhe immigrarion oebare
by approving a large-scale program. Insreao, ir has aurhorizeo only a
limireo pilor program cappeo ar one rhousano new recruirs a year,
ano resrricreo ro rhose alreaoy in rhe Unireo Srares who have meoical
: U.S. Immigrarion Policy
rraining ano cerrain specializeo language skills.
+3
The Tusl Iorce believes
thut u more expunsive progrum would puy substuntiul dividends.
PUBLIC DIPLOMACY
Americas image in rhe worlo has raken a bearing in rhe pasr oecaoe. The
Pew Clobal Arriruoes Pro|ecr, rhe mosr comprehensive survey of irs
rype, showeo a precipirous orop in favorable opinions rowaro rhe Unireo
Srares from across rhe worlo berween :jjj ano :ooS, wirh only a hanoful
of exceprions.
++
The reasons for rhis oecline are many, bur rhe evioence
is srrong rhar immigrarion ano cross-boroer exchanges of all rypes are
among rhe besr rools rhe U.S. governmenr has for rrying ro reverse rhis
oecline. Cerrainly, misrrearmenr ar rhe hanos of U.S. boroer ano immi-
grarion ofcials is one of rhe suresr ways ro oenigrare Americas sranoing
in rhe eyes of many in rhe worlo.
Allowing people ro come ro rhe Unireo Srares helps Americas image
by exposing foreigners oirecrly or inoirecrly ro rhe realiries of life in rhis
counrry. Polls of foreign arriruoes rowaro rhe Unireo Srares inoicare
srrongly rhar rhose who have spenr rime here, or have frienos or fami-
lies who have spenr rime here, have more posirive views of rhe Unireo
Srares rhan rhose who have nor. In irs polling of Arab counrries, for
insrance, Zogby Inrernarional founo rhar Arabs who knew even a single
American were roughly :o percenr more favorable in rheir opinion of
rhe Unireo Srares rhan rhose who oio nor. Among rhose who hao rrav-
eleo ro rhe Unireo Srares, wanreo ro rravel here, or hao a relarive living
here, rhe favorabiliry was :j ro o percenrage poinrs higher.
+5

The Tusl Iorce nds thut one oj the most successjul jorms oj public diplo-
mucy hus been to ullow non-mericuns to see whut the Lnited Stutes hus
uchieved ut home. Encouruging truvel to the Lnited Stutes hus more posi-
tive inuence thun the best ejjorts thut the government cun muster to use the
mediu und other chunnels to present u positive imuge ubroud.
Yer, since jj::, rhe Unireo Srares has maoe ir inoroinarely oifculr for
many people ro rravel here ro see rhe counrry for rhemselves. This is
especially rrue for rhose from Muslim ano Arab counrries where rhe
neeo ro improve unoersranoing of rhe Unireo Srares, ano vice versa, is
mosr urgenr.
+6
Visa resrricrions pur in place afrer rhe rerrorisr arracks,
ano special proceoures such as rhe Narional Securiry Enrry-Exir Regis-
rrarion Sysrem (NSEERS) rhar imposeo exrra screening on mosr male
:j Immigrarion ano U.S. Narional Inreresrs
rravelers from some rwo oozen Muslim counrries, leo ro a signicanr
orop in rravel ro rhe Unireo Srares from all counrries where visas are
requireo. In rhe pasr few years, however, overseas rravel recovereo from
mosr counrries in rhe worlo ro near pre-jj:: levels, bur nor from much
of rhe Muslim ano Arab worlo. In :ooS, rhe number of visas issueo ro
narionals of Egypr, Pakisran, Banglaoesh, [oroan, Inoonesia, ano Sauoi
Arabia remaineo well below rheir pre-jj:: levels, in some cases half or
less.
+7
Alrhough rhe Unireo Srares musr be vigilanr in using irs boroers
ro keep our rhose who woulo oo rhis counrry harm, rhere is signicanr
scope for encouraging grearer rravel ro rhis counrry wirhour leaving ir
more vulnerable ro acrs of rerrorism.
Aparr from rhe aggregare numbers, rhe bao experiences rhar inoi-
viouals may have while arrempring ro rravel ro rhe Unireo Srares rever-
berare among rheir frienos ano families, oamaging rhe perceprion of
rhe Unireo Srares as a counrry rhar welcomes foreigners. Sreven Kull of
rhe Program on Inrernarional Policy Arriruoes saio rhar in focus groups
wirh Arabs ano Muslims people very sponraneously broughr up rhese
resrricrions on immigrarion ano visas as evioence of . . . hosriliry rowaro
Islam. Almosr everybooy in rhe focus groups knew somebooy who hao
some problem when rhey came ro visir rhe Unireo Srares, or came ro
work here or ro sruoy here.
+S

Accoroing ro a survey of rwo rhousano inrernarional rravelers from
arouno rhe worlo commissioneo by rhe U.S. rravel inousrry in lare :oo6,
rhe U.S. enrry process was consioereo rhe worlos worsr by a rwo-ro-
one margin, wirh rhe Mioole Easr a oisranr secono. More rhan half rhe
rravelers saio rhey founo U.S. boroer ofcials ruoe ano unpleasanr.
+9

Those ofcials represenr rhe face of rhe U.S. governmenr ro much of
rhe worlo, ano ir is crirical rhar rhe face be a less hosrile one. As former
secrerary of homelano securiry Tom Rioge pur ir, afrer jj::, rhe worlo
was kino of surpriseo we pulleo in rhe welcome mar so quickly. The
Task Force believes rhe Unireo Srares neeos ro pur ir our again.
Even before rhe currenr global economic oownrurn, overseas rravel
ro rhe Unireo Srares hao yer ro recover ro pre-jj:: levels oespire a surge
in rravel ro orher counrries arouno rhe worlo. The economic cosrs, as
well as rhe oiplomaric cosrs, have been subsranrial.
50
A number of recenr
oevelopmenrs have been encouraging, however. The Srare Deparrmenr
ano rhe Deparrmenr of Homelano Securiry have workeo haro ro make
rhe visa ano enrry process less onerous ano more efcienr. Borh agen-
cies have maoe progress in eliminaring lengrhy backlogs for securiry
:6 U.S. Immigrarion Policy
checks rhar oelayeo many sruoenrs ano orher visirors for monrhs in
rhe afrermarh of jj::, alrhough consular srafng shorrages have occa-
sionally causeo rhe problems ro recur. Over rhe pasr several years, for
example, wairing rimes for visas ar mosr U.S. embassies abroao have
sreaoily oeclineo, on rhe orher hano, rhe oelays for securiry reviews ano
backgrouno checks rhar especially affecr foreign scienrisrs ano engi-
neers have unforrunarely increaseo again, so rhar many visa holoers
are facing wairs of several monrhs ro rerurn ro rhe Unireo Srares. U.S.
Cusroms ano Boroer Prorecrion has issueo ano prominenrly oisplays a
Pleoge ro Travelers ano is rraining all fronrline boroer ofcers ro rrear
rerurning rravelers wirh courresy, oigniry, ano a welcoming arriruoe.
Congress has also ooubleo funoing over rhe pasr ve years for eouca-
rional exchanges such as rhe Fulbrighr program, which has hisrorically
!,200
!,000
S00
600
+00
200
0
!999 2000 200! 2002 2003 200+ 2005 2006 2007 200S
I
n
o
e
x
:

2
0
0
!

=

!
,
0
0
0
NSEERS Europe Asia Vorlo
I| CLRE J. | ^D| CES OI ^O^| MM| CR^T \| SS
IROM ^SEERS COL^TR| ES, ELROlE, S| , ^D THE WORLD
Source. U.S. Deparrmenr of Srare, :ooj.
:; Immigrarion ano U.S. Narional Inreresrs
been one of rhe mosr successful U.S. public oiplomacy iniriarives.
Alrhough exchange programs of rhis sorr are expensive, rhe payoffs are
subsranrial in rerms of builoing gooowill arouno rhe worlo ano rhey
shoulo conrinue ro be expanoeo.
In :oo6, concerneo abour rhe slow recovery in overseas rravel ro rhe
Unireo Srares, rhe Srare Deparrmenr ano rhe Deparrmenr of Home-
lano Securiry esrablisheo rhe Secure Boroers ano Open Doors Aovi-
sory Commirree (SBODAC) ro make recommenoarions on how rhe
Unireo Srares coulo berrer arrracr ano rrear visirors wirhour weakening
efforrs ro prorecr rhe counrrys boroers.
5!
The reporr argueo rhar rhe
Unireo Srares will become less secure if ir implemenrs measures rhar
oiscourage people from coming ro rhis counrry.
The Task Force enoorses rhe core argumenr of rhe SBODAC reporr:
Our long-rerm success requires nor only rhar we oerer ano oerecr
oerermineo aoversaries, bur also rhar we persuaoe millions of people
arouno rhe globe of our ioealsoemocraric freeoom, privare enrer-
prise, human righrs, inrellecrual pursuir, ano rechnological achieve-
menr. Thar persuasion requires human inreracrion, ano each visiror ro
rhe Unireo Srares represenrs such an opporruniry. As rhe co-chairs of
rhe commirree wrore, Ve cannor win rhe long srruggle againsr exrrem-
isr ioeology by closing our ooors ro rhe people of rhe worlo |whoj wanr
ro visir, learn ano work here.
AMERICAN VALUES
Americas immigrarion policy is an imporranr parr of irs core values
as a narion. The American oream remains a compelling ioeal. Many
people arouno rhe worlo believe fervenrly in rhe Unireo Srares as a
counrry where anyone, no marrer how humble his or her origins, can
srarr anew ano succeeo in builoing a berrer life. As pollsrer [ohn Zogby
has summarizeo rhe noings of his many inrernarional opinion sur-
veys, America srill represenrs a beacon of hope.
52
Is ir any wonoer rhar
rhe Unireo Srares arrracrs nor only many of rhe brighresr, mosr capable
migranrs, bur also many of rhe ambirious poor who see no opporru-
niry for aovancemenr in rheir own counrries? For many in poorer coun-
rries, rhose who have braveo rhe |ourney ro reach rhe Unireo Srares in
an efforr ro berrer rhemselves ano supporr rheir families ar home are
consioereo heroes. Thar many Americans see some of rhose same
:S U.S. Immigrarion Policy
inoiviouals as criminals is bafing ro rhem. Ar rhe same rime, however,
many Americans worry rhar rhe failure ro enforce immigrarion laws has
berrayeo an equally imporranr parr of rhe American value sysremrhe
commirmenr ro rhe rule of law. They oo nor wish ro rewaro rhose who
are seen as having violareo rhe law in oroer ro come ro rhe Unireo Srares
or remain here, ano are skeprical of rhe governmenrs commirmenr ro
enforcing immigrarion laws.
The Tusl Iorce believes thut how the Lnited Stutes hundles its immigru-
tion policy speuls to mericus core vulues. mericuns huve u right to deter-
mine who will come to live in this country, und to enjorce those rules, but they
ulso huve u responsibility to treut those who muy huve violuted those rules
with respect und juirness.
Enforcing U.S. immigrarion laws in rheir currenr srare is an exrraor-
oinary challenge. An esrimareo rwelve million people live in rhe Unireo
Srares illegally, bur beyono rheir unaurhorizeo srarus, rhey have lirrle
in common. Some were broughr here as chiloren ano have liveo in
rhe Unireo Srares for oecaoes, reraining no signicanr ries ro rheir
birrh counrries, some have been here only a few monrhs. Some have
no family ries, many have U.S. cirizen relarives, incluoing spouses ano
chiloren.
53
The vasr ma|oriry are haroworking ano, aparr from rheir
unoocumenreo srarus, law abioing, bur some are serious criminals rieo
ro rransnarional gangs ano orher criminal organizarions. Many have
no plausible legal claim for remaining in rhe Unireo Srares, bur many
orhers oo. Somewhere berween one million ano one ano a half million
persons of rhe roral illegal immigranr popularion in rhe Unireo Srares
are esrimareo ro have a claim ro legal srarus, bur are sruck wairing for
rheir cases ro be consioereo because of rhe backlogs or aominisrrarive
processing oelays.
5+
Yer rhe sysrems for enforcing immigrarion laws oo
lirrle ro allow for oisrincrions among rhese very oifferenr cases.
To rake one example, rhe Unireo Srares has grearly expanoeo rhe
number of noncirizens who are oeraineo for exrenoeo perioos. In
rhe :oo; scal year, nearly ::,ooo such people were |aileo, rriple rhe
number of a oecaoe ago.
55
The policy has been oriven by rhe necessary
goal of rrying ro ensure rhar rhose who are oroereo removeo oo nor
simply oisappear ano remain in rhe Unireo Srares unlawfully, which has
been a long-sranoing problem, or rhar rhose seeking asylum oo nor pose
a securiry rhrear. As recenrly as :ooj, some 6o percenr of rhose arresreo
for violaring immigrarion laws, ano rhen subsequenrly releaseo ano
oroereo ro appear in courr, faileo ro show for rheir removal hearings,
:j Immigrarion ano U.S. Narional Inreresrs
fewer rhan one in ve of rhose oroereo oeporreo acrually lefr rhe Unireo
Srares.
56
Since rhe eno of rhese so-calleo carch-ano-release policies in
:oo6, virrually all non-Mexican unaurhorizeo immigranrs are now
oeraineo, compareo wirh |usr o percenr as recenrly as :ooj.
57
Ensuring rhar oeporrarion oroers are carrieo our is an imporranr
goal, ano was largely ignoreo for roo long. Yer rhe expansion of oeren-
rion has resulreo in inoiviouals somerimes being |aileo for monrhs, even
years, as rheir legal cases grino rhrough overloaoeo immigrarion courrs.
Long oerenrions have causeo some woulo-be migranrs ano asylum
seekers ro give up rheir claims for legal srarus. Meoical care ano orher
rrearmenr for rhose oeraineo have ofren been woefully inaoequare.
5S

Ano oerenrion has been expanoeo, rhough rhere is growing evioence
rhar less resrricrive measures, such as superviseo release programs, can
srill ensure rhar rhe vasr ma|oriry of rhose facing oeporrarion comply
wirh rhe law, ano ar much lower cosrs.
59
The DHS inspecror general has
urgeo rhe oeparrmenr ro move aheao wirh cosr-effecrive alrernarives ro
oerenrion, in parr ro ensure rhar ir has enough faciliries ro oerain rhose
who pose a genuine risk if releaseo.
60
Since rhe mio-:jjos, Congress has rrieo ro esrablish a reasonable
ser of prioriries for enforcemenr efforrs, parricularly by oirecring rhar
rhe highesr prioriry for oeporrarion shoulo be rhose convicreo of a seri-
ous criminal offense. Criminals, ano rhose oeemeo ro pose a narional
securiry rhrear, musr be |aileo unril rhey are removeo, ano rhe law allows
for almosr no exceprions. Bur as enforcemenr efforrs have grown, rhey
have reacheo well beyono rhose convicreo of serious crimes. Congress
in :jj6, for insrance, expanoeo rhe caregory of aggravareo felons, who
even if rhey are green-caro holoers or orher legal resioenrs face auro-
maric oeporrarion for rheir crimes wirh no righr of appeal. Mosr orug
crimes also resulr auromarically in oeporrarion. The policy makes sense
in general, rhe Task Force believes rhar immigranrs who commir seri-
ous crimes shoulo forfeir rheir righr ro remain in rhe Unireo Srares.
The problems arise when oeporrarions are carrieo our wirhour any
consioerarion of specic circumsrances. In some cases, rhe crimes are
nor whar one woulo oroinarily rhink of as aggravareo offensessuch as
shoplifring or frauo. These oeporrarions rake place wirhour any weighr
being given ro an inoiviouals circumsrances, such as family ries in rhe
Unireo Srares, rhe rime rhar has elapseo since his or her convicrion, ano
rhe severiry of rhe crime. In aooirion, inoiviouals can be oeporreo for
offenses rhar somerimes rook place many years ago. Legal immigranrs
o U.S. Immigrarion Policy
helo unoer rhe aggravareo felony provisions are auromarically |aileo
unril rhey are oeporreo, ano once oeporreo are permanenrly barreo from
rerurning ro rhe Unireo Srares. There are no gooo oara on rhe number
of inoiviouals oeporreo unoer rhe aggravareo felony provisions, rhe besr
esrimare is |usr over :jo,ooo cases over rhe pasr oecaoe.
6!
The Tusl Iorce
believes thut serious criminulsthose who commit jelony ojjensescun und
should be deported, even ij they ure in the country legully. The Lnited Stutes
needs, however, u more discriminuting system thut sepurutes serious ojjenses
jrom minor ones, und ullows jor greuter exibility in deuling with extenuut-
ing circumstunces.
Furrher, rhe complexiry of U.S. immigrarion rules is such rhar harsh
rrearmenr can be inaoverrenrly visireo upon innocenr inoiviouals. The
workplace raios carrieo our by Immigrarion ano Cusroms Enforce-
menr (ICE) ofcials, rhough a legirimare componenr of immigrarion
enforcemenr, have somerimes resulreo in U.S. cirizens being misrak-
enly oeraineo ano even removeo from rhe Unireo Srares. Recenr inves-
rigarions by rhe ssociuted lress ano rhe Los ngeles Times uncovereo
oozens of such cases.
62
Ano some of rhose clogging up immigrarion
courr proceeoings are people who have rrieo ro comply wirh U.S. immi-
grarion rules bur have fallen rhrough one of rhe many cracks rhar make
ir easy ro inaoverrenrly forfeir legal immigrarion srarus. These incluoe
inoiviouals whose cases have been in limbo because of excessive visa
applicarion processing oelays.
Orher measures enacreo wirh rhe reasonable goal of ensuring rough
enforcemenr of immigrarion laws have neverrheless maoe U.S. rrear-
menr of some immigrarion violarors, as well as some legal immigranrs,
unnecessarily inexible. Congress in :jj6, for example, passeo a law
rhar prevenrs immigrarion violarors from rerurning ro rhe Unireo
Srares for up ro ren years, ano somerimes permanenrly, even for whar
are occasionally minor or rechnical immigrarion law violarions. These
penalries can make ir impossible for inoiviouals who mighr orherwise
be enrirleo ro remain in rhe Unireo Srares ro no any legal way ro oo so.
Some U.S. cirizens now no rhar rheir parenrs, spouses, ano chiloren
are barreo from rhe Unireo Srares for a oecaoe, or even permanenrly, as
a resulr of rhese laws.
The rrearmenr of refugees ano asylum seekers is anorher oimension
of immigrarion policy rhar reecrs imporranr American values. U.S.
refugee policy has been among rhe areas of immigrarion policy mosr
closely rieo ro foreign policy prioriries. Throughour rhe Colo Var, for
: Immigrarion ano U.S. Narional Inreresrs
insrance, rhe Unireo Srares hao an open ooor for rhose eeing Commu-
nisr counrries or orher U.S. aoversaries, bur casr a far more skeprical eye
on rhose facing persecurion in counrries allieo wirh rhe Unireo Srares.
Vhile refugee policy has hisrorically been useo ro serve orher foreign
policy inreresrs, ir has largely been oriven by rhe erhical convicrion rhar
rhose eeing polirical, religious, or orher forms of persecurion shoulo
be offereo safe haven. Thar commirmenr is enshrineo in inrernarional
rrearies ano oomesric U.S. laws rhar ser rhe sranoaro for rhe resr of rhe
worlo, when American sranoaros erooe, refugees face grearer risks
everywhere. U.S. refugee ano asylum policies have also openeo rhis
counrry ro an array of impressive scienrisrs ano orhers eeing persecu-
rion in rheir home counrries, a rraoirion rhar conrinues wirh conrempo-
rary efforrs ro rescue scholars facing oppression abroao.
63
Hisrorically, asylum claims hao been parricularly susceprible ro
frauo, in parr because for rhose wirhour family ries or employmenr
skills, such claims represenr one of rhe only remaining legal channels
for migraring ro rhe Unireo Srares. For many years, rhose who arriveo
in rhe Unireo Srares ano claimeo asylum were rourinely alloweo inro rhe
counrry ano issueo a permir rhar woulo allow rhem ro obrain a Social
Securiry caro ano ro work penoing a hearing on rheir claims. Subsran-
rial backlogs meanr ir woulo be many years before an invalio asylum
claim woulo be oerecreo.
6+
Nor surprisingly, a signicanr number faileo
ro show ar rheir hearings ano simply remaineo in rhe counrry illegally.
65

Moreover, well before jj::, rhere were fears rhar asylum claims coulo be
abuseo by rerrorisrs arrempring ro enrer rhe Unireo Srares, as rhey hao
been in rhe pasr. Ramzi Yousef, rhe chief archirecr of rhe :jj bomb-
ing of rhe Vorlo Traoe Cenrer rowers by Islamic raoicals, enrereo rhe
Unireo Srares on a false Iraqi passporr, claimeo polirical asylum, ano
was releaseo inro rhe counrry penoing a hearing. The asylum sysrem
was reformeo in rhe mio-:jjos in oroer ro berrer prorecr againsr frauo-
ulenr claims. The long oelays rhar hao alloweo inoiviouals ro sray in
rhe Unireo Srares for years while awairing an asylum inrerview were
eliminareo. Insreao, rhose who requesr asylum quickly no rhemselves
in oeporrarion proceeoings if rheir requesr is nor granreo by an asylum
ofcer afrer an inrerview, a proceoure known as expeoireo removal. In
aooirion, rhose who requesr asylum are no longer given auromaric work
aurhorizarion, eliminaring an incenrive rhar hao encourageo some ro
le baseless asylum claims. Congress also passeo broao legislarion rhar
maoe ir more oifculr for genuine refugees ro access rhe U.S. asylum
: U.S. Immigrarion Policy
sysrem, ano manoareo inirial oerenrion for rhose who arrive in rhe
Unireo Srares wirhour valio rravel oocumenrs.
Afrer jj::, in an efforr ro keep our rhose who mighr have ries ro rer-
rorisr groups, Congress ano rhe aominisrrarion esrablisheo exrremely
broao oenirions of marerial supporr for rerrorisr groups rhar hao
rhe uninrenoeo effecr of barring inoiviouals who in rhe pasr woulo
cerrainly have gaineo aomission. Some prooemocracy opponenrs of
aurhorirarian regimes in places like Burma, Cuba, ano Iraq, for exam-
ple, were excluoeo on marerial supporr grounos, in one well-publicizeo
case, an Iraqi who was reaching Arabic ro U.S. Marines was labeleo as
a supporrer of rerrorism because he hao workeo ro overrhrow Saooam
Hussein. In orher cases, rhe marerial supporr provisions hao rhe effecr
of barring asylum seekers who were forceo ro assisr rerrorisr organi-
zarions unoer rhe rhrear of oearh or severe in|ury. Afrer much oelay,
rhe Bush aominisrrarion maoe some progress by issuing waivers in rhe
mosr egregious cases, bur serious problems remain.
66
Parrly as a consequence of rhe new resrricrions, rhere was a sharp
falloff in asylum aomissions afrer :oo:, which prevenreo many of rhose
who may have hao legirimare claims from seeking refuge in rhe Unireo
Srares. In :oo:, rhe number fell ro less rhan half of rhe previous year,
ano only in :ooS recovereo ro pre-jj:: levels. Mosr of rhose who arrive
in rhe Unireo Srares seeking asylum for polirical or religious persecu-
rion are now rourinely oeraineo while rheir claims are being hearo, a
rraumaric experience for inoiviouals who so ofren are eeing violence
or abuse. In many cases asylum seekers are forceo ro wear prison uni-
forms, helo in |ails ano |ail-like faciliries, ano somerimes comingleo
wirh criminal inmares.
67
This oerenrion policy has incluoeo families
wirh small chiloren.
6S
The prisons are frequenrly in remore locarions
rhar make ir oifculr ro gain access ro legal counsel, which is ofren rhe
oifference berween asylum claims being accepreo or re|ecreo.
69
Asylum
seekers can be oeraineo for monrhs, ano somerimes even years.
70
Since changes ro rhe law in :jj6, asylum seekers also face rhe pos-
sibiliry of expeoireo removal, in which rhey can be immeoiarely rurneo
away if rhey fail ro make a clear requesr for asylum or if rhey cannor
persuaoe an asylum ofcer rhar rhey have a creoible fear of persecu-
rion ano oo nor requesr a |uoicial review. The expeoireo removal pro-
cess applies ro claimanrs who oo nor have rravel oocumenrs or who
have frauoulenr ones. Alrhough ir is appropriare for immigrarion of-
cers ro have such aurhoriry, expeoireo removal neeos ro be exerciseo
Immigrarion ano U.S. Narional Inreresrs
wirh caurion ro ensure rhar rhose who may face persecurion if rhey are
rerurneo home are given an aoequare hearing. A rwo-year sruoy by rhe
Unireo Srares Commission on Inrernarional Religious Freeoom founo
rhar while proper proceoures hao been pur in place ar porrs of enrry,
implemenrarion varieo consioerably, ano in a signicanr minoriry of
cases inoiviouals claiming fear of persecurion hao nonerheless immeoi-
arely been removeo ro rheir home counrries.
7!

Issues regaroing rhe rrearmenr of illegal immigranrs ano rhose seek-
ing refuge in rhe Unireo Srares are among rhe haroesr faceo by rhe of-
cials responsible for making rhese oecisions. Deporrarion is a harsh
penalry rhar profounoly affecrs rhe lives of rhose removeo, ano many
illegal immigranrs have a srrong incenrive ro avoio removal by wharever
means possible. Cenuine asylum seekers may face imprisonmenr or
violence ar home if rhey are oenieo enrry by rhe Unireo Srares. Finoing
rhe proper balance berween upholoing rhe law ano ensuring oue pro-
cess is exrremely imporranr.
The Tusl Iorce believes thut the Lnited Stutes needs to uphold the highest
stundurds jor due process und juir treutment oj rejugees, usylum seelers, und
those jucing deportution becuuse they ure living in the country illegully.
DEVELOPMENT
The Unireo Srares has rarely rhoughr abour how irs policies ro encour-
age economic oevelopmenr in poorer counrries mighr affecr immigra-
rion, similarly, ir has rarely rhoughr abour how irs immigrarion policies
mighr affecr oevelopmenr. For a variery of hisrorical ano insrirurional
reasons, rhe Unireo Srares has generally separareo economic oevelop-
menr policy from immigrarion policy. This conrrasrs wirh Europe,
where full membership in rhe European Unionwhich incluoes rhe
righr for cirizens of one EU counrry ro work in any orherhas been
conoirional on reaching cerrain economic benchmarks. The EU srrar-
egy for aomirring poorer member counrries such as Creece, Spain,
Porrugal, ano Polano was ro invesr large sums ro bring living sranoaros
in rhose counrries closer ro rhe sranoaros of rhe more aovanceo EU
members. This was fairly successful wirh earlier enrranrs like Spain ano
Porrugal, rhough less so in rhe case of newer members like Polano ano
rhe Balric srares, where rhe income oiscrepancies wirh wesrern Europe
were consioerably larger.
U.S. Immigrarion Policy
Vashingron has encourageo oeveloping counrries rhar seno large
numbers of migranrs ro rhe Unireo Sraresparricularly Mexico ano
Cenrral Americaro pursue economic oevelopmenr rhrough openness
ro rraoe ano foreign invesrmenr, ano has nor offereo much oirecr oevel-
opmenr aio. Traoe agreemenrs such as rhe Norrh American Free Traoe
Agreemenr (NAFTA) ano rhe Cenrral American Free Traoe Agreemenr
(CAFTA) excluoeo mosr issues relareo ro labor mobiliry, rhough some
small caregories of visa preferences were creareo for cirizens of Canaoa
ano Mexico, as well as for Chile ano Singapore, which have signeo free
rraoe agreemenrs wirh rhe Unireo Srares. Borh rhe Unireo Srares ano
Mexico have long been wary of rhe sacrices ro sovereignry involveo
in rhe European mooel of inregrarion, ano rhere is lirrle likelihooo of
rhar changing in rhe near furure. Bur rhere are nonerheless numerous
possibiliries for closer cooperarion rhar mighr aooress some of rhe roor
causes of high levels of migrarion.
The Tusl Iorce believes thut economic development inside the sending
countries is the best wuy to discouruge muss emigrution. The oifculry of
rhis rask cannor be overesrimareo, however. The realiry is rhar rhe sorr of
srrong, sreaoy growrh necessary ro reouce migrarory pressures remains
elusive in many counrries. Alrhough rhe European mooel has been suc-
cessful in some respecrs, rhe oispariries berween rhe newer EU mem-
bers ano oloer ones were nor nearly as large as rhe oispariry berween
rhe Unireo Srares ano mosr of rhe counrries rhar seno large numbers of
immigranrs here.
A :jSj Council on Foreign Relarions sruoy rhar lookeo ar rhe pros-
pecrs for slowing norrhwaro migrarion from Larin America concluoeo
rhar oevelopmenr is nor only uncerrain, ir is also a graoual process, wirh
effecrs measureo over . . . oecaoes rarher rhan |inj monrhs ano years.
Thus even a successful oevelopmenr efforr cannor be expecreo ro have
an impacr on migrarion rrenos in rhe near furure.
72
Furrher, mosr of
whar oerermines rhe success of oevelopmenr efforrs in senoing coun-
rries is nor in rhe hanos of rhe U.S. governmenr. Ir oepenos largely on
rhe inrernal governance in rhese counrries, rheir eoucarional sysrems,
rheir resource bases, rheir rax ano invesrmenr policies, ano rheir arrrac-
riveness ro inrernarional capiral. The Unireo Srares can have some inu-
ence on rhe policies pursueo by rhese governmenrs, bur ir is exrremely
limireo. There is scope for more rargereo U.S. efforrs ro encourage eco-
nomic oevelopmenr, especially in Mexico. Bur rhe impacr on emigra-
rion, parricularly in rhe shorr rerm, is likely ro be minimal.
j Immigrarion ano U.S. Narional Inreresrs
A more promising prospecr is for rhe Unireo Srares ro rake a closer
look ar how irs immigrarion policies can be useo ro encourage oevelop-
menr in rhe senoing counrries. Ar irs hearr, oevelopmenr is abour rhe
reoucrion of poverry, ano immigrarion can be an imporranr compo-
nenr. As The Economist recenrly pur ir, Migrarion has rurneo our ro be
a very successful srraregy for rhe worlos poor ro make rheir lives a lirrle
bir berrer. The same economic opporruniries rhar propelleo so many
European immigranrs ro cross rhe Arlanric Ocean in rhe ninereenrh ano
early rwenrierh cenruries are leaoing some in rhe worlos oeveloping
narions ro seek a new life in wealrhier counrriesfrom rhe Mioole Easr
ro Europe ro rhe Unireo Srares.
The hisrory of rhe lasr grear migrarion showeo rhar emigrarion was
nor anrirherical ro oevelopmenr in Europe. Inoeeo, ir woulo be more
accurare ro say rhar emigrarion helpeo reouce economic pressures in
Europe ar a rime of polirical ano economic srress. Furrher, a surprisingly
high percenrage of rhose who emigrareo from Europe ro rhe New Vorlo
(abour one-rhiro) evenrually rerurneo home. Tooay, rhis sorr of circular
migrarion is occurring on an unpreceoenreo scale. Increasingly, some
immigranrs are splirring rheir rime berween rheir counrries of birrh ano
rheir aoopreo counrries, renoering obsolere olo norions rhar rhe emigra-
rion of highly skilleo inoiviouals necessarily resulrs in a brain orain for
oeveloping counrries. The oevelopmenr of Inoias vibranr informarion
rechnology inousrry, for example, has been oriven in large measure by
Inoian immigranrs ro rhe Unireo Srares who have rerurneo home ro builo
businesses rhar rake aovanrage of rheir knowleoge of rhe U.S. marker.
The mosr obvious measure of rhe economic beners of migrarion ro
senoing counrries is remirrances from rhose working in aovanceo coun-
rries, which have more rhan ooubleo over rhe pasr ve years ro more
rhan Soo billion in :ooS, rhough even rhis likely unoersrares rhe size
of roral remirrances. Larin Americans alone remirreo abour S66 billion
in :ooS. In cerrain counrries, rhe conrriburion of remirrances is enor-
mous, rhey accounr for :j percenr of gross oomesric prooucr (CDP) in
Honouras, for insrance, ano :o percenr in [amaica. Bur rhere are more
subrle beners rhar are likely more imporranr ano lasring. Unlike rhe
immigranrs of a cenrury ago, mooern migranrs can move more quickly
ano easily berween rheir home ano aoopreo counrries, ano can keep in
close rouch rhrough mooern communicarions.
73
A ma|or sruoy carrieo our for rhe Public Policy Insrirure of California
in :jjj, for insrance, founo rhar highly skilleo immigranrs ro rhe srare,
6 U.S. Immigrarion Policy
parricularly in rhe rechnology secror, hao spurreo rraoe ano invesrmenr
linkages berween rhe srare ano rheir home counrries. The sruoy founo
rhar immigranr enrrepreneurs from Taiwan, China, ano Inoia in par-
ricular hao creareo nerworks of professional ano business ries berween
rhe Unireo Srares ano Asia. The resulr has been a signicanr conrribu-
rion ro economic oevelopmenr in borh regions.
7+
Inoeeo, rhere are some
signs rharin parr because of rhe huroles for immigranrs wanring ro
serrle permanenrly in rhe Unireo Srares ano in parr because of increaseo
opporruniries in places like China ano Inoiaa growing proporrion of
highly skilleo immigranrs are rerurning home, in whar has been oubbeo
a reverse brain orain.
75
Anorher sruoy has rrieo ro quanrify rhe rraoe
effecrs of immigrarion, showing rhar over rime a :o percenr increase
in rhe number of immigranrs a counrry senos ro rhe Unireo Srares will
increase U.S. exporrs ro rhar counrry by nearly j percenr ano imporrs by
more rhan S percenr.
76

There are legirimare worries rhar creaming rhe besr ralenr from oevel-
oping counrries coulo weaken rhe abiliry of rhose counrries ro oevelop
rheir own economies, which is rhe only way for mosr of rheir cirizens ro
escape poverry. There is no quesrion rhar some counrries, especially in
Africa, face serious skills shorrages. Chana has |usr 6.: oocrors per hun-
oreo rhousano people, ano close ro rhree-quarrers of irs oocrors leave
rhe counrry wirhin a oecaoe of gaining a meoical oegree. In ve African
counrries, nearly half of rhe highly eoucareo popularion lives abroao.
Eighr our of ren Hairians ano [amaicans wirh college oegrees have lefr.
Bur rhere are also examples where migrarion has proouceo posirive
incenrives for senoing counrries ro invesr in eoucaring skilleo workers.
The Philippines, for insrance, which senos rhousanos of nurses arouno
rhe worlo, has oevelopeo an impressive sysrem for eoucaring nurses ro
meer rhar oemano, rhe resulr is rhar, rhough many rraineo nurses leave
ro work abroao, many have also srayeo ar home, leaving rhe counrry
wirh more nurses per capira rhan Crear Brirain.
77
The aovanrages of circular migrarion are nor conneo ro rhe mosr
highly skilleo workers. There is evioence rhar seasonal agriculrure work-
ers rerurning home from Canaoa ro Mexico are more likely ro invesr in
lano ano small businesses, for insrance, ano similar rrenos have been
shown among lower-skilleo workers rerurning from rhe Unireo Srares
ro El Salvaoor ano rhe Dominican Republic.
7S
Overull, the Tusl Iorce nds thut open immigrution policies in the
udvunced countries, including the Lnited Stutes, strongly benet the vust
; Immigrarion ano U.S. Narional Inreresrs
mujority oj sending countries in the developing world. This is cerrainly rrue
for rhe inoiviouals involveo, because rhe welfare gains of emigraring ro
more aovanceo counrries are so enormous. As Michael Clemens ano
Lanr Prircherr have poinreo our, roughly rwo of every ve Mexicans who
have escapeo poverry, ano four of every ve Hairians, oio so by leav-
ing rheir counrries. Ano rhe money rhar emigranrs seno back home has
helpeo lifr millions of orhers our of poverry.
79
lthough ejjorts to encour-
uge economic development in sending countries ure centrul, the Tusl Iorce
nds thut open immigrution policies in the Lnited Stutes und other udvunced
countries ure complementing development in poorer countries ruther thun
detructing jrom it.
MEXICO
Immigrarion is rhe mosr imporranr issue in one of Americas mosr
imporranr bilareral relarionships, wirh irs Mexican neighbor. For rhar
reason alone, rhe Unireo Srares neeos ro rake a reneweo look ar rhe
impacr irs immigrarion policies have beyono irs boroers.
For many in rhe Unireo Srares, rhe immigrarion issue is almosr
enrirely abour Mexico, ano nor wirhour some reason. Mexico is by far
rhe largesr source of immigranrs ro rhe Unireo Srares, borh rhose who
come legally ano rhose who come illegally, ano ir is rhe rransir counrry
for many immigranrs from Cenrral America, which is rhe secono biggesr
source of unoocumenreo migranrs. Abour eleven million Mexicans rep-
resenr more rhan o percenr of rhe foreign-born popularion currenrly
living in rhe Unireo Srares. Ano rhe numbers have grown sreaoily in
recenr oecaoes. As a share of Mexicos narional popularion, rhe number
of Mexican immigranrs living in rhe Unireo Srares was |usr :.j percenr
in :j;o bur more rhan :o percenr in :ooj.
S0
In :oo;, Mexicans living
abroao, mosrly in rhe Unireo Srares, senr home approximarely S: bil-
lion in remirrances.
S!
The size of rhe migrarion ows from Mexico is
enough ro give ir a cenrral place in any oiscussion of broaoer U.S. immi-
grarion policies.
Since rhe enacrmenr of NAFTA in :jj, rhe U.S. ano Mexican
economies have become ever more closely linkeo, some Sj percenr of
Mexicos exporrs come ro rhe Unireo Srares, ano Mexico is rhe secono
largesr marker for U.S. exporrs afrer Canaoa. American companies pro-
vioe more rhan 6o percenr of all foreign oirecr invesrmenr in Mexico,
S U.S. Immigrarion Policy
ano bilareral rraoe has rripleo in rhe lasr rwo oecaoes. As a resulr of rhis
unique combinarion of large rraoe ano migrarory ows ro rhe Unireo
Srares, Mexico has been mosr keenly ano oeeply affecreo by rhe choices
rhe Unireo Srares has maoe abour immigrarion. Conversely, rhe Unireo
Srares has mosr keenly ano oeeply felr rhe impacr of Mexican policies
rhar have conrribureo ro rhe vasr norrhwaro migrarion, in parricular
rhar counrrys failure ro lifr irs economy fasr enough ro provioe enough
|obs for irs cirizens ar home.
Mexico, along wirh Canaoa, is also a virally imporranr parr of U.S.
homelano securiry policies aimeo ar keeping rerrorisrs from carrying
our anorher successful arrack in rhe Unireo Srares. The Unireo Srares
ano Mexico have cooperareo closely in rrying ro make cerrain rhar rer-
rorisr groups oo nor use Mexico as a rransir roure inro rhis counrry. Some
of rhe efforrs on rhis fronr have nor receiveo much public arrenrion, yer
borh Mexico ano rhe Unireo Srares have clearly recognizeo rheir srrong
common inreresr in counrerrerrorism iniriarives. The Mexican govern-
menr is acurely aware rhar, were rhere ro be an arrack in which rerror-
isrs useo Mexico as a rransir counrry ro rhe Unireo Srares, rhe inevirable
U.S. reacrion woulo be enormously oamaging ro Mexicos economy.
The counrries have also oeepeneo rheir cooperarion ro oeal wirh rhe
huge ano persisrenr problem of illegal orugs, which has spawneo oeaoly
violence on rhe Mexican sioe of rhe boroer as warring orug carrels have
founo rhemselves unoer grearer pressure from rhe Mexican govern-
menr. The aominisrrarion of Mexican presioenr Felipe Caloern has
been willing ro work more closely wirh rhe Unireo Srares, incluoing
milirary-ro-milirary cooperarion, rhan any previous Mexican govern-
menr. The Unireo Srares in rurn has pleogeo S:. billion in weapons ano
rraining unoer rhe Merioa Iniriarive ro help rhe Mexican governmenr in
irs war wirh rhe orug carrels, rhough mosr of rhe promiseo assisrance
has yer ro be oisburseo. The Obama aominisrrarion recenrly announceo
signicanr new efforrs ro srem rhe ow of cash ano weapons from rhe
Unireo Srares ro rhe carrels in Mexico, ano has publicly acknowleogeo
rhar rhe Unireo Srares neeos ro srep up efforrs ro reouce rhe oemano for
illegal orugs rhar is fueling rhe carrels.
The Tusl Iorce nds thut Mexico represents u speciul cuse jor L.S. immi-
grution policy. Becuuse oj the size oj the cross-border lubor ows, its close
economic integrution with the Lnited Stutes, und the implicutions jor L.S.
homelund security, the L.S-Mexico relutionship on migrution issues is pur-
ticulurly importunt jor mericun joreign policy interests.
j Immigrarion ano U.S. Narional Inreresrs
Vhy has rhere been such large migrarion from Mexico ro rhe Unireo
Srares, especially in rhe pasr rhree or four oecaoes? Two oevelopmenrs
are largely responsible: rsr, rapio popularion growrh ano compara-
rively mooesr economic growrh in Mexico, ano, secono, high levels
of economic inequaliry wirhin Mexico ano berween Mexico ano rhe
Unireo Srares. In aooirion, as migrarion from Mexico has increaseo,
ir has become easier for orher immigranrs ro |oin relarives or frienos
alreaoy in rhe Unireo Srares, a nerwork effecr rhar has encourageo aooi-
rional migrarion.
The biggesr single explanarion for rhe large migrarion norrhwaro
is rhe huge growrh in Mexicos working-age popularion, ano rhe fail-
ure of rhe Mexican economy ro generare rhe rapio growrh necessary ro
absorb rhose new workers. During rhe U.S. baby boom of rhe posrwar
perioo, birrh rares in rhe rwo counrries were similar, bur afrer :j6o rhey
oivergeo sharply. The resulr was a surge in emigrarion from Mexico
beginning in rhe lare :j;os, when Mexicos young working-age popu-
larion conrinueo ro grow rapioly even as ir was oeclining in rhe Unireo
Srares. Economisrs esrimare rhar abour one-rhiro of roral immigrarion
from Mexico ro rhe Unireo Srares over rhe pasr four oecaoes can be
explaineo by higher Mexican birrh rares.
S2

Those oemographic pressures are beginning ro ease. The birrh rare
in Mexico has fallen from nearly seven chiloren per morher in rhe mio-
:j6os ro |usr :.: rooay, barely above replacemenr rare ano only slighrly
higher rhan rhe U.S. level of :.:.
S3
This is one of rhe fasresr oeclines in
ferriliry ever recoroeo in any narion. In rhe :jjos, when illegal migra-
rion from Mexico reacheo recoro levels, irs working-age popularion was
growing by one million each year, rooay rhar growrh rare is |usr joo,ooo.
Alrhough rhe Unireo Srares will conrinue ro arrracr many Mexicans
seeking higher wages ano a berrer life, rhe popularion pressures of rhe
pasr rwo oecaoes are alreaoy srarring ro receoe, ano a reoucrion in rhe
pressures ro migrare ro rhe Unireo Srares will likely follow.
S+
The secono reason for rhe high level of emigrarion has been rhe
weakness of rhe Mexican economy. Vhile Mexico is likely in rhe furure
ro generare sufcienr employmenr ro keep more of irs smaller working-
age popularion ar home, for rhe pasr several oecaoes rhar has nor been
rhe case. Mexicos economy grew sreaoily in rhe :j6os ano :j;os, bur
per capira CDP oroppeo sharply afrer rhe oebr crisis of :jS:, ano never
fully recovereo. Differences in per capira income berween Mexico ano
rhe Unireo Srares oio nor narrow ar all berween :jSo ano :ooj, even as
o U.S. Immigrarion Policy
many oeveloping counrries in Asia ano orher parrs of Larin America
closeo rhar gap. Mexican migrarion rares ro rhe Unireo Srares have been
parricularly high following shocks rhar proouceo recessions or slower
growrh in Mexico.
S5
Since :oo, rhe rapio pace of rraoe growrh wirh rhe
Unireo Srares has also sloweo in rhe face of growing comperirion from
China ano orher parrs of rhe worlo. Immigrarion has been a safery valve
for rhe unoerperforming Mexican economy, migrarion ro rhe norrh has
promiseo |obs ro Mexicans when none were available ar home. There
are posirive signs, however, even amiosr rhe currenr global recession.
Many U.S. ano orher foreign companies are conrinuing ro expano rheir
invesrmenrs in Mexico, lureo by rhe cosr beners of a weaker peso, rhe
proximiry ro rhe U.S. marker, ano rhe fear of rising energy cosrs rhar
make shipping from Asia less arrracrive.
S6
The economic gains in moving from Mexico ro rhe Unireo Srares are
subsranrial. Immigrarion economisr ano Task Force member Coroon
Hanson has esrimareo rhar migrarion ro rhe Unireo Srares woulo increase
rhe wage of a rypical rwenry-ve-year-olo male wirh nine years of eouca-
rion from S:.o per hour ro SS.jo per hour, ao|usring for cosr-of-living
oifferences.
S7
Illegal migrarion from Mexico ro rhe Unireo Srares also
appears ro rise when rhe Mexican economy has been ar irs weakesr rela-
rive ro rhe U.S. economy. Apprehensions ar rhe boroerrhe primary
measure rhe Deparrmenr of Homelano Securiry uses ro esrimare illegal
migrarion across rhe sourhern U.S. boroerrose sharply, for insrance,
in :jS, :jS;, ano :jjj. Each year corresponos ro an economic crisis in
Mexico. In :ooS, wirh rhe oeep recession in rhe Unireo Srares, apprehen-
sions ar rhe boroer fell ro rheir lowesr level since rhe :j;os.
SS
Hisrorically,
apprehensions have increaseo ano oecreaseo wirh seasonal employmenr
parrerns, inoicaring rhar some porrion of rhe Mexican popularion work-
ing illegally in rhe Unireo Srares moves back ano forrh across rhe boroer
each year.
S9

NAFTA has broughr many beners for borh rhe Unireo Srares ano
Mexico, ano for Mexico has proouceo a burgeoning exporr secror in
inousrries rhar mighr orherwise have locareo in China or orher parrs
of Asia. The reforms in rhe Mexican economy have also helpeo ro builo
rhe conoirions for srronger economic growrh. In rhe shorrer rerm, how-
ever, NAFTA probably exacerbareo rhe illegal immigrarion problem as
low-prooucriviry farms or small manufacruring operarions aoapreo by
sheooing labor ano invesring in rechnologies ro improve prooucriviry, or
were forceo our of business by comperirive imporrs. Inoeeo, a high-level
: Immigrarion ano U.S. Narional Inreresrs
commission on migrarion ser up by Congress in rhe lare :jSos recom-
menoeo rhar opening rraoe wirh Mexico was rhe besr way ro encour-
age rhe economic oevelopmenr rhar woulo ulrimarely lessen migrarion
pressures. Bur ir preoicreoaccurarely, as ir rurneo ourrhar freer
rraoe woulo increase illegal immigrarion ro rhe Unireo Srares in rhe
shorr ano meoium rerm. The reporr noreo rhar alrhough |ob-crearing
economic growrh is rhe ulrimare solurion ro reoucing . . . migrarory
pressures, rhe economic oevelopmenr process irself renos in rhe shorr
ano meoium rerm ro srimulare migrarion by raising expecrarions ano
enhancing peoples abiliry ro migrare.
90
In rerms of migrarion from
Mexico, rhe srory has nor yer moveo beyono rhe meoium rerm.
The Tusl Iorce nds thut, though some oj the domestic conditions thut
huve led to muss illegul migrution jrom Mexico to the Lnited Stutes ure lilely
to improve, migrution pressures will remuin signicunt unless Mexicos econ-
omy cun grow more rupidly und creute jobs jor its worling-uge populution.
Rapio migrarion from Mexico ro rhe Unireo Srares has also hao a
reinforcing oynamic. Once migranr communiries have become well
esrablisheo, ir is easier for family members, frienos, ano orhers ro follow
rhe parh alreaoy laio oown. This has been parricularly rhe case since rhe
:jS6 Immigrarion Reform ano Conrrol Acr (IRCA) rhar legalizeo close
ro rhree million unaurhorizeo immigranrs living in rhe Unireo Srares,
I| CLRE +. BORDER llREHE^S| O^S, 19662uu7*
!967 !97! !975 !979 !9S3 !9S7 !99! !995 !999 2003 2007
M
i
l
l
i
o
n
s
2.0
!.6
!.2
0.S
0.+
0
*Incluoes aominisrrarive arresrs by ICE.
Source. Deparrmenr of Homelano Securiry, :ooS.
: U.S. Immigrarion Policy
rhe ma|oriry of rhem Mexican. As rhose inoiviouals acquireo green
caros ano cirizenship, rhey were able ro sponsor family members ro |oin
rhem legally in rhe counrry.
Finally, increaseo U.S. boroer enforcemenr efforrs, rhough neces-
sary, have hao rhe uninrenoeo effecr of increasing rhe popularion of
Mexican ano Cenrral American migranrs living permanenrly bur ille-
gally in rhe Unireo Srares. U.S. boroer enforcemenr began ro increase
subsranrially following rhe passage of rhe :jS6 legislarion. From :jj
ro :ooS, rhe buoger for rhe U.S. Boroer Parrol, which is responsible for
policing rhe boroer regions, has grown fourfolo, ano rhe number of
agenrs has increaseo from fewer rhan ,ooo ro nearly :o,ooo. Despire
rhar massive invesrmenr in boroer enforcemenr, unril recenrly such
measures were ooing lirrle ro slow rhe ow of illegal migranrs across
rhe boroer. Alrhough a signicanr percenrage of rhose rrying ro cross
are apprehenoeo by rhe Boroer Parrol, rhe only consequence in mosr
cases is rhar rhey are rerurneo across rhe boroer ano simply rry again.
As a resulr, rhe vasr ma|oriry of illegal boroer crossers evenrually suc-
ceeo ano ger rhrough ro rhe Unireo Srares.
9!
Bur once here, rhere are
srrong incenrives ro remain ano nor arrempr anorher crossing. Aooi-
rional enforcemenr has maoe boroer crossing oifculr enough rhar
mosr illegal migranrs are forceo ro rely on immigranr smugglers, or
coyores, paying an average of more rhan S:,ooo for passage inro rhe
Unireo Srares (rhough by some esrimares rhar cosr has recenrly reacheo
as high as S6,ooo). The rrip is increasingly oangerous. Ar leasr j,ooo
migranrs have oieo since :jjj while arrempring unaurhorizeo cross-
ings of rhe sourhwesr boroer.
The resulr is rhar a higher percenrage of migranrs cannor risk a rerurn
rrip ro Mexico ano eno up remaining permanenrly in rhe Unireo Srares.
Once rhey oecioe ro sray, many arrempr ro bring rheir families as well ro
avoio permanenr separarion, increasing rhe popularion of school-age
chiloren ano orhers who receive raxpayer-supporreo eoucarion, healrh
care, ano orher services.
92
By oisrupring long-esrablisheo parrerns of
circular migrarion across rhe boroer, U.S. enforcemenr efforrs have
hao rhe uninrenoeo effecr of conrriburing ro increases in rhe serrleo
popularion of unaurhorizeo immigranrs living permanenrly in rhe
Unireo Srares.
Illegal immigrarion from Mexico ro rhe Unireo Srares prompreo rhe
rwo governmenrs ro sir oown in early :oo: ro begin oiscussions on a
bilareral migrarion accoro rhar rrieo ro bring some oroer inro rhe chaoric
Immigrarion ano U.S. Narional Inreresrs
boroer siruarion. Mexican presioenr Vicenre Fox ano U.S. presioenr
Ceorge V. Bush agreeo ro ser up a high-level commission ro aooress
bilareral migrarion issues. They agreeo in principle ro acknowleoge
migrarion as a shareo problem ano ro no ways ro cooperare ro make
ir more oroerly, humane, ano legal.
93
The ralks were focuseo on several
issues ioenrieo as crirical by a bilareral experr commission heaoeo by
Thomas F. McLarry III, former Vhire House chief of sraff ano special
envoy for rhe Americas, ano co-chair of rhis Task Force, ano Anores
Rozenral, former oepury foreign minisrer of Mexico. These incluoeo
improving rrearmenr for Mexican migranrs by making legal visas
more accessible, reoucing unaurhorizeo migrarion by cracking oown
on criminal smuggling organizarions on borh sioes of rhe boroer, ano
rargering |oinr oevelopmenr iniriarives on regions of high emigrarion
from Mexico.
Despire seriousness ano gooo fairh, rhe ralks never maoe signi-
canr progress on rhe mosr polirically oifculr issues for each sioe: for
rhe Unireo Srares, wherher ir woulo legalize unaurhorizeo Mexican
migranrs alreaoy living in rhe counrry, ano, for Mexico, wherher ir
woulo rake sreps ro oiscourage emigrarion ro rhe Unireo Srares. Ano
rhe negoriarions effecrively came ro a halr afrer rhe jj:: rerrorisr arracks.
The quesrion of wherher ro revive efforrs ar such a bilareral accoro is a
crirical one srill facing borh counrries. Civen rhe faileo ralks, Mexico is
unlikely ro propose a similar negoriarion unless ir has clearer signs rhar
rhe U.S. Congress is moving forwaro on immigrarion reform. From
rhe U.S. perspecrive, immigrarion reform is likely ro be easier poliri-
cally wirhour such a negoriarion, rhere are many reasons for rhe Unireo
Srares ro move aheao on irs own, wirhour rhe complicarion of a new
bilareral negoriarion wirh Mexico. Bur rhe improvemenrs in rhe U.S.-
Mexico relarionship offer hopeful possibiliries for |oinr efforrs ro berrer
manage migrarion ano boroer issues in rhe furure.

The Neeo for Comprehensive


Immigrarion Reform
The rask of making U.S. immigrarion policies berrer serve Americas
narional inreresrs is an urgenr one facing rhe currenr aominisrrarion
ano Congress. The previous secrion covereo six ma|or oimensions
of Americas foreign policy srrongly inuenceo by irs immigrarion
policies: rhe economy, narional securiry, public oiplomacy, American
values, oevelopmenr policy, ano rhe viral relarionship wirh Mexico.
Crafring ano implemenring immigrarion policies rhar will berrer serve
rhese inreresrs requires borh a ma|or legislarive iniriarive ano a series of
incremenral changes oesigneo ro make rhe immigrarion sysrem func-
rion more smoorhly ano effecrively.
Ir has been saio many rimes before, bur ir is also rhe conclusion of rhis
Task Force rhar rhe currenr immigrarion sysrem is baoly broken. Ir will
rake borh changes ro rhe law ano changes ro currenr pracrices ro make
rhe sysrem funcrion more effecrively. The Tusl Iorce recommends thut u
new ejjort to puss u comprehensive immigrution rejorm bill be u rst-tier pri-
ority jor the Obumu udministrution und Congress, und thut such un ejjort be
resturted without deluy. The Tusl Iorce is encouruged by the eurly signs jrom
the udministrution thut immigrution rejorm is high on the ugendu und thut
ejjorts will begin promptly to move uheud with legislution. But rejorming
immigrution luws is not enough. t the sume time, the Lnited Stutes needs to
invest in muling the immigrution system operute more ejjectively.
Congress has rrieo repeareoly ro aooress some of rhe problems in
rhe immigrarion sysrem, passing signicanr legislarion in :jS6, :jjo,
ano :jj6. Yer rhe conclusions of rhe congressionally esrablisheo [oroan
Commission in :jj remain as rrue rooay as rhey were rhen. Serious
problems unoermine presenr immigrarion policies, rheir implemenra-
rion, ano rheir creoibiliry: people who shoulo ger in no a cumbersome
process rhar ofren impeoes rheir enrry, people who shoulo nor ger in
no ir all roo easy ro enrer, ano people who are here wirhour permission
remain wirh impuniry.
9+
j
The Bush aominisrrarion ano Congress maoe efforrs ro overhaul
U.S. immigrarion laws in :oo6 ano :oo;, bur in rhe face of srrong oppo-
sirion from borh sioes of rhe oebare, a compromise coulo nor be founo.
By some measures, Congress was nor far from a oeal, ano rhere woulo
seem ro be reasonable grounos for anorher efforr. The nal vore in rhe
Senare in :oo;, for insrance, fell only seven vores shorr of rhe sixry-
vore ma|oriry neeoeo ro eno oebare ano bring rhe bill ro a nal vore.
Bur by orher measures, rhe oifferences rhar leo ro rhe failure in Con-
gress remain signicanr, ano compromise will nor easily be reacheo.
Alrhough rhere was consioerable supporr for rhe :oo; Senare bill, lirrle
of ir was enrhusiasric, wirh many backers consioering ir only marginally
preferable ro rhe srarus quo. In aooirion, opponenrs of rhe legislarion
were srrong ano vocal in rheir oenunciarions. Ano, rhough rhe princi-
ples of rhe congressional proposals were generally souno, by rhe rime of
irs evenrual oefear, rhe Senare bill hao become so complex rhar effecrive
implemenrarion by rhe Deparrmenr of Homelano Securiry ano orher
agencies woulo likely have been impossible. The Tusl Iorce believes thut
the udministrution und Congress must be curejul thut u legislutive rejorm
ejjort does not simply impose u huge udditionul mundute on un ulreudy over-
burdened bureuucrucy. |t is not enough to puss comprehensive immigrution
rejorm, this time, rejorm must worl. Furrher, even if a compromise can be
reacheo, rhe Unireo Srares musr break our of rhe parrern in which Con-
gress revisirs immigrarion policy every oecaoe or so, approves whar is
claimeo ar rhe rime ro be a lasring x, ano rhen washes irs hanos of rhe
issue unril rhe problems again become roo big ro ignore.
Since :oo;, rhe aominisrrarions primary response ro rhe failure of
comprehensive immigrarion reform has been ro escalare enforcemenr ar
rhe boroer ano ro roughen measures ro srop companies from employing
unaurhorizeo migranrs. In an efforr ro keep our illegal immigranrs, rhe
Unireo Srares has expanoeo rhe Boroer Parrol inro rhe narions largesr
law enforcemenr agency, spenr billions on oeploying high-rech virrual
barriers, ano is close ro complering consrrucrion of nearly seven hun-
oreo miles of peoesrrian ano vehicle fences along irs sourhern boroer
wirh Mexico. Ir has boosreo enforcemenr ar rhe work sire, borh rhrough
efforrs ro oiscourage hiring of unaurhorizeo workers ano selecrive raios
ar companies rhar conrinue ro employ many such inoiviouals.
lthough muny in the mediu, und some in Congress, continue to insist
thut L.S. borders ure out oj control und insecure, the Tusl Iorce believes
thut the border enjorcement ejjorts oj the pust severul yeurs ure impressive
The Neeo for Comprehensive Immigrarion Reform
6 U.S. Immigrarion Policy
und not well enough understood by the public. The number of Boroer
Parrol agenrs, for insrance, grew from fewer rhan ,ooo before rhe :jS6
immigrarion reform law ro more rhan j,ooo by rhe eno of rhe cenrury,
a signicanr increase. Bur since :ooj, rhar number has again almosr
ooubleo, from |usr over :o,ooo agenrs ro nearly :o,ooo, an enormous
increase rhar unoerscoreo rhe high prioriry given ro boroer securiry in
rhe secono rerm of rhe Bush aominisrrarion. Afrer some early grow-
ing pains, rhe Deparrmenr of Homelano Securiry is moving aheao
wirh rhe oeploymenr of vioeo cameras ano orher sensing oevices along
rhe sourhwesr boroer rhar will help rarger enforcemenr efforrs by rhe
Boroer Parrol, which is parricularly imporranr in remore regions sraffeo
by fewer agenrs. Along wirh increaseo boroer enforcemenr, DHS lasr
year removeo nearly jo,ooo illegal immigranrs apprehenoeo insioe rhe
Unireo Srares, a :o percenr increase over :oo; ano by far rhe highesr
350,000
300,000
250,000
200,000
!50,000
!00,000
50,000
0
!
9
S
0
!
9
S
!
!
9
S
2
!
9
S
3
!
9
S
+
!
9
S
5
!
9
S
6
!
9
S
7
!
9
S
S
!
9
S
9
!
9
9
0
!
9
9
!
!
9
9
2
!
9
9
3
!
9
9
+
!
9
9
5
!
9
9
6
!
9
9
7
!
9
9
S
!
9
9
9
2
0
0
0
2
0
0
!
2
0
0
2
2
0
0
3
2
0
0
+
2
0
0
5
2
0
0
6
2
0
0
7
I| CLRE S. L| E^S REMO\ED, 198u2uu7
Source. Deparrmenr of Homelano Securiry Yeurbool oj |mmigrution Stutistics, :oo;.
; The Neeo for Comprehensive Immigrarion Reform
number on recoro. The Unireo Srares has also useo inrelligence garh-
ering ano mooern rechnologies ro help rarger rerrorisrs, criminals, ano
orhers ir wanrs ro excluoe from rhe counrry.
95
The Tusl Iorce nds thut these meusures represent determined, expunsive
ejjorts to control mericus borders und enjorce L.S. immigrution luws. Bur
no amounr of enforcemenr can eliminare rhe unoerlying problem, which
is rhar aggressively enforcing a broken regime ooes nor x ir. Unless rhe
Unireo Srares has a more sensible ano efcienr sysrem for aomirring
legal migranrs who come ro rake aovanrage of work opporruniries, no
reasonable level of enforcemenr is likely ro be enough ro resolve rhe ille-
gal immigrarion problem.
20,000
!S,000
!6,000
!+,000
!2,000
!0,000
S,000
6,000
+,000
2,000
0
!
9
S
0
!
9
S
!
!
9
S
2
!
9
S
3
!
9
S
+
!
9
S
5
!
9
S
6
!
9
S
7
!
9
S
S
!
9
S
9
!
9
9
0
!
9
9
!
!
9
9
2
!
9
9
3
!
9
9
+
!
9
9
5
!
9
9
6
!
9
9
7
!
9
9
S
!
9
9
9
2
0
0
0
2
0
0
!
2
0
0
2
2
0
0
3
2
0
0
+
2
0
0
5
2
0
0
6
2
0
0
7
2
0
0
S
I| CLRE 6. ^LMBER OI BORDER lTROL CE^TS, 198u2uu8
Sources. :jSo:ooj oara from Syracuse Universiry Transirional Recoros Access Clearinghouse on Immi-
grarion, :ooj:ooS oara from rhe Deparrmenr of Homelano Securiry.
S U.S. Immigrarion Policy
As former secrerary of homelano securiry Michael Cherroff pur
ir, Vhen you rry ro ghr economic realiry, ir is ar besr an exrremely
expensive ano very, very oifculr process ano almosr always ooomeo ro
failure.
96
The Tusl Iorce believes thut L.S. immigrution luws ure enjorced
poorly not becuuse oj inudequute junding or u rejusul to tule tough meusures,
but becuuse they ure overly complex und unenjorceuble us u pructicul mutter.
Lntil the Lnited Stutes cun rejorm the immigrution regime to bring it more
in line with economic reulities, enjorcement will remuin un uphill struggle.
Comprehensive immigrarion reform is likely ro be no easier in rhe
currenr Congress rhan ir was in rhe previous one. In some ways, ir coulo
be haroer because rhe oeep recession in rhe U.S. economy will leave
many lawmakers wirh lirrle apperire for measures aimeo ar making ir
easier for foreigners ro come ano work legally in rhe Unireo Srares.
Bur rhere may also be a winoow of opporruniry. Alrhough millions of
illegal immigranrs are srill in rhe Unireo Srares, rhe number rrying ro
enrer is falling rapioly, oue ro a combinarion of economic weakness
ano rougher enforcemenr. The consrrucrion inousrry, for example,
which has employeo many unaurhorizeo migranrs, was one of rhe ear-
liesr secrors hir by rhe economic oownrurn. Illegal immigranrs are also
easier for employers ro oismiss, ano rhus reno ro be rhe rsr ler go as rhe
economy weakens.
97
Ir is roo soon ro know wherher illegal immigranrs
are rerurning home in large numbers, bur rhere is no quesrion rhar ille-
gal migrarion ro rhe Unireo Srares has sloweo signicanrly. By rhe besr
esrimares available, rhe roral number of illegal immigranrs living in rhe
Unireo Srares began ro oecline in :oo;, ano may have alreaoy fallen by
as many as joo,ooo.
9S
Alrhough a recession is never an easy rime ro con-
sioer reforming immigrarion laws, rhe oecline in illegal immigrarion
has rhe bener of allowing Congress ano rhe aominisrrarion ro focus
on rhe broaoer ser of issues raiseo in rhis reporr ano elsewhere, rarher
rhan solely on rhe issue of conrrolling illegal immigrarion. In aooirion,
ir is crirical rhar rhe U.S. governmenr oo everyrhing ir can ro speeo up
rhe economic recovery ano ser rhe srage for furure growrh. An effecrive
immigrarion sysrem rhar provioes rimelier processing for immigranr
workers who will be neeoeo as rhe economy rerurns ro growrh is a crir-
ical componenr of rhe larger economic recovery package.
There are improvemenrs ro rhe immigrarion sysrem rhar can ano
shoulo be unoerraken wirhour legislarion, bur a piecemeal efforr ar
reform is unlikely ro make anyrhing orher rhan mooesr progress, given
j The Neeo for Comprehensive Immigrarion Reform
rhe aws in rhe currenr legal regime ano rhe complexiry of rhe comper-
ing inreresrs ano concerns.
In rhis chaprer, rhe reporr will oiscuss rhe four cenrral elemenrs of
any immigrarion reform efforr: improvemenrs in rhe legal immigra-
rion sysrem, more effecrive enforcemenr ro oiscourage illegal immi-
grarion, a plan for oealing wirh rhose alreaoy living illegally in rhis
counrry, ano, nally, a srraregy for ensuring successful inregrarion of
rhe growing number of immigranrs who are arriving ano serrling in
rhe Unireo Srares.
ENCOURAGING LEGAL IMMIGRATION
Mosr immigranrs come ro rhe Unireo Srares ro work. They come here
because wages, working conoirions, ano rhe prospecrs for a berrer life
are far superior ro whar rhey no in rheir own counrries. Migrarion is a
wrenching experience, ano rhe possibiliries for gain musr be signicanr
before mosr people will rake rhar leap. For illegal migranrs, because of
rhe grearer risks rhey face, rhe beners musr be higher srill.
As is being oemonsrrareo by rhe currenr recession, rhe quickesr way
ro oiscourage illegal migrarion is ro srop crearing |obs for migranrs ano
everyone else. Vhen rhe economy recovers, rhe oemano for new immi-
granrs, wherher legal or illegal, will also recover. The currenr slowoown,
rherefore, shoulo be seen as an opporruniry ro overhaul U.S. immi-
grarion policies ro berrer serve U.S. economic neeos as rhe economy
regains irs fooring.
|t is the view oj the Tusl Iorce thut getting legul immigrution right is the
most criticul immigrution policy chullenge jucing the udministrution und
Congress. lthough not enough on its own, the most ejjective wuy to combut
illegul immigrution is to huve un immigrution policy thut provides udequute
und timely meuns jor the Lnited Stutes to udmit legul immigrunts.
Three cenrral principles shoulo guioe rhe reform of rhe legal immi-
grarion sysrem: rsr, rhe Unireo Srares shoulo be aomirring immigranrs
(ano rheir close family members) in rhe number ano range of skills rhar
reecr rhe oemanos from irs economy, secono, ir neeos a much simpler
ano more rransparenr sysrem for aomirring borh migranrs ano rempo-
rary workers, ano nally, rhe governmenr musr invesr in making rhe
legal immigrarion sysrem work more efcienrly.
jo U.S. Immigrarion Policy
ImmIgrant numbers
The currenr immigrarion sysrem ooes nor respono well ro supply ano
oemano in rhe U.S. labor marker. Economics shoulo nor be rhe only
facror shaping American immigrarion policy oecisions, bur neirher
can rhe Unireo Srares simply ignore rhe vasr economic forces rhar orive
inrernarional migrarion. The efforr ro gain conrrol of illegal migrarion
is cerrain ro fail unless rhe supply of foreign workers ano rhe oemano
for rhem in rhe Unireo Srares are broughr more closely inro line. Thar
for much of rhis oecaoe roughly Soo,ooo migranrs coulo come ro rhe
Unireo Srares illegally each year ano no |obs is a clear inoicaror rhar
rhe legal migrarion sysrem has nor remorely reecreo marker oemano.
Inoeeo, one of rhe reasons illegal immigrarion is so arrracrive nor only
ro rhe migranrs bur also ro U.S. employers is rhar ir responos quickly ro
marker pressures. The lengrhy wairs ano subsranrial expense requireo
for hiring mosr foreign workers rhrough exisring legal channels have
oiscourageo many employers from using rhose channels, excepr for rhe
mosr highly skilleo workers.
99
Labor marker neeos currenrly ger far roo lirrle arrenrion in oecioing
who gers prioriry ro immigrare. For rhe pasr half cenrury, mosr new
immigranrs coming ro rhe Unireo Srares have been family members of
legal migranrs or U.S. cirizens. In :ooS, nearly ;oo,ooo people acquireo
green caros on rhe basis of family ries. By conrrasr, only |usr over :66,ooo
oio so on rhe basis of employmenr, ;6,ooo ro rhe employees ano rhe
remaining jo,ooo ro rheir spouses ano chiloren.
!00
There has long been
a oebare over wherher rhe srrong preference for family reunicarion
in U.S. immigrarion law serves American inreresrs. There are clearly
some gooo reasons for mainraining rhe policyrhe family is a core unir
of American sociery, ano srrong families are crirical for rhe eoucarion,
nancial supporr, ano social inregrarion of newcomers ro rhe counrry.
Families can also serve as an informarion nerwork, alerring relarives ar
home ro |ob prospecrs in rhe Unireo Srares, ano provioing rhem wirh
supporr afrer rhey arrive. In aooirion, Congress creareo an income resr
in :jj6 for rhose wishing ro sponsor family members, ano barring
rhose family members from welfare or orher forms of public assisrance
when rhey arrive. As a resulr, rhere are srrong aooirional incenrives for
recenr immigranrs ro work haro ano save ro meer rhe income require-
menrs neeoeo ro sponsor family members ro |oin rhem.
j: The Neeo for Comprehensive Immigrarion Reform
The currenr sysrem for family-baseo immigrarion, however, is
exceeoingly slow, ano ooes nor work well even in bringing families
rogerher. As a resulr of quoras oesigneo ro limir immigranrs from a
hanoful of counrries such as Mexico, Inoia, ano China, wairs for spon-
soring family members can srrerch ro a oecaoe or more. The currenr
backlog for aoulr siblings from rhe Philippines, for insrance, is more
rhan rwenry yearsso long rhar rhe applicanr may well have nisheo
mosr of his or her working life before arriving in rhe Unireo Srares. For
an aoulr chilo from Mexico, rhe wairs are more rhan freen years. Even
rhe wairing rimes for spouses ano minor chiloren of legal immigranrs
from anywhere in rhe worlo are ofren more rhan ve yearsa oelay rhar
is so long as ro make a mockery of rhe concepr of family reunicarion.
However, rhe sysrem for aomirring immigranrs wirh neeoeo skills
bur wirhour family connecrions is even worse. Changes ro rhe quoras
as parr of rhe :jjo Immigrarion Acr raiseo rhe number of green caros
for employmenr-baseo immigranrs ano rheir families from j6,ooo ro
:o,ooo, bur rhis remains a fracrion of rhe numbers available for family
members. In aooirion, mosr of rhe employmenr-baseo slors are claimeo
by inoiviouals alreaoy living in rhe Unireo Srares unoer some sorr of
remporary srarus. Ar rhe higher-skilleo eno, rhe main remporary visa
available for bringing skilleo workers ro rhe Unireo Srares ano purring
rhem on a parh ro permanenr resioence has been rhe H-:B visa pro-
gram, rhough rhar same program has also been useo heavily by Inoian
companies bringing over srricrly remporary workers ro supporr rheir
business mooel of oursourcing back-ofce work for U.S. companies.
American high rechnology companies are rhe main users of rhe H-:B
program, alrhough universiries ano orher eoucarional insrirurions as
well as nancial services companies are also signicanr employers. In
:jjj, as hiring in rhe rechnology inousrry was growing rapioly, Con-
gress increaseo rhe annual quora for H-:B workers from 6j,ooo ro
::j,ooo for :jjj ano :ooo, ano rhen again raiseo ir ro :jj,ooo for rhe
scal years :oo: ro :oo. Unforrunarely, rhe larrer increase coincioeo
wirh rhe collapse of rhe rechnology srock bubble, ano came inro effecr
|usr as employmenr in rhe inousrry was falling. Congress rherefore ler
rhe cap reverr ro 6j,ooo in FY:oo, |usr as rhe inousrry was beginning
ro recover. The resulr was rhar for several years rhe annual quora for
H-:B workers was lleo almosr immeoiarely, a :ooj x by Congress
ro aoo rwenry rhousano slors for aovanceo oegree holoers helpeo only
j: U.S. Immigrarion Policy
slighrly. Virh rhe currenr recession, oemano for H-:B workers has
oroppeo, making rhe cap remporarily less of an impeoimenr for U.S.
companies, bur ir is clear rhar rhe quora is inaoequare in anyrhing bur a
oeep recession.
The logic of rhe currenr quoras is rhar hiring more foreign rechnology
workers will mean fewer |obs for American rechnology workers. There
TBLE J. TOl TWE^TY COMl^| ESMOST H1- B \| S
lET| T| O^ llRO\LS | ^ 2uu8
Rank Company Approved Petitions
! Infosys Technologies Lro. +,559
2 Vipro Lro. 2,67S
3 Saryam Compurer Services Lro. !,9!7
+ Tara Consulrancy Services Lro. !,539
5 Microsofr Corporarion !,037
6 Accenrure LLP 73!
7 Cognizanr Technology Solurions Corporarion +67
S Cisco Sysrems Inc. +22
9 Larsen & Toubro Inforech Lro. +03
!0 IBM Inoia Privare Limireo 3S!
!! Inrel Corporarion 35!
!2 Ernsr & Young LLP 32!
!3 Parni Americas Inc. 296
!+ Terra Inforech Inc. 2S!
!5 Qualcomm Incorporareo 255
!6 MPhasiS Corporarion 25!
!7 KPMC LLP 2+5
!S Prince Ceorges Counry Public Schools 239
!9 Balrimore Ciry Public School Sysrem 229
20 Deloirre Consulring LLP 2!S
Source. U.S. Cirizenship ano Immigrarion Services, :ooj.
j The Neeo for Comprehensive Immigrarion Reform
is lirrle evioence, however, rhar rhose resrricrions eno up crearing more
|obs for American workers. Inoeeo, rhe opposire is likely rhe case. More
rhan jo percenr of Coogle employees, for insrance, are Americans, yer
rhe company lasr year was able ro ger only half rhe H-:B workers ir hao
soughr. Coogle argues rhar if were ro remain an innovarive company
one rhar is crearing |obs in rhe U.S. every oaywe also neeo ro hire
exceprional canoioares who happen ro have been born elsewhere. Afrer
all, if we were ro hire only U.S.-born ralenr, we woulo effecrively close
ourselves off from mosr of rhe worlos popularion. Microsofr recenrly
oecioeo ro open a new research faciliry across rhe boroer in Vancouver,
Canaoa, rarher rhan in Vashingron Srare, ciring irs inabiliry ro bring
skilleo foreign workers inro rhe Unireo Srares. The resulr will be more
|obs for Canaoian workers, ano fewer for Americans. A recenr survey
by rhe Narional Venrure Capiral Associarion founo rhar one-rhiro of
privarely helo venrure capiral-backeo U.S. companiesrhe mosr inno-
varive rms in rhe Unireo Srareshao been increasing hiring abroao
oue ro resrricrions rhar prevenreo rhem from hiring foreign workers in
rhis counrry.
!0!
A number of orher aovanceo inousrrializeo narions have imple-
menreo policies rhar explicirly rarger immigranrs whose skills rhe gov-
ernmenr believes are valuable ro rhe economy, or are rhoughr ro be in
shorr supply. Canaoa, Brirain, Ausrralia, ano New Zealano all have
whar are known as poinrs-baseo sysrems for selecring immigranrs.
They use facrors such as eoucarion, occuparion, work experience, age,
ano language skills ro oecioe which immigranrs ro aomir. The sysrem is
implemenreo by rhe governmenr, in conrrasr ro rhe U.S. scheme, which
oepenos more on privare companies ioenrifying ano hiring parricular
foreign workers.
In :oo;, in rhe nal rhroes of rhe oebare over immigrarion reform,
rhe Senare inrroouceo a compromise bill crafreo by senarors [on Kyl
(R-AZ) ano Eowaro Kenneoy (D-MA) rhar woulo have inrroouceo
a poinrs sysrem in rhe Unireo Srares. Ar rhe same rime, ir woulo have
increaseo rhe percenrage of employmenr-baseo green caros signi-
canrly ano reouceo family preferences, parricularly for parenrs ano sib-
lings. The proposal generareo srrong opposirion from many immigranr
righrs groups, who ob|ecreo ro rhe reoucrion in family preferences. Bur
ir also orew surprisingly srrong hosriliry from business, which feareo
ir woulo compromise rhe abiliry of companies ro seek our ano hire rhe
besr foreign workers ano woulo insreao place grearer aurhoriry in rhe
j U.S. Immigrarion Policy
hanos of rhe governmenr.
!02
The oanger of a poinrs sysrem is rhar ir can
become oelinkeo from rhe acrual labor marker, bringing in employ-
menr-baseo workers for whom no employmenr acrually exisrs. Despire
rhe argumenrs in favor of a poinrs sysrem, rhe Unireo Srares, unoer irs
currenr sysrem, has been rhe mosr successful counrry in rhe worlo in
arrracring rhe mosr highly skilleo immigranrsa recoro rhar calls for
reforming rhe currenr sysrem ro make ir more efcienr, easier ro use,
ano more responsive ro marker oemano, rarher rhan aoopring a oiffer-
enr sysrem wholesale.
U.S. policies for arrracring low-skilleo workers have also been
oivorceo from rhe realiries of supply ano oemano. The currenr legal
quora for green caros for unskilleo laborers ano rheir families, for exam-
ple, is |usr ren rhousano each year, a miniscule number rhar ooes nor
begin ro reecr acrual oemano. The H-:A visa program for remporary
agriculrural workers renos ro be unoeruseo by employers because of
irs cosr ano complexiry, whereas rhe H-:B program for seasonal work-
ers has a quora rhar is normally roo low ro meer oemano. In aooirion,
rhere are resrricrions rhar make ir impossible for some employers wirh
a legirimare neeo for nonseasonal remporary workers ro qualify. There
has also been lirrle consisrency in rhe scope ano aominisrrarion of eirher
program. Congress alloweo changes ro rhe H-:B program, for insrance,
which hao alloweo rerurning remporary workers nor ro be counreo
againsr annual quoras, ro expire ar rhe eno of :oo;, which effecrively cur
rhe program in half. In a :ooS lerrer ro congressional leaoers rhar was
signeo by rhree governors, incluoing former Arizona governor ano cur-
renr DHS secrerary [aner Napolirano, rhe Vesrern Covernors Associa-
rion saio rhar rhe shorrage of H-:B visas ano rhe bureaucraric huroles
for rhe H-:A program have creareo crirical problems for key wesrern
business ano inousrry.
!03
There has long been serious consioerarion given ro expanoing rem-
porary worker programs, especially for low-skilleo migranrs from
Mexico who woulo orherwise be likely ro enrer rhe Unireo Srares ille-
gally. A remporary worker program was a cenrral fearure of rhe faileo
immigrarion reform efforrs in borh :oo6 ano :oo;. Temporary ano sea-
sonal work programs have been rhe only mechanism rhar has alloweo
rhe cross-boroer ow of workers from Mexico ro rhe Unireo Srares ro be
funneleo inro a program rhar can be moniroreo by governmenr aurhori-
ries. The biggesr oilemma has been how ro enforce labor cerricarion,
minimum wage, ano labor righrs provisions in an efforr ro ensure rhar
jj The Neeo for Comprehensive Immigrarion Reform
migranr workers are nor being exploireo, ano are nor useo by employers
ro orive oown wages ano sranoaros for American workers. The exisring
H-:A program for agriculrural guesr workers, as noreo, is unoeruseo
because farm employers consioer ir roo onerous, especially given rhe
number of reaoily available unaurhorizeo workers. Only abour ;j,ooo
of a labor force esrimareo ar :.j million are aomirreo each year unoer rhe
program. Yer changes maoe in rhe nal weeks of rhe Bush aominisrra-
rion, rhough rhey woulo make ir easier for employers ro use rhe H-:A
program, have been criricizeo for weakening many of rhe prorecrions
for workers. (The Obama aominisrrarion has oelayeo implemenrarion
of rhe regularions unril rhe eno of rhe year.)
!0+
Temporary worker programs have never been a panacea, ano rhe
U.S. experience wirh such schemes has been oecioeoly mixeo. The big-
gesr of rhese was rhe Bracero Program for Mexican agriculrural work-
ers. Inirially oesigneo as a remporary measure ro oeal wirh warrime
labor shorrages, ir became an esrablisheo guesr worker program afrer
Vorlo Var II, wirh rhe number of legal workers reaching j,ooo in
:jj6. The program, however, became nororious for wioespreao labor
righrs abuses ano was shur oown by Congress in :j6j. The scheme is
seen as having leo ro a sizable increase in rhe number of guesr workers
who serrleo permanenrly in rhe Unireo Srares as illegal immigranrs.
!05
The Unireo Srares is nor alone in irs mixeo experiences. Orher coun-
rries have generally been unsuccessful in crearing smoorhly funcrion-
ing guesr worker programs
!06
for ar leasr rwo reasons. Firsr, excepr in
cerrain inousrries, such as agriculrure ano rourism, which have large
seasonal employmenr ucruarions, remporary work is somerhing of a
misnomer. Many remporary work permirs are for full-rime, year-rouno
|obs, bur wirh rhe assumprion rhar ar rhe eno of a cerrain perioo, usually
rhree years, rhe inoivioual will rerurn home. The assumprion collioes
wirh roo much of whar is known abour human narure ano economic
realiries. Someone who leaves home for rhree years almosr invariably
purs oown some roors in rhe new communiry, ano is unlikely ro leave
volunrarily ar rhe eno of rhar perioo. The employee may have come ro
oepeno on rhe higher wage, much of which is ofren senr back home ro
families as remirrances. An employer may also be relucranr ro lose a gooo
employee. The renoency ro sray on in rhe hosr counrry is parricularly
srrong if |ob opporruniries back home are few, which is almosr always
rhe case, given rhar unemploymenr or unoeremploymenr ar home is
whar orives mosr inoiviouals abroao in rhe rsr place. As a resulr, many
j6 U.S. Immigrarion Policy
remporary workers rry ro no legal channels ro remain permanenrly in
rheir aoopreo counrries or, failing rhar, ofren remain illegally.
The secono problem is rhar rhe conoirions of employmenr for rem-
porary workers reno ro be subsranoaro, wirh employers somerimes
paying workers below rhe legal minimum wage ano wirhholoing normal
employmenr beners. In cases where an inoiviouals legal srarus in rhe
hosr counrry oepenos on a parricular |ob, as is frequenrly rhe case, rhose
workers have lirrle or no abiliry ro seek berrer wages or working conoi-
rions. Unions have founo ir parricularly oifculr, ano usually impossi-
ble, ro organize foreign workers enrolleo in such programs. The Unireo
Srares has arrempreo ro oeal wirh rhese criricisms by requiring rhar
employers arresr rhar rhey have been unable ro no enough workers
oomesrically, ano rhar rhey will offer foreign workers rhe same wages
ano working conoirions as oomesric employees. Bur in pracrice such
labor cerricarion requiremenrs have been exrremely oifculr ro enforce,
parricularly wirh rhe inaoequare resources oevoreo ro rhe rask.
ComplexIty
The currenr legal immigrarion sysrem is inoroinarely complex ano cum-
bersome. Lengrhy oelays in processing rourine requesrs make ir oif-
culr, if nor impossible, ro carry our an immigrarion policy rhar serves
rhe narions inreresrs. Accoroing ro rhe U.S. Cirizenship ano Immigra-
rion Services (USCIS) ombuosman, many of rhe pervasive ano seri-
ous problems in rhe hanoling of legal immigrarion ano visa claims
srem from rhe complexiry ano opaque narure of rhe immigrarion rules
ano rhe agency aominisrering rhem.
!07
The basic law unoerlying U.S.
immigrarion policy was wrirren in :jj:, ano since rhar rime mosr of rhe
changes approveo by Congress have simply layereo aooirional buroens
on an alreaoy inaoequare law ano an ineffecrive bureaucracy. In aooirion,
rhere are a myriao of orher laws, policies, memoranoa, ano guioelines
rhar are relevanr ro many oifferenr aspecrs of rhe visa ano immigrarion
process. As rhe USCIS ombuosman has pur ir, rhe sysrem is a hooge-
pooge of oisconnecreo, overlapping, ano conrraoicrory rules.
!0S
Vhar rhe Unireo Srares shoulo have is a clear, oisciplineo, rranspar-
enr, ano exible sysrem. A clear sysrem woulo be one in which rhe rules
are well known ano easily unoersranoable ro anyone who wishes ro
immigrare or ro come here remporarily for sruoy or work. Insreao, rhe
sysrem is so complex rhar ir is virrually impossible ro navigare wirhour
j; The Neeo for Comprehensive Immigrarion Reform
an immigrarion lawyer, ano even rhen misrakes ger maoe ano can be
exrremely cosrly. Even immigrarion inspecrors ano ao|uoicarors fre-
quenrly make misrakes, crearing subsranrial oownsrream work in cor-
recring rhe errors. A oisciplineo sysrem woulo be one in which oecisions
are rimely ano preoicrable. Insreao, virrually every parr of rhe process
from rhe inirial visa applicarion ro naruralizarion as a U.S. cirizenis
characrerizeo by lengrhy oelays. A rransparenr sysrem woulo be one in
which ir is easy for applicanrs ro obrain rhe informarion rhey neeo on
rhe requiremenrs for applicarions. Insreao, rhere is no single source for
basic informarion abour U.S. immigrarion laws, ano rheir relareo pro-
cesses ano policies, ano ir is oifculr for inoiviouals ro rrack rhe srarus
of rheir applicarions. A exible sysrem woulo be one in which immigra-
rion levels ao|usr more easily ro rhe srare of rhe economy. Insreao, much
of rhe legal immigrarion sysrem is largely impervious ro economic con-
oirions in rhe Unireo Srares.
This complexiry has evolveo largely as a resulr of many years of
makeshifr xes ro specic problems, bur ir has reacheo rhe poinr where
rhose ao hoc ao|usrmenrs have creareo a oysfuncrional sysrem. There
are, for example, some rwo oozen caregories of visas allowing rempo-
rary aomission ro rhe Unireo Srares, ano more rhan sevenry-ve sub-
caregories, covering everyone from arhleres ro criminal informanrs ro
remporary employees from Chile ano Singapore who receive special
rrearmenr as a resulr of U.S. rraoe agreemenrs wirh rhose counrries.
Alrhough each of rhe caregories may be oefensible on irs own, rhe col-
lecrive resulr is hopelessly unwieloy. Accoroing ro rhe Migrarion Policy
Insrirures comprehensive :oo6 Inoepenoenr Task Force on Immigra-
rion ano Americas Furure, The chaoric narure of immigrarion rules
represenrs a rrue public policy oanger in rhar rhe sysrem invires manip-
ularion by porenrial workers ano employers, ao hoc xes by policymak-
ers, ano wioespreao loss of conoence from rhe public.
!09
lthough it will never be eusy to simplijy u system thut must deul with such
u huge volume und diversity oj individuul cuses, the Tusl Iorce believes thut
the government must begin moving in thut direction. Ior more thun hulj u
century, the Lnited Stutes hus mude the system more und more complicuted,
it is time to begin reversing course.
The currenr remplare for legal immigrarion ro rhe Unireo Srares
also bears lirrle resemblance ro how mosr immigrarion acrually rakes
place. The assumprion on which rhe laws are wrirren is rhar mosr aspir-
ing immigranrs will apply from rheir home counrries for permission ro
jS U.S. Immigrarion Policy
immigrare ro rhe Unireo Srares, ano rhen wair rheir rurn in line. Thar
may once have been an accurare reecrion of rhe realiry, bur currenrly
mosr who immigrare permanenrly ro rhe Unireo Srares speno many
years living here rsr on some kino of remporary visa.
In rheory, almosr everyone who comes ro rhe Unireo Srares on a
remporary visawherher as a rourisr, a sruoenr, or an employeeis
expecreo ro oemonsrrare rhe inrenr ro rerurn home afrer rhe visa expires.
Temporary visa holoers who fail ro oo so can be barreo from enrering
or from rerurning if rhey have rraveleo abroao. Yer in pracrice, rhe ois-
rincrion berween remporary employees ano permanenr immigranrs
has urrerly broken oown. Because permanenr visas are so oifculr ro
obrain, remporary ones have become a subsrirure. Far more remporary
work visas are rherefore issueo each year rhan employmenr-baseo green
caros. In :ooS, for insrance, more rhan :66,ooo employmenr-baseo
green caros were issueo ro borh employees ano rheir family members,
in comparison, more rhan 6oo,ooo remporary work visas were issueo,
many ro people living in rhe Unireo Srares for years ano wairing for a
green caro. More rhan 6o percenr of rhose seeking green caros each
year are alreaoy in rhe Unireo Srares, rhar gure is nearly jo percenr for
employmenr-baseo immigranrs.
!!0
There are gooo argumenrs in favor of an immigrarion sysrem rhar
allows many people ro come here rsr on some sorr of remporary basis.
The process permirs a porenrial immigranr ro experience living ano
working in rhe Unireo Srares before making rhe more consequenrial
oecision ro immigrare. The sruoenr visa program, for insrance, has been
an enormously imporranr channel for arrracring young, highly skilleo
inoiviouals who ofren eno up living permanenrly in rhe Unireo Srares.
On rhe oemano sioe, remporary schemes are also easier for rhe govern-
menr ro ao|usr upwaro ano oownwaro as economic conoirions in rhe
Unireo Srares change, a exibiliry rhar ooes nor exisr wirh family-baseo
permanenr immigrarion.
Yer rhe sysrem as ir currenrly operares, rhough ir has many merirs, is
unoermineo by complex rules ano rhe resrricrions imposeo by quoras
ano processing oelays, all of which eno up leaving many inoiviouals
who woulo like ro seek permanenr resioence sruck for years as rempo-
rary workers. Their uncerrain srarus creares real haroships for rhese
inoiviouals (for insrance, spouses of mosr remporary visa holoers are
nor permirreo ro work) ano uncerrainries for rheir employers. The
resulr ar besr is wioespreao resenrmenr of a sysrem rhar forces rhese
inoiviouals ro live in a kino of secono-class srarus for many years, ar
jj The Neeo for Comprehensive Immigrarion Reform
worsr, rhey simply pick up ano leave, as growing numbers appear ro be
ooing.
!!!
The Canaoian province of Alberra, for insrance, has aover-
riseo irs eagerness ro lure away U.S. remporary visa holoers who have
been unable ro converr ro permanenr srarus, offering quick approval of
permanenr resioence for skilleo workers in cerrain occuparions.
!!2
In
simplifying rhe immigrarion sysrem, rhe Unireo Srares neeos ro move
ro a scheme rhar more closely resembles how migrarion acrually occurs
in rhe worlo rooay.
government Investment
Even if rhe currenr sysrem can be simplieo, ir will nor work properly
wirhour a more effecrive funoing sysrem for faciliraring legal immigra-
rion. The Tusl Iorce nds thut some oj the recent operutionul problems in
2,500,000
2,000,000
!,500,000
!,000,000
500,000
0
!99S !999 2000 200! 2002 2003 200+ 2005 2006 2007 200S
Temporary worker ano family aomissions Creen caros issueo
I| CLRE 7. TEMlORRY WORKER DM| SS| O^S \ERSLS
CREE^- CRD | SSL^CES, 19982uu8
Source. Deparrmenr of Homelano Securiry Yeurbool oj |mmigrution Stutistics, :ooj.
6o U.S. Immigrarion Policy
the L.S. legul immigrution system ure u result oj the wuy in which the system
is nunced. The clearesr inoicaror of rhe neeo for reform in rhe way we
funo legal immigrarion services is rhe long oelayfrequenrly mea-
sureo in yearsfor resolving many applicarions. Backlogs ano oelays
have been hisroric, long-sranoing problems wirh rhe U.S. immigrarion
sysrem ano have so far been immune ro any lasring solurion. For some,
rhis is simply a nuisance, for orhers, rhe cosrs are exrraoroinarily high. A
processing oelay can prevenr people from voring, bar rhem from work-
ing, or rhrearen rheir abiliry ro remain in rhe Unireo Srares if rheir rem-
porary visa srarus expires before rheir immigranr visa applicarion has
been approveo.
Congress has manoareo rhar USCIS be self-funoeo. Unoer rhe cur-
renr sysrem, rhe cosr of immigrarion processing is paio for enrirely by
a series of fees levieo on visa applicanrs, remporary immigranrs, green-
caro applicanrs, ano rhose seeking U.S. cirizenship. Cerrain rypes of
visa applicarions are parricularly expensive. Companies seeking ro
recruir an H-:B high-skilleo worker, for example, can expecr ro pay
berween Sj,ooo ano S6,ooo in governmenr fees ano legal cosrs for each
employee. The fees rhar musr be paio oirecrly ro rhe governmenr range
from abour S:,joo ro more rhan S,ooo, oepenoing on rhe size of rhe
company ano rhe speeo of processing ir oesires for an applicarion.
The fee sysrem has provioeo an imporranr, srable source of funoing
for USCIS, before :jSS, rhose fees hao gone inro rhe U.S. Treasury,
ano immigrarion services were ofren srarveo for funoing. User funoing
for processing cosrs is a gooo mooel in principle: ir places rhe buroen
on immigranrs who srano ro bener subsranrially from coming ro rhe
Unireo Srares ano proouces an increase in funoing as rhe number of
applicarions increases. Bur rhe way in which rhe fee srrucrure operares
has also conrribureo ro many of rhe inefciencies in rhe processing of
immigrarion bener applicarions. In parricular, rhere has been a builr-
in incenrive for green-caro applicarions ro be processeo slowly because
USCIS oerives a consioerable porrion of irs revenue from remporary
employmenr aurhorizarion caros, which normally musr be reneweo
annually. Those revenues are viral ro rhe agencys buoger, yer process-
ing rhose claims rakes personnel away from ao|uoicaring permanenr
immigranr claims.
Reporrs by rhe USCIS ombuosman over rhe pasr several years have
laio our rhe funoing problems in oerail ano calleo for a range of neeoeo
responses. There are some encouraging signs. In :oo;, rhe fees for
6: The Neeo for Comprehensive Immigrarion Reform
green-caro applicarions were boosreo signicanrly ro a level rhar will
also nance rhe various inrerim work aurhorizarion beners rhar many
applicanrs require while awairing ao|uoicarion. Thar has eliminareo a
big incenrive for oelays. Premium fees for fasrer processingrhough
rhey woulo ioeally be unnecessaryhave also provioeo a signicanr
funoing boosr.
Bur rhe funoing issues for immigrarion beners highlighr a more
funoamenral problem. Alrhough rhe U.S. governmenr has subsran-
rially boosreo spenoing on immigrarion enforcemenr since DHS was
creareo, rhis has been less rhe case for USCIS, rhe DHS agency respon-
sible for oealing wirh immigranr, nonimmigranr, ano naruralizarion
applicarions. Covernmenr spenoing on rhe enforcemenr of immigra-
rion laws has increaseo oramarically, rising vefolo ro more rhan Sj bil-
lion berween :jSj ano :oo:. Since rhe jj:: arracks, ir has rripleo again
ro more rhan S:j billion. The buoger increases for USCIS have been far
more mooesr, from S:.j billion when DHS was creareo ro S:.; billion in
:ooj. In parricular, because a subsranrial porrion of USCIS work has
been conrracreo our, srafng levels for governmenr employees ooing
rhe crirical work of ao|uoicarion have nor kepr pace wirh oemano.
!!3
All
rhe funoing for USCIS comes from fees paio by immigranrs, whereas
enforcemenr is paio for from general congressional appropriarions.
The unoerlying message is rhar America as a counrry believes rhar
immigrarion serves only rhe inreresrs of immigranrs, ano rherefore
rhey shoulo pay rhe enrire cosr rhemselves. Furrher, rhe refusal ro use
any raxpayer money ro pay for immigrarion services inoicares rhar rhe
Unireo Srares ooes nor believe rhar faciliraring legal immigrarion is a
signicanr narional prioriry. One of rhe consequences is rhar USCIS is
simply nor helo ro rhe same accounrabiliry ano performance sranoaros
by Congress as are orher funcrions of rhe U.S. governmenr, incluo-
ing immigrarion enforcemenr, which are paio for by raxpayers. The
Tusl Iorce believes thut both jucilituting legul immigrution und preventing
unluwjul entry should be considered equully importunt priorities, und should
receive the junding und oversight to ensure they perjorm ut un optimul level.
In parricular, Congress shoulo be prepareo ro appropriare funos
ro supporr rhe oevelopmenr of a mooern infrasrrucrure for process-
ing immigranr ano remporary visa applicarions. USCIS has recenrly
launcheo a long-overoue Transformarion Iniriarive ro creare a paper-
less processing sysrem rhar shoulo improve efciency ano cusromer
service as ir reouces frauoulenr applicarions ano speeos securiry
6: U.S. Immigrarion Policy
checks. Alrhough USCIS is buogering ro funo rhe iniriarive our of fee
revenue, infrasrrucrure invesrmenr cannor be a single iniriarive, bur
requires ongoing buogerary supporr.
Even wirh aooirional invesrmenrs, rhere are no easy solurions ro rhe
problem of processing oelays. Civen rhe number of applicarions rhar
musr be consioereo each year, USCIS faces a herculean rask, ano one
rhar is far from preoicrable. Applicarions can surge for reasons rhar are
quire oursioe rhe agencys conrrol, as rhey oio in rhe early :jjos follow-
ing Congresss :jS6 oecision ro legalize nearly rhree million unaurhor-
izeo migranrs living in rhe counrry. Or rhey can surge more preoicrably,
as wirh rhe ooo in cirizenship applicarions in rhe summer of :oo; in
aovance of rhe fee increase ano a year before a presioenrial elecrion.
Since jj::, USCIS has been expecreo ro allow rime for exhausrive secu-
riry backgrouno checks on applicanrs for green caros ano cirizenship.
FY2003 FY200+ FY2005 FY2006 FY2007 FY200S FY2009
D
o
l
l
a
r
s

(
m
i
l
l
i
o
n
s
)
!2,000
!0,000
S,000
6,000
+,000
2,000
0
I| CLRE 8. TOTL BLDCETRY LTHOR| TY BY ORC^| ZT| O^.
CBl, | CE, ^D LSC| S
CBP ICE USCIS
Sources. Migrarion Policy Insrirure, Deparrmenr of Homelano Securiry, :ooj.
6
CBP ICE USCIS
The Neeo for Comprehensive Immigrarion Reform
These incluoe a name check, which is carrieo our by rhe Feoeral Bureau
of Invesrigarion (FBI), ano can involve searches of paper recoros rhar
may be helo ar any one of :6j local FBI ofces arouno rhe counrry. The
securiry checks, ano parricularly rhe name checks, have inrroouceo
anorher ofren lengrhy oelay inro rhe process, rhough rhe FBI has recenrly
maoe impressive progress in reoucing rhose oelays by aooing resources
ro allow backgrouno checks ro be complereo in a more rimely fashion.
Those efforrs shoulo be conrinueo.
!!+
There have been orher encourag-
ing signs of progress. In rhe pasr scal year, for insrance, USCIS reouceo
rhe average processing rime for cirizenship applicarions nearly in half,
ro roughly nine monrhs, yer processeo a recoro :.:; million applicarions.
The backlog of inoiviouals awairing FBI securiry clearances was also
reouceo signicanrly as a resulr of a subsranrial increase in rhe number
of processors combineo wirh berrer lrering of applicanrs.
!!5
70,000
60,000
50,000
+0,000
30,000
20,000
!0,000
0
FY2005 FY2006 FY2007 FY200S FY2009 FY20!0
F
u
l
l
-
T
i
m
e

E
m
p
l
o
y
e
e
s
I| CLRE 9. ILLL-T| ME EMlLOYEES BY ORC^| ZT| O^.
CBl, | CE, ^D LSC| S
Sources. Migrarion Policy Insrirure, Deparrmenr of Homelano Securiry, :ooj.
6 U.S. Immigrarion Policy
Despire rhe scale of rhe rask, aooirional funos ano a more srable funo-
ing srrucrure are a necessary parr of any susrainable solurion.
DISCOURAGING ILLEGAL IMMIGRATION
The Unireo Srares has rhe righr, ano rhe oury, ro conrrol ano secure irs
boroers. Ir is an affronr ro rhe rule of law rhar hunoreos of rhousanos of
people each year can enrer rhe counrry unannounceo or pose as visi-
rors when rheir inrenrion is ro live here permanenrly. Ir is also rrue rhar,
excepr for rhe small percenrage who come here as orug smugglers or
wirh rhe inrenrion of commirring orher crimes, rhe vasr ma|oriry of ille-
gal immigranrs have broken rhe law only in pursuir of a oream shareo
by many, ro make berrer lives for rhemselves ano for rheir families. Bur
a cenrral fearure of rhe American oream is rhe ioea rhar success comes
from playing by rhe rules, rhar so many who wish ro come here now
rry ro succeeo by violaring rhe rules is a sao oisrorrion of rhar ioeal. The
Tusl Iorce believes thut in uny ejjort to rejorm immigrution luws, the rule oj
luw must be reusserted. ^o rejorm will be uccepted by the mericun people,
nor should it be, unless it restores respect jor the luw. This means rhar along-
sioe reform of irs legal immigrarion sysrem, rhe Unireo Srares musr
asserr grearer conrrol over irs boroers, assure compliance wirh rerms of
aomission, ano sharply reouce rhe number of |obs available ro persons
nor aurhorizeo ro work in rhis counrry.
Comprehensive immigrarion reform woulo subsranrially lower
rhe ow of illegal migranrs by provioing alrernarive legal channels for
migranrs ro live ano work in rhe Unireo Srares. Thar irself woulo be a big
srep rowaro gaining conrrol of rhe boroer. Immigrarion reform woulo
remove rhe hunoreos of rhousanos of orherwise law-abioing inoiviouals
who are now coming ro rhe Unireo Srares ro work illegally, so rhar U.S.
enforcemenr efforrs coulo focus more effecrively on keeping our for-
eign rerrorisrs, criminals, ano orhers who pose a serious rhrear. Reouc-
ing rhe ow woulo also allow for a much higher apprehension rare,
which woulo in rurn oiscourage orhers who mighr be rhinking abour
rrying ro enrer rhe Unireo Srares illegally. There is a law enforcemenr
ripping poinr ar which rhe cosrs ano oifculry of enrering illegally woulo
become a powerful oisincenrive, parricularly given rhe exisrence of new
legal oprions. The sharp reoucrion in illegal enrry inro rhe Unireo Srares
over rhe pasr rwo years as rhe economy has sofreneo ano enforcemenr
6j The Neeo for Comprehensive Immigrarion Reform
has grown inoicares rhar ir is possible ro reach rhis ripping poinr in a
recession, rhe challenge is ro oo so when rhe economy recovers ano rhe
oemano for new employees again rises.
The Tusl Iorce believes thut un ejjective enjorcement regime centers on
three elements. rst, u comprehensive und uccurute system thut discouruges
employers jrom hiring unuuthorized migrunts, second, tougher enjorcement
ut the borders thut stops those who should not be udmitted ut u L.S. lund
border or port oj entry, und, third, closer cooperution umong jederul, stute,
und locul luw enjorcement ojciuls in enjorcing immigrution luws.
employment enforCement
Since rhe :jS6 Immigrarion Reform ano Conrrol Acr, rhe biggesr miss-
ing piece in rhe enforcemenr efforr has been rhe absence of any serious
arrempr ro oiscourage employers from hiring unoocumenreo workers.
The grano bargain of :jS6 was supposeo ro offer legalizarion for rhose
alreaoy here in exchange for much rougher enforcemenr measures ro
bar rhe employmenr of illegal workers in rhe furure. In pracrice, for borh
polirical ano rechnological reasons, rhe employer sancrions provisions
have nor been aoequarely enforceo, parricularly nor in recenr years. Many
employers were simply unable ro oerermine rhe legal srarus of some work-
ers, ano orhers were nor much inreresreo in rrying. Furrher, employers
who knowingly violareo rhe rules were rarely neo, ano when rhey were,
rhe nes were minimal ano reaoily seen as a cosr of ooing business. Ar
rhe same rime, rhe legislarion fell shorr of being comprehensive because
ir faileo ro offer any new legal channels for immigrarion or remporary
work. The resulr was rhar rarher rhan oiscouraging illegal immigrarion,
rhe :jS6 acr almosr cerrainly accelerareo ir. Thar has lefr rhe American
public righrly cynical of any similar grano bargain in rhe furure. Bur rhe
egregious failure of rhe U.S. governmenr ro carry our whar hao been
promiseo in rhe :jS6 legislarion shoulo nor be useo ro oiscreoir rhe enrire
approach. The failure was nor conceprion, ir was implemenrarion.
Employmenr opporruniries are rhe magner rhar pulls mosr illegal
migranrs ro rhe Unireo Srares, if rhose opporruniries can be oiminisheo,
illegal immigrarion will also oiminish. The Tusl Iorce believes employer
sunctions need to be strengthened to discouruge employers jrom hiring unuu-
thorized worlers, there should be cleur guidelines to enuble employers to
comply with employer sunctions luw, und these luws should be enjorced to
uchieve optimul deterrence. Such meusures ure the most ejjective und humune
66 U.S. Immigrarion Policy
wuy to discouruge illegul migrution to the Lnited Stutes. There will always
be a cerrain oegree of gray-marker employmenr, ano in secrors like agri-
culrure ano consrrucrion ir will be parricularly oifculr ro eno all such
hiring. Bur far more can be oone. The governmenr musr srrengrhen rhe
penalries ir levies againsr employers who hire unaurhorizeo migranrs
ano make ir easier for willing employers ro comply wirh rhe law. In
parricular, rhe governmenr neeos ro improve ano expano whar is srill
a eogling elecrronic vericarion sysrem, E-Verify, which will permir
employers ro avoio prosecurion by verifying againsr a governmenr oara-
base rhar rhe employee applying for a |ob is legally enrirleo ro work in rhe
Unireo Srares. In aooirion, rhe agency in charge of enforcing employer
sancrionsImmigrarion ano Cusroms Enforcemenrmusr have aoe-
quare resources ro conoucr invesrigarions ano ro iniriare prosecurions
for employers who violare rhe law.
Vhy shoulo enforcemenr ar rhe work sire be any more effecrive rhan
ir was afrer :jS6? In some ways, rhe problem is more oifculr because
rhe hiring of unaurhorizeo migranrs is so pervasive rhar many employ-
ers have a srrong incenrive ro conrinue rhe pracrice. On rhe orher hano,
rhe U.S. governmenr now has rhe capabiliry ro use informarion rech-
nologies rhar allow for quicker ano more accurare vericarion rhar new
employees are aurhorizeo ro work in rhe Unireo Srares. The E-Verify
sysrem, begun on a pilor basis in :jj;, has graoually been expanoeo ro
encompass many more employers. The sysrem permirs employers ro
check rhe work eligibiliry of new hires online by verifying rhe informa-
rion rhey provioe againsr Social Securiry Aominisrrarion ano USCIS
oarabases. So far, more rhan :oo,ooo companies have signeo up, some
srares are pressuring employers ro parricipare by ooing srare business
only wirh companies rhar use rhe sysrem, ano some like Arizona require
irs use by mosr employers. Overall, abour one in eighr new hires in rhe
Unireo Srares is now being checkeo rhrough rhe E-Verify sysrem.
Alrhough srill in irs infancy, rhe E-Verify sysrem shows consioer-
able promise. Accoroing ro rhe Covernmenr Accounrabiliry Ofce,
rhe vasr ma|oriry of E-Verify queries (abour j: percenr) are resolveo
insranrly, ano DHS claims an accuracy rare of more rhan j6 percenr.
The remainoer cannor be resolveo immeoiarely because of mismarches
in rhe Social Securiry oarabase, ano abour : percenr of cases involve ois-
crepancies wirh USCIS oara. These are nor inconsequenrial numbers,
ano rhey force many inoiviouals ro oeal wirh rhe Social Securiry bureau-
cracy ro rry ro ensure rhar rhe oarabase conrains currenr ano accurare
6; The Neeo for Comprehensive Immigrarion Reform
informarion. If rhey are working lawfully, however, xing any such
errors is necessary ro ensure rhar rheir wages are properly creoireo for
reriremenr beners. Also, rhe sysrem is nor yer effecrive in pinpoinring
inoiviouals wirh srolen ioenricarion oocumenrs, rhough rhe aooirion
of phorographs ro rhe vericarion sysrem shoulo help. Bur errors ano
false posirives are issues rhar can be aooresseo rhrough conrinueo
improvemenrs in rhe sysrem ano increaseo manpower ano resources ar
DHS ano rhe Social Securiry Aominisrrarion.
!!6
E-Verify is nor yer reaoy
for manoarory use by all employers, ano DHS secrerary [aner Napoli-
rano was wise ro oelay making ir compulsory for governmenr conrrac-
rors. Ir musr be sufcienrly rransparenr rhar employers ano porenrial
hires will be prorecreo from errors inherenr in any oarabase sysrem. Bur
ir is evioenr rhar E-Verify can be improveo ro rhe poinr where ir coulo
become manoarory on passage of comprehensive immigrarion reform
legislarion, funcrioning for rhe rsr rime in U.S. hisrory as a reasonably
accurare sysrem for verifying eligibiliry for employmenr.
The mosr conrroversial aspecr of rhe recenr enforcemenr cam-
paigns has been rhe raios by ICE ofcials on companies suspecreo of
employing large numbers of unaurhorizeo immigranrs. Such raios oo
nor consrirure a large porrion of U.S. enforcemenr. Less rhan : percenr
of ICEs :ooj buoger, for insrance, is oeoicareo ro workplace enforce-
menr, ano rhe number of arresrs ar workplaces remains signicanrly
smaller rhan ir was in rhe :jjos. Bur rhe raios have been highly con-
rroversial, in parr because of rheir oisproporrionare impacr on work-
ers, which has incluoeo criminal prosecurion in hunoreos of cases, ano
rhe relarively mooesr number of employers who have been punisheo.
Alrhough ir is perfecrly reasonable ro pur illegal migranrs caughr in such
raios inro removal proceeoings, rhe reason for rhe raios is primarily ro
seno a srrong message ro companies rhar our rhe law by hiring rhese
workers. The highly publicizeo :ooS raio on a mearpacking planr in
Posrville, Iowa, for example, shur oown a business rhar was rife wirh
borh immigrarion ano labor violarions, incluoing chilo labor, physical
abuse, hazaroous working conoirions, ano wages rhar were below rhe
legal minimum. Tough acrion againsr such companies, incluoing crimi-
nal charges againsr managemenr where warranreo, is crirical ro senoing
a message ro orher employers who builo businesses rhar oepeno on rhe
use of low-paio ano ill-rreareo illegal migranr workers.
Cenerally, employer sancrions have been almosr an afrerrhoughr in
rhe U.S. enforcemenr regime, even as all orher aspecrs of enforcemenr
6S U.S. Immigrarion Policy
have been rampeo up signicanrly in recenr years. From :oo ro :ooS,
rhe number of aominisrrarive arresrs of employers for violarions
increaseo subsranrially, from j ro more rhan j,ooo. Bur even rhar was
less rhan rhe level of rhe lare :jjos.
!!7
More egregiously, berween :oo
ano :ooS, only eighry-ve employers were neo for hiring violarions,
versus ve hunoreo ro one rhousano per year in rhe mio-:jjos.
The limireo enforcemenr of employer sancrions can be explaineo
by rhe ubiquiry of rhe violarions, lack of resources, rhe rampanr use
of frauoulenr oocumenrs, rhe lack of clariry in governmenr guioelines,
ano rhe weakness of rhe sancrions for rhose who ger caughr. Much like
rrafc cops who have raken ro rickering only oangerous orivers rarher
rhan all speeoers, rourine ano wioespreao violarion of rhe law makes
enforcemenr exrremely oifculr ano challenging. Ir will rake srrengrh-
eneo employer sancrions, along wirh a robusr elecrronic vericarion
sysrem rhar provioes immuniry from prosecurion for employers who
use ir, ro achieve compliance by rhe vasr ma|oriry of U.S. employers.
This, in rurn, woulo permir focuseo ano rargereo invesrigarions ano
prosecurion of noncomplianr employers, furrher increasing rhe oerer-
renr effecr of rhe srrengrheneo law. There is a ripping poinr where
violarions become rhe exceprion, bur gerring ro ir will require rougher
sancrions. Borh rhe carror ano rhe srick are neeoeo.
The Tusl Iorce believes thut us more legul immigrunt worlers become
uvuiluble, und us the government increusingly puts in pluce tools to encouruge
und to mule it eusier jor legitimute compunies to comply with the luw, tough
enjorcement uguinst violutions by employers needs to become routine.
border enforCement
The Unireo Srares has maoe impressive srrioes in rhe pasr several years
in srrengrhening irs boroer enforcemenr measures. Boroer enforce-
menr is viral ro safeguaroing rhe narion againsr rhose who woulo oo ir
harm, parricularly rerrorisrs ano serious criminals, ano for keeping our
rhose rrying ro enrer rhe Unireo Srares illegally. Along wirh a compre-
hensive reform of rhe immigrarion sysrem rhar allows new legal parhs
for immigranrs, boroer enforcemenr is neeoeo for oererring ano carch-
ing rhose who woulo srill rry ro enrer rhe Unireo Srares illegally. As rhe
experience of rhe :jS6 legislarion has shown, rhere cannor be mean-
ingful ano lasring reform of U.S. legal immigrarion policies wirhour an
effecrive sysrem ro secure rhe boroers.
6j The Neeo for Comprehensive Immigrarion Reform
The funoamenral goal of boroer enforcemenr is ro permir rhe Unireo
Srares ro know, ro rhe fullesr exrenr possible, who is enrering rhe coun-
rry, bur ro oo so in a way rhar ooes nor oisrupr legirimare cross-boroer
movemenr. Boroer enforcemenr is necessary for narional securiry rea-
sons, bur is also a cenrral parr of reesrablishing rhe rule of law in rhe
American immigrarion sysrem. Unoer U.S. law, foreign cirizens, as
well as Americans who rravel abroao, are supposeo ro enrer rhe Unireo
Srares only rhrough lawful porrs of enrry, if rhe Unireo Srares cannor
enforce rhar rule, ir will surely conrinue ro be violareo.
Alrhough mosr public arrenrion is focuseo on rhose arrempring ro
cross illegally berween porrs of enrry, rhe biggesr securiry challenge has
been ar legal porrs of enrry. All ninereen of rhe rerrorisrs who carrieo
our rhe jj:: arracks enrereo rhe counrry inirially on valio visas ano came
rhrough lawful porrs of enrry. Thar rhey were overlookeo was nor par-
ricularly surprising. In rhe year before rhe arracks, rhere were more rhan
ve hunoreo million inspecrions of inoiviouals crossing U.S. lano bor-
oers or arriving ar irs airporrs (many inoiviouals, especially ar rhe lano
boroers, go rhrough inspecrion mulriple rimes each year). In aooirion,
linkages in oarabases among rhe relevanr agencies ro allow for rracking
such a large volume of enrries were sorely lacking. Even wirh rhe oecline
in cross-boroer rravel since jj::, wirh roral boroer inspecrions oown by
more rhan :o percenr from rheir pre-jj:: peaks, nearly four hunoreo
million inspecrions were carrieo our in :ooS.
!!S
Since jj::, rhe U.S. governmenr has launcheo a concerreo efforr ro
rry ro ensure rhar furure rerrorisrs can be ioenrieo ano sroppeo on or
before reaching U.S. boroers, bur wirh rhe leasr possible inrerference
wirh legirimare rravel. Four of rhe new iniriarives are highlighreo here:
The US-VISIT sysrem, which requires rhar all rravelers ro rhe Unireo
Srares, wirh rhe exceprion of mosr Mexicans ano Canaoian rempo-
rary visirors crossing rhe lano boroers, be ngerprinreo ano phoro-
grapheo on rheir arrival ar rhe enrry porr. The scheme, launcheo in
:oo, has been insrrumenral in prevenring passporr frauo, making
ir exrremely oifculr ro enrer rhe Unireo Srares wirhour a proper
ioenriry oocumenr. Ir has helpeo in ioenrifying ano apprehenoing
serious criminals rrying ro enrer rhe counrry. US-VISIT also has rhe
porenrial ro oerer illegal migrarion by rhose who enrer rhe Unireo
Srares on valio visas bur rhen oversray rhose visas. By some esri-
mares, as many as o percenr of illegal immigranrs in rhe Unireo
;o U.S. Immigrarion Policy
Srares inirially arriveo on valio visas, rhough rhar gure is likely roo
high. Alrhough logisrical obsracles are signicanr, rhe Unireo Srares
is in rhe early srages of rrying ro oevelop an exir sysrem rhar coulo
help in ioenrifying rhose who oversray rheir visas. The mosr likely
applicarion here woulo be ro ioenrify someone who previously
oversrayeo a visa if ano when he or she rrieo ro enrer rhe Unireo
Srares again in rhe furure, rhough ir is also possible rhar ICE coulo
be informeo more rourinely of violarions when inoiviouals fail ro
check our of rhe counrry. To oare, rhe US-VISIT sysrem has been
implemenreo wirh minimal oisruprion ro legirimare rravel, rhough
efforrs ro creare an exir sysrem ar rhe lano boroers woulo likely be
far more problemaric, ano may require much more invesrmenr in
personnel ano infrasrrucrure rhan woulo be reasonable, given rhe
limireo beners. Currenrly, abour jS percenr of lano-boroer aomis-
sions rake place oursioe US-VISIT.
The Unireo Srares now requires aovanceo passenger informarion
on all airline passengers coming inro rhe counrry, ano has recenrly
launcheo an Elecrronic Sysrem for Travel Aurhorizarion rhar requires
overseas passengers from visa-waiver counrries ro be scrurinizeo by
DHS before rhey even boaro ighrs for rhe Unireo Srares. Aovance
passenger informarion allows checks againsr U.S. rerrorisr warch
lisrs, ano can help in ioenrifying rhose who mighr pose a rhrear ro U.S.
securiry. Such aovance informarion has been an exrremely impor-
ranr aooirion ro U.S. securiry. Travelers also bener from knowing
in aovance of oeparrure wherher rhere is a problem wirh rraveling ro
rhe Unireo Srares, rhough reoress in such cases remains problemaric.
The Vesrern Hemisphere Travel Iniriarive (VHTI) requires rhe use
of passporrs or orher secure oocumenrs for all rravelers wirhin rhe
hemisphere, incluoing Americans rraveling abroao ano Canaoians
crossing rhe norrhern lano boroer. The full rollour hao been oelayeo
over reasonable concerns rhar rhose living in rhe boroer regions oio
nor yer fully unoersrano rhe new oocumenr requiremenrs, or mighr
be unwilling ro go ro rhe expense of acquiring a passporr. Several
srares, incluoing Vashingron, Michigan, ano New York, are issuing
new, secure orivers licenses rhar will be accepreo as boroer crossing
oocumenrs in lieu of a passporr, ano rhe Srare Deparrmenr in :ooS
inrroouceo a cheaper passporr caro for rravel ro Canaoa, Mexico, ano
rhe Caribbean, rhough ir can only be useo for lano ano sea enrries
;: The Neeo for Comprehensive Immigrarion Reform
ano nor for inrernarional air rravel. The oocumenr requiremenrs of
VHTI were fully implemenreo on [une :, :ooj. Alrhough rhere are
legirimare concerns over rhe impacr on cross-boroer rravel, which
has oeclineo ar many Canaoian boroer enrry poinrs since jj::, secure
oocumenrarion is essenrial ro boroer securiry, ano rhe VHTI shoulo
help ro close a signicanr vulnerabiliry.
The expansion of rrusreo rraveler programs such as NEXUS ano
SENTRI ro ver ano preclear rravelers ano ro provioe expeoireo
boroer processing, incluoing Easy Pass lanes. More rhan :oo,ooo
U.S., Canaoian, ano Mexican cirizens who cross boroers frequenrly
are enrolleo in rhese rrusreo rraveler programs, ano enrollmenr
has been growing rapioly in rhe pasr several years. Ir is imporranr,
however, rhar sranoaros for NEXUS ano SENTRI be applieo in a
balanceo manner ro aooress possible securiry rhrears poseo by appli-
canrs bur nor oisqualify rhose who pose no oanger.
The Tusl Iorce endorses these und other smurt border meusures designed
to help leep terrorists und criminuls out oj the country with the leust pos-
sible disruption to legitimute cross-border truvel, which is the core mis-
sion oj the Depurtment oj Homelund Security. As rhey are oevelopeo
ano reneo, rhese sysrems coulo also oiscourage illegal immigrarion
rhrough porrs of enrry by improving rhe abiliry of rhe Unireo Srares ro
ioenrify people who have previously violareo rhe rerms of rheir aomis-
sion ro rhe Unireo Srares. Bur porrs of enrry are srill likely ro remain a
ma|or vulnerabiliry simply because of rhe volume of inspecrions rhar
musr be conoucreo, rhe limireo capaciry ar roo many of rhe porrs, ano
rhe lack of available sraff.
Boroer enforcemenr berween porrs of enrry poses an even grearer
logisrical challenge, simply because of rhe scale of rhe rerrain rhar musr
be moniroreo. Ar borh rhe norrhern ano sourhern boroers, rhe Unireo
Srares musr recognize rhar boroer enforcemenr cannor be enrirely a uni-
lareral unoerraking. American iniriarives neeo ro be supplemenreo by
close cooperarion wirh Canaoian ano Mexican aurhoriries. Canaoa ano
rhe Unireo Srares, for insrance, workeo rogerher ro pioneer many of rhe
smarr boroer measures rhar have been rolleo our since jj::.
!!9
Alrhough
rhere have been poinrs of fricrion, rhe rwo governmenrs share a srrong
inreresr in cooperaring ro keep our rerrorisrs who pose a serious rhrear
ro borh counrries. Mexico roo has workeo very closely wirh rhe Unireo
;: U.S. Immigrarion Policy
Srares on counrerrerrorism-relareo iniriarives. As menrioneo earlier,
rhere is a oeep recognirion ar rhe highesr levels of rhe Mexican govern-
menr rhar, were a rerrorisr arrack ro be carrieo our in rhe Unireo Srares
by inoiviouals who hao crosseo rhe boroer from Mexico, rhe resulr
woulo be a clampoown on rhe boroer rhar woulo severely oamage Mex-
ican economic inreresrs. In rerms of oiscouraging illegal immigrarion
across rhe sourhern boroer, however, rhe Unireo Srares srill neeos ro
rely primarily on irs own oomesric means. In aooirion ro governmenr-
ro-governmenr cooperarion, rhere neeos ro be closer, ongoing coop-
erarion berween U.S. governmenr ofcials responsible for securing rhe
boroer ano rhe local boroer communiries rhar are mosr oirecrly affecreo
by enforcemenr policies.
The Tusl Iorce believes thut enjorcement between legul ports oj entry hus
three centrul components. rst, the Lnited Stutes needs the ubility to detect
illegul border crossings, second, it needs enough munpower to upprehend u
high percentuge oj those detected, und, third, there must be serious conse-
quences jor those cuught repeutedly crossing the border illegully.
The crearion of a virrual boroer unoer whar was known as rhe Secure
Boroer Iniriarive, launcheo in :ooj, is rhe single mosr ambirious unoer-
raking DHS is currenrly carrying our. Vhen fully implemenreo, whar
is now known as SBIner has rhe porenrial ro enhance U.S. boroer capa-
biliries in rwo imporranr respecrs. Firsr, ir will help rarger U.S. Boroer
Parrol efforrs. Even wirh rhe large number of boroer agenrs currenrly
oeployeo, ir is nor possible ro have a physical law enforcemenr presence
along rhe enrire :,ooo-mile boroer wirh Mexico. Derecrion rechnolo-
gies are a force mulriplier. By oeploying a nerwork of cameras ano sen-
sors rhar help ioenrify unaurhorizeo boroer crossings, rhe Boroer Parrol
will be berrer armeo ro respono where ano when necessary, rarher rhan
simply fanning our along rhe boroer in rhe hopes of oererring or appre-
henoing boroer crossers.
Secono, even where rhe Boroer Parrol remains unable ro appreheno
some boroer crossers, oerecrion rechnology will for rhe rsr rime give
rhe Unireo Srares a clearer sense of who ano whar is being misseo. Esri-
mares of rhe number of illegal boroer crossers remain exacrly rhar
esrimares baseo on exrrapolarions from rhe number of people being
caughr. Cusroms ano Boroer Prorecrion ofcials believe rhar abour
rwo-rhiros of rhose who rry ro cross illegally are caughr, bur rhar is only
an eoucareo guess. One in every rhree rimes, a oerermineo inoivioual is
likely ro ger rhrough successfully. The oenominarorrhe roral number
; The Neeo for Comprehensive Immigrarion Reform
of people arrempring ro crossis unknown. By oeploying oerecrion
rechnologies rhar give rhe Unireo Srares full visibiliry over irs sourhern
boroer, from cameras ro sensors ro aerial vehicles, rhe governmenr will
for rhe rsr rime be able ro ger an accurare reaoing on rhe scale of rhe
problem. Such informarion is crirical ro ulrimarely sremming rhe ow
of illegal migranrs, ano will pay beners in orher areas such as curbing
orug smuggling ano conrrolling violence in rhe boroer region.
Finally, rhe Unireo Srares neeos ro consioer measures rhar will ois-
courage unaurhorizeo migranrs from making mulriple arremprs ro
cross rhe boroer. Currenrly, mosr Mexicans apprehenoeo near rhe
sourhern boroer are simply senr back ro Mexico ano lefr ro rry again,
rhough rhe Deparrmenr of [usrice in December :ooj insrirureo pro-
grams aimeo ar prosecuring even some rsr-rime illegal enrry offenoers
wirh criminal misoemeanor charges. Non-Mexicans, by conrrasr, are
faceo wirh a formal oeporrarion process ro rerurn rhem ro rheir home
counrries, which can bar rhem from legally rerurning ro rhe Unireo
Srares. Higher penalries for repeareo illegal boroer crossersincluoing
prosecurion in rhe Unireo Srareswoulo have a more powerful oerer-
renr effecr rhan rhe currenr regime, parricularly if rhose inoiviouals are
maoe aware of rhe porenrial legal consequences of mulriple arremprs.
Bur rhese penalries woulo neeo ro be implemenreo in a more rargereo
fashion rhan some of rhe currenr efforrs, which have resulreo in mis-
oemeanor charges againsr rsr-rime offenoers clogging up rhe feoeral
courrs in boroer srares.
!20
CooperatIon wIth state and loCal governments
One of rhe mosr signicanr iniriarives in recenr years is rhe expanoeo
role of srare ano local police forces in immigrarion-relareo enforcemenr.
Police have long hao powers ro invesrigare ano make arresrs for crimi-
nal violarions of immigrarion laws, such as human smuggling or illegal
reenrry inro rhe Unireo Srares by inoiviouals barreo from rhe counrry.
Bur rourine immigrarion law violarions have long been rreareo as civil,
nor criminal offenses, ano have rraoirionally been hanoleo by feoeral
immigrarion aurhoriries. In :jj6, rhe Illegal Immigrarion Reform ano
Immigranr Responsibiliry Acr creareo a formal mechanism for feoeral
agencies ro enrer inro agreemenrs wirh srare ano local police ro enforce
civil immigrarion laws. The primary purpose was ro make cerrain
rhar illegal immigranrs who commir serious crimes are ioenrieo ano
; U.S. Immigrarion Policy
removeo from rhe counrry. Unoer rhese agreemenrs, oesignareo of-
cers are rraineo in immigrarion enforcemenr ano rhen perform cerrain
specieo immigrarion-relareo ouries. These ofcers are usually limireo
ro specic invesrigarive forces, such as narcorics or homicioe, ano rhose
responsible for checking rhe immigrarion srarus of new arresrs when
rhey are |aileo. Bur in orher cases rhe powers have been more broaoly oel-
egareo. The rsr agreemenr unoer rhis provision, known as :S;(g), was
signeo wirh rhe srare of Florioa in :oo:. Currenrly nearly sevenry srare
ano local police oeparrmenrs have enrereo inro :S;(g) agreemenrs.
There is no quesrion rhar involving local police forces in immigra-
rion enforcemenr is a huge force mulriplier. Immigrarion ano Cusroms
Enforcemenr has |usr over j,joo criminal invesrigarors, in com-
parison, rhere are more rhan 6;j,ooo police ofcers ano more rhan
;oo,ooo prison ofcials working across rhe counrry. The likelihooo
of ioenrifying illegal immigranrsparricularly rhose who have com-
mirreo crimes ano are rhus rhe grearesr cause for concernincreases
oramarically if rhese srare ano local ofcials are empowereo ro check an
inoiviouals immigrarion srarus. The relucrance of many |urisoicrions
ro carry our such checks is a signicanr limirarion on rhe abiliry of rhe
feoeral governmenr ro ioenrify ano remove illegal immigranrs living in
rhe Unireo Srares.
Bur rhere are also gooo reasons for such relucrance. Srare ano local
police forces are responsible for a broao range of law enforcemenr
acriviries, which requires inreracrion ano close cooperarion wirh rhe
communiries rhey police. Their primary missions are ro prevenr crimes
in rheir communiries, ro come ro rhe assisrance of crime vicrims, ano ro
arresr or sancrion rhose who commir crimes, regaroless of rheir immi-
grarion srarus. Criminals ofren rarger illegal migranrs as rheir vicrims,
ano srricr enforcemenr of immigrarion laws may inrerfere wirh effecrive
prosecurion of more serious crimes. Immigrarion enforcemenr may pur
local ofcials in an exrremely oifculr siruarion because of rhe neeo ro
builo close ries wirh a communiry rhar incluoes a signicanr popularion
of illegal migranrs. If rhose inoiviouals are roo frighreneo ro inreracr
wirh police, rhe effecriveness of rhose police forces will suffer. Immi-
grarion enforcemenr may also pull scarce resources away from orher
core law-enforcemenr missions. Finally, because of rhe preponoerance
of Mexicans, Cenrral Americans, ano orher Hispanics in rhe unoocu-
menreo popularion, ir is far roo easy for rhe local enforcemenr of immi-
grarion laws ro slip inro racial proling rhar can violare rhe civil righrs of
;j The Neeo for Comprehensive Immigrarion Reform
legal American resioenrs ano cirizens. Because of rhese concerns, some
local police forces have refuseo ro cooperare wirh feoeral immigrarion
aurhoriries on rhe full range of immigrarion enforcemenr.
The currenr siruarion wirh regaro ro cooperarion berween feoeral
ano local law enforcemenr is far from sarisfacrory. Some of rhe coun-
rrys large ciries, where such cooperarion coulo be mosr benecial, have
pur resrricrions in place on rhe abiliry of srare ano local police forces ro
check or reporr on an inoiviouals immigrarion srarus. In orher cases,
some local law enforcemenr agencies have inrerprereo rheir role broaoly
ano begun checking rhe immigrarion srarus of inoiviouals afrer rourine
rrafc violarion srops or orher minor offenses. The oanger is acrions
rhar are ranramounr ro police sweeps ro ioenrify immigrarion violarors,
which is far beyono whar Congress envisioneo when rhe :S;(g) provi-
sion was enacreo. One sruoy in a Tennessee counry, for insrance, founo
rhar rhe arresr rare for Hispanics oriving wirhour a license ooubleo afrer
rhe enacrmenr of a :S;(g) agreemenr, inoicaring rhar more Hispanic
orivers were being rargereo only ro check rheir immigrarion srarus. In
Norrh Carolina, rhe overwhelming number of apprehensions maoe
unoer :S;(g) is for rourine rrafc violarions.
!2!
The primary reason rhar srare ano local enforcemenr of immigra-
rion laws are so conrroversial is rhar rhe immigrarion sysrem has been
broken for so long rhar millions live in rhe Unireo Srares illegally, ano
rhere is lirrle agreemenr, beyono rhar abour oeporring serious crimi-
nals, on how aggressive rhe counrry shoulo be in ioenrifying ano
removing such inoiviouals. Comprehensive immigrarion reform leg-
islarion ano a oramarically smaller illegal popularion woulo make ir
much easier for feoeral ano local aurhoriries ro cooperare in upholo-
ing immigrarion laws.
redress proCedures
As rhe governmenr conrinues ro expano irs use of informarion rech-
nologies in an efforr ro ioenrify who is aurhorizeo ro be in rhe Unireo
Srares ano who is nor, rhe issue of false posirives has become more
acure. Any efforr ro keep berrer rrack of such vasr numbers of people is
inevirably going ro resulr in misrakes, ano because of rhe large numbers
even a very small error rare can have very large consequences. The rer-
rorisr warch lisr, for example, rhough ir has proven irs worrh as a law
enforcemenr rool, grew ar such a rapio pace afrer jj:: rhar many people
;6 U.S. Immigrarion Policy
founo rhemselves improperly on rhe lisr. Berween :oo ano :ooS, rhe
number of names on rhe rerrorisr warch lisr grew from :6o,ooo ro more
rhan Sjo,ooo, ano has recenrly exceeoeo one million names (rhough
rhis number incluoes mulriple spellings of some names). The process
conrinues ro lack rhe kino of careful verring rhar shoulo preceoe rhe
oecisions ro lisr inoiviouals. Yer only wirhin rhe pasr year has rhe gov-
ernmenr nally ser up an easily accessible reoress proceoure, rhough irs
effecriveness remains ro be oemonsrrareo.
As E-Verify grows, ir is becoming anorher area in which effecrive
ano speeoy reoress provisions are exrremely imporranr. Inoiviouals
who believe rhey have been wrongly ioenrieo by rhe sysrem musr have
a quick, efcienr, ano accurare way ro clarify ano resolve rheir srarus. No
one shoulo be oenieo a |ob because rhey are improperly believeo ro be
living illegally in rhe Unireo Srares.
EARNED LEGALI ZATION
The roughesr issue is whar ro oo wirh rhe millions alreaoy living illegally
in rhe Unireo Srares. This, more rhan any orher issue, leo ro rhe failure of
congressional efforrs ar immigrarion reform in :oo6 ano :oo;. By rhe
besr esrimares, slighrly fewer rhan rwelve million unaurhorizeo immi-
granrs are rhoughr ro be living currenrly in rhe Unireo Srares, rhough
rhar number is likely shrinking as a resulr of rhe weakening economy
ano rougher enforcemenr.
!22
Public opinion polls, perhaps surprisingly,
show rhar abour rwo-rhiros of Americans supporr noing a way for
rhose who live illegally in rhe Unireo Srares ro gain lawful srarus, provio-
ing rhey oevelop English-language skills, pass backgrouno checks, ano
pay some sorr of resrirurion. Bur oeep suspicion righrly remains rhar a
mass legalizarion will simply repear rhe :jS6 experience ano oo norh-
ing ro srem rhe problem of illegal migrarion in rhe furure.
Language marrers a grear oeal in rhe oebare over immigrarion, bur
ir marrers here parricularly. The legalizarion provisions in many of rhe
bills consioereo by Congress from :oo ro :oo; were oenounceo by
some crirics as amnesry. More rhan any orher single argumenr, ir was
rhe amnesry claim rhar oio rhe mosr ro kill rhe legislarion. By any rea-
sonable oenirion, however, rhe use of rhe rerm umnesty ro oescribe
rhe proposeo reforms was a gross missraremenr. The Merrium-Webster
;; The Neeo for Comprehensive Immigrarion Reform
Dictionury oenes amnesry as rhe rhe acr of an aurhoriry (as a govern-
menr) by which paroon is granreo ro a large group of inoiviouals. In
orher woros, amnesry means wiping a rransgressors recoro cleanir
is a free rioe.
!23
Moreover, amnesry implies a serious rhrear of crimi-
nal prosecurion ano convicrion. Like ir or nor, for rhe millions of ille-
gal immigranrs in rhe Unireo Srares, rhere has never been a serious
rhrear of criminal prosecurion. Vhen Presioenr [immy Carrer offereo
amnesry ro rhose who hao evaoeo rhe orafr for rhe Viernam Var, rhey
were simply forgiven ano welcomeo home. There was a real rhrear of
prosecurion for orafr evasion, ano rhe paroon assureo rhar rhey coulo
nor be prosecureo or be requireo ro perform aooirional public service,
pay nes, or orherwise make amenos.
Consioer, in conrrasr, rhe provisions in rhe various immigrarion
reform bills before Congress ouring rhe Bush aominisrrarion. Even
rhe mosr generous bills woulo have requireo rhose living in rhe Unireo
Srares unlawfully ro earn rheir legalizarion. Illegal migranrs woulo have
hao ro oemonsrrare a long, virrually uninrerrupreo perioo of gainful
employmenr, pass criminal ano narional securiry backgrouno checks,
pay subsranrial nes, ano oemonsrrare basic masrery of English. In a
number of versions of rhe legislarion, rhose who qualieo woulo only
be eligible inirially for a remporary work visa, ano woulo neeo ro live
ano work in rhe Unireo Srares for anorher signicanr perioo before
being permirreo ro seek permanenr resioence.
Orher, more rargereo bills such as rhe Developmenr, Relief, ano Eou-
carion for Alien Minors (DREAM) Acr were aimeo ar provioing some
parh ro legalizarion for chiloren who were broughr ro rhe Unireo Srares
illegally by rheir parenrs ano rhus hao no acrive parr in rhe oecision
ro violare U.S. immigrarion laws. Those who hao been presenr in rhe
Unireo Srares for ar leasr ve years, hao earneo a high school oiploma,
hao been aomirreo ro a posrseconoary program, ano hao oemon-
srrareo gooo moral characrer woulo be eligible ro ao|usr ro permanenr
resioence. The Agriculrural [ob Opporruniries, Beners, ano Securiry
(Ag[OBS) Acr woulo similarly have offereo remporary srarus ro rhose
alreaoy employeo as farm workers. If rhey remaineo in gooo sranoing
for rhe following rhree ro six years, rhose inoiviouals coulo seek perma-
nenr resioence.
In each of rhese proposals, rhe srarring poinr was nor wherher rhe
Unireo Srares woulo wipe rhe recoro clean ano rrear illegal migranrs as
;S U.S. Immigrarion Policy
rhough rhey arriveo here legally, bur wherher rhe counrry shoulo pro-
vioe a parh ro allow rhem ro earn rhe righr ro remain in rhe Unireo Srares.
Americans are righrly oismissive of amnesry, bur rhere is a much more
compelling argumenr for earneo legalizarion, for allowing inoiviouals
rhrough rheir acrions ro oemonsrrare rhar rhey are willing ro make sac-
rices for rhe privilege of full membership in American sociery.
The srrongesr argumenr againsr some form of earneo legalizarion
is rhar ir will simply ser rhe Unireo Srares up for furrher illegal immi-
grarion ano anorher rouno of legalizarion one or rwo or rhree oecaoes
from now. The experience of :jS6 serves as a srark warning, ano rhere
is inoeeo a oegree of moral hazaro in any legalizarion scheme. There is
no quesrion rhar earneo legalizarion creares an incenrive for orhers ro
rry ro enrer rhe Unireo Srares illegally in rhe hope rhar rhey roo will be
alloweo ro sray by a furure acr of legalizarion. The Tusl Iorce believes it is
criticul thut uny legulizution progrum be uccompunied both by more reulistic
immigrution und temporury worler quotus und by stringent enjorcement.
Veigheo againsr rhose argumenrs are rhe srronger, pracrical, erhi-
cal, economic, ano narional securiry argumenrs in favor of earneo
legalizarion. Pracrically, rhe oifculries in oeporring so many illegal
immigranrs are exrraoroinary. Alrhough nor impossible, by any mea-
sure rhe unoerraking woulo be exrremely cosrly. For all rhe resources
alreaoy been oeoicareo ro increasing rhe number of removals, ano
rhe weak economy rhar has encourageo some ro leave on rheir own,
rhere appears ro have been only a small oecline in rhe number of illegal
migranrs living in rhe Unireo Srares. Civen borh rhe expense ano rhe
furrher oamage mass oeporrarion woulo oo ro Americas economy ano
ro irs repurarion as a narion of immigranrs, such an efforr woulo nor be
in rhe counrrys inreresr.
The Unireo Srares has long been a counrry rhar believes in secono
chances. The alrernarivero break up families ano wrench people away
from communiries where rhey have liveo for many years, ano in some
cases even oecaoesis morally unacceprable. In many cases, ir woulo
require breaking up families in which some of rhe members are unooc-
umenreo, orhers are legal resioenrs, ano orhers, parricularly chiloren,
were born in rhe Unireo Srares ano are rherefore U.S. cirizens. These
oilemmas are apparenr even in rhe currenr enforcemenr efforr. As a
resulr of rhe new oocumenr requiremenrs unoer rhe Vesrern Hemi-
sphere Travel Iniriarive, for example, many Americans who have liveo
;j The Neeo for Comprehensive Immigrarion Reform
rheir enrire lives near rhe sourhern boroer wirh Mexico are applying
for passporrs for rhe rsr rime. Bur a signicanr number have seen rhe
valioiry of rheir birrh cerricares quesrioneo because some miowives
in rhe region hao a hisrory of frauoulenrly regisrering babies who
were acrually born across rhe boroer in Mexico as Americans. Some
of rhose whose ioenriries have been calleo inro quesrion incluoe cur-
renr U.S. Cusroms ano Boroer Prorecrion ofcials as well as members
of rhe U.S. milirary. Alrhough suspicions abour rhe valioiry of some
birrh cerricares may inoeeo be legirimare, is rhe Unireo Srares really
going ro oeporr rhese people?
!2+
This small example shows rhe oifcul-
ries of any approach rhar posirs removing mosr illegal migranrs from
rhe Unireo Srares.
Economically, rhe exisrence of a kino of shaoow workforce rhar
comprises more rhan j percenr of rhe U.S. workforce makes lirrle
sense.
!25
Civen rhe oanger of oeporrarion, ir is impossible for rhese
workers ro press for berrer wages or working conoirions. The resulr
is an unfair aovanrage ro employers who hire unoocumenreo immi-
granrs rarher rhan narive-born workers or legal migranrs. Normalizing
rhe srarus of unoocumenreo workers in rhe Unireo Srares coulo help
improve borh wages ano working conoirions for all rhose in lower-
skilleo |obs, ano creare fairer comperirion for American workers.
!26

Finally, rhe securiry oangers of allowing a large, unaurhorizeo popu-
larion ro remain are subsranrial. Effecrive homelano securiry requires
rhar rhe U.S. governmenr know who is living in rhis counrry ro rhe
grearesr exrenr possible. Ir is simply nor safe ro allow so many ro live a
shaoow exisrence in rhe counrry. Efforrs ar oeporrarion will only orive
such people furrher unoergrouno in an efforr ro evaoe immigrarion
enforcemenr, when U.S. securiry woulo be berrer serveo by making
rheir presence here lawful.
As unsarisfacrory as ir is ro many from a rule-of-law perspecrive,
incluoing members of rhis Task Force, we believe rhere is lirrle choice bur
ro no some way ro bring illegal migranrs alreaoy in rhe Unireo Srares
who wish ro remain our of rhe shaoows ano ro offer rhem an earneo
parhway ro legal srarus. Ir is rhe righr policy choicefor economic rea-
sons, for securiry reasons, ano for rhe simply pragmaric reason rhar rhe
Unireo Srares shoulo nor arrempr ro oeporr people who have liveo here
for a long rime, raiseo rheir families here, workeo haro, ano orherwise
obeyeo rhe law.
So U.S. Immigrarion Policy
IMMIGRANT INTEGRATION
Alrhough rhere has been a grear oeal of narional oebare over illegal
immigrarion, rhere has been essenrially none abour how ro respono ro
rhe millions of new legal immigranrs once rhey are here ano rhe millions
more who will arrive in rhe years aheao, wharever happens ro illegal
immigrarion. Rapio immigrarion is rraumaric, borh for rhe immigranrs
ano for rhe receiving communiries. This is especially rrue in regaros ro
new immigranr oesrinarions away from rhe rraoirional enrry poinrs in
ma|or coasral ciries. Those smaller ciries ano rowns, especially in rhe
Sourh, rhe Miowesr, ano rhe Rocky Mounrain srares, are now receiving
a oisproporrionare share of rhe laresr wave of immigranrs, an experi-
ence mosrly wirhour preceoenr in rheir hisrories.
The Unireo Srares is unique among rhe ma|or Vesrern powers in
having no narional policy on immigranr inregrarion, oespire rhe mas-
sive numbers of immigranrs (legal ano illegal). In rhe pasr, many of
rhese inregrarion funcrions were performeo by a variery of local ano
narional groups ano insrirurions, from polirical parries ro church ano
communiry groups ro a milirary in which mosr young men serveo. Bur
rhese inregraring insrirurions have weakeneo over rime, ano no alrerna-
rives have emergeo ro rake rheir place. Three examples follow:
English-lunguuge educution . Losr in rhe polirical furor over English-
only policies rhar some srares have aoopreo ano orhers have consio-
ereo is rhar all sioes in rhe immigrarion oebare, incluoing immigranrs,
recognize rhe imporrance of learning ro speak Americas narional
language. Much research shows rhar rhe abiliry ro speak English is
cenrral ro successfully aoapring ro American sociery, ano is rhe pri-
mary oererminanr of wherher new immigranrs increase rheir earn-
ing power. Yer rhere is lirrle governmenr supporr (ano virrually no
feoeral supporr) for English-language classes, so rhe relarively few
programs rhar are available have long wairing lisrs. Virrually every
orher ma|or Vesrern counrry provioes generous governmenr sup-
porr for language rraining, rhe cosrs of which are small relarive ro
rhe long-run economic, social, ano civic beners. [usr as rhe Unireo
Srares supporrs universal public eoucarion because ir believes rhe
resulrs bener rhe whole communiry, so roo shoulo ir provioe much
more public supporr for English classes for new immigranrs, because
rhe resulrs will ow ro rhe whole communiry.
S: The Neeo for Comprehensive Immigrarion Reform
Iederul support jor locul ureus ujjected by recent, rupid immigrution .
Mosr careful sruoies show rhar rhe primary scal beners from
immigrarion (in rerms of economic prooucriviry ano conrriburions
ro rhe Social Securiry sysrem) accrue ar rhe narional level, whereas
rhe primary scal cosrs (especially for eoucarional ano meoical ser-
vices) fall on srares ano localiries. This siruarion |usries feoeral aio
ro affecreo local areas. For example, in rhe years ouring ano afrer
Vorlo Var II, when a massive narionwioe sysrem of milirary bases
was necessary for narional oefense, rhe feoeral governmenr pro-
vioeo impacr granrs ro affecreo local school sysrems. This same
logic shoulo apply ro orher supporr services ano aovice ro local gov-
ernmenrs in areas wirhour immigrarion experience. For insrance,
rhe Brirish governmenr, wirh supporr from borh ma|or parries,
provioes subsranrial nancial ano aovisory assisrance ro areas mosr
affecreo by recenr immigrarion.
Civic educution . The lasr rime rhe Unireo Srares faceoano ulri-
marely manageo successfullya massive wave of immigrarion was
berween :Sjo ano :j:. During rhar perioo, American schools were
recognizeo as crirical ro rhe assimilarion process, in rerms of borh
posirioning rhe chiloren of immigranrs for successful aoaprarion ro
America ano crearing a more encompassing sense of narional ioen-
riry. Many curricular reforms were inrroouceo ro accomplish rhose
goals. Similarly, in mosr orher ma|or Vesrern narions rooay, eouca-
rion is recognizeo as a crirical rool for fosrering rhe inregrarion of
immigranrs, borh civically ano economically. In rhe Unireo Srares
rooay, by conrrasr, eoucarion for a massive new generarion of U.S. cir-
izens has been recognizeo as a prioriry in neirher rhe narional oebare
abour eoucarion nor in rhe narional oebare abour immigrarion.
None of rhis is ro say rhar new immigranrs neeo ro give up rheir erhnic
ioenriries ro become full members of American sociery. The hisrory
of American immigrarion ano rhe prominence of hyphenareo ioenri-
ries (Iralian-American, Irish-American, African-American, ano so on)
oemonsrrare rhar one can be a gooo American yer rerain a srrong sense
of erhnic ioenriry. One of rhe secrers ro Americas success as an immi-
granr sociery is rhe hisroric commirmenr ro such oiversiry. The same
cannor be saio for many European counrries rhar face grearer srruggles
in oealing wirh rheir new immigranrs.
S: U.S. Immigrarion Policy
Policies aimeo ar successful immigranr inregrarion across rhe coun-
rry are nor |usr imporranr in ano of rhemselves. They are also relevanr ro
generaring a polirical climare more conoucive ro reasoneo examinarion
of rhe orher narional ano inrernarional issues relareo ro immigrarion.
If American communiries were helpeo in oealing wirh rhe unfamiliar
challenges poseo by immigrarion ar rhe grass roors, rhen Americans
mighr feel more comforrable aooressing rhe larger narional ano inrer-
narional issues less emorionally ano more rarionally.
There are some encouraging signs rhar rhe feoeral governmenr is
prepareo ro rackle rhis problem more oirecrly. The aominisrrarions
Task Force on New Americans, for insrance, creareo by Presioenr
Ceorge V. Bush in :oo6, has focuseo arrenrion on rhe neeo for whar
ir calleo a concerreo narional efforr ro ensure rhe successful inregra-
rion of our currenr wave of immigranrs.
!27
Congress has consioereo
legislarion rhar woulo provioe S:oo million ro Soo million annually for
new English-language ano civics rraining for aoulrs ano woulo supporr
orher inregrarion-relareo acriviries.
Civen rhe general lack of governmenr supporr, however, whar is
relling is nor rhar rhe currenr generarion of immigranrs is failing ro
inregrare, bur rhar rhey appear ro be ooing so well regaroless. Deraileo
sruoies on English-language acquisirion by immigranrs, for insrance,
have shown rhar English-language use increases consioerably even
among rsr-generarion immigranrs rhe longer rhey remain in rhe
Unireo Srares. In aooirion, rhe U.S-born chiloren of Spanish-speaking
immigranrs quickly become more uenr in English rhan in Spanish, a
parrern rhar holos even for foreign-born chiloren who are broughr here
ar a young age.
!2S
The Tusl Iorce nds thut L.S. interests ure best served when immigrunts
ure integruted into mericun society, und purticulurly when they ucquire
the English-lunguuge slills thut ure u prerequisite to success in most occupu-
tions und to jull purticipution in civic lije. This objective is perjectly consis-
tent with immigrunts muintuining vibrunt ethnic identities, just us millions oj
the descendunts oj previous wuves oj immigruntsjrom |rish-mericuns to
jupunese-mericunsdo toduy. The jederul government should develop u
nutionul policy on immigrunt integrution thut jocuses in purticulur on help-
ing stute und locul institutions provide English-lunguuge truining, civic edu-
cution, und other jorms oj support.
S
Recommenoarions
Cerring immigrarion policy righr is viral ro Americas narional inrer-
esrsro irs economic prosperiry, ro irs narional securiry, ano ro irs
sranoing in rhe worlo. The conrinueo orifr ano failure ro reform U.S.
insrirurions for hanoling immigrarion ano U.S. boroers has alreaoy
been very cosrly, ano will become even more so rhe longer rhis sirua-
rion persisrs. Yer polirical oivisions have maoe ir oifculr ro move for-
waro wirh necessary changes, ano rhe currenr economic recession has
maoe rhe rask no easier. The CFR-sponsoreo Inoepenoenr Task Force,
a biparrisan group, has come rogerher arouno an analysis ano a ser of
recommenoarions we believe offer rhe broao ourlines of a way our of
rhis impasse. Legislarioncomprehensive immigrarion reformis
neeoeo ro aooress rhe enormous array of challenges, as is a range of
aominisrrarive ano proceoural improvemenrs. Despire rhe oifculry of
rhe challenges, rhe Unireo Srares has rhe unoersranoing, rhe capabili-
ries, ano rhe incenrives ro move forwaro ano creare a more inrelligenr,
berrer funcrioning immigrarion sysrem rhar will serve rhe counrrys
inreresrs. Ir is rime ro ger on wirh rhe |ob.
COMPREHENSI VE IMMIGRATION REFORM
The Unireo Srares neeos a funoamenral overhaul of irs immigrarion
laws. The Task Force believes rhe Obama aominisrrarion ano Congress
musr prepare rhe polirical grouno ano work ro pass legislarion ar rhe
earliesr possible oare, ano is encourageo by moves in rhar oirecrion.
Overhauling oysfuncrional immigrarion laws ano provioing new, ef-
cienr channels for legal immigrarion woulo help ro fosrer economic
recovery, ano will make rhe Unireo Srares a srronger counrry as ir
climbs our of rhe recession. In aooirion, rhe large popularion of illegal
immigranrs remains a serious problem rhar oegraoes rhe rule of law,
S U.S. Immigrarion Policy
increases securiry risks, ano creares unfair comperirion for narive-born
workers. The efforr ro reform immigrarion laws, however, shoulo nor
be useo as an excuse for failing ro make progress on a hosr of specic
problems in rhe immigrarion sysrem rhar musr be aooresseo regaroless
of legislarive changes, ano rhar coulo serve ro enhance rhe effecriveness
of legislarive reform. The Tusl Iorce recommends thut u new ejjort to puss u
comprehensive immigrution rejorm bill be u rst-tier priority jor the Obumu
udministrution und Congress, und should be resturted without deluy.
Any immigrarion reform efforr shoulo incluoe nine ma|or elemenrs:
arrracring skilleo immigranrs, limireo remporary worker programs,
family-baseo immigrarion, a srreamlineo ano exible sysrem, gov-
ernmenr invesrmenr, earneo legalizarion, employmenr enforcemenr,
boroer enforcemenr, ano srare ano local enforcemenr.
attraCtIng skIlled ImmIgrants
The Unireo Srares neeos ro oevelop a conscious ano explicir policy for
arrracring highly skilleo immigranrs. For mosr of irs hisrory, America
has en|oyeo a consioerable skills ano eoucarion aovanrage over irs larg-
esr economic comperirors. This is unforrunarely no longer rhe case.
Orher counrries are prooucing highly skilleo workers fasrer rhan rhe
Unireo Srares, ano such inoiviouals will be in increasingly high oemano
in rhe U.S. economy in rhe coming years.
!29
Americas economic furure,
as well as irs oiplomaric success, oepenos grearly on irs abiliry ro arrracr
a signicanr share of rhe besr ano brighresr immigranrs from arouno
rhe worlo. The Tusl Iorce recommends thut the Lnited Stutes tuclle heud-
on the growing competition jor slilled immigrunts jrom other countries und
mule the goul oj uttructing such immigrunts u centrul component oj its immi-
grution policy. Ior decudes, the primury goul hus been to rution udmission, in
the juture, recruiting the immigrunts it wunts must be the highest priority.
Americas universiries represenr rhe biggesr comperirive aovanrage
rhe Unireo Srares en|oys in arrracring ralenreo immigranrs. Rarher
rhan hanocufng irs universiries, rhe Unireo Srares shoulo be exploir-
ing rhar aovanrage. Of rhe roughly 6oo,ooo foreign sruoenrs in rhe
Unireo Srares, more rhan half arreno |usr :jo universiries ano colleges,
ano accounr for |usr percenr of enrollmenr in higher eoucarion. These
numbers coulo easily be expanoeo wirhour oisplacing American sru-
oenrs. Alrhough American universiries remain a magner for ralenr from
all over rhe worlo, governmenr policies oo roo lirrle ro help rhem.
Sj Recommenoarions
In parricular, rhe Unireo Srares makes ir exceeoingly oifculr for for-
eign sruoenrs ro remain in rhe counrry ro work afrer graouarion, rhough
many no ways ro oo so regaroless. Roughly half rhe foreign sruoenrs
who acquire green caros oo so by marriage ro American cirizens or per-
manenr resioenrs, anorher :o percenr are relareo ro American cirizens
or permanenr resioenrs ano acquire green caros rhrough family prefer-
ences.
!30
The oecision by Congress in :ooj ro aoo anorher :o,ooo H-:B
visas for foreign sruoenrs who receive graouare oegrees from American
universiries has helpeo, bur srill excluoes many rhousanos of rop-level
graouares who mighr orherwise choose ro remain in rhe Unireo Srares.
The Tusl Iorce recommends thut joreign students who eurn grudu-
ute degrees jrom mericun universities should be presumptively eligible to
seel worl in the Lnited Stutes und to receive employment-bused visus. The
exceptions would be students who come on scholurship progrums (such us
the L.S. Iulbright scholurship) thut require them to return home ujter their
progrum oj study, unless wuived jor just cuuse. There should be no quotus on
the number oj joreign students eligible jor worl visus.
There are orher ways in which rhe Unireo Srares coulo make irself
more arrracrive ro skilleo workers. For rhese inoiviouals, rhe rempo-
rary visa sysrem has become rhe roure ro permanenr resioence ano
evenrually cirizenship in rhe Unireo Srares. More rhan jo percenr of
rhe green caros given ro high-skilleo immigranrs are awaroeo ro rhose
alreaoy working here on remporary visas. There are rwo funoamenral
problems: rsr, unoer mosr economic conoirions, rhe quoras on rhe
number of remporary work visas for skilleo workers are nor exible
enough ro meer oemano, secono, rhe number of employmenr-baseo
green caros is, unoer mosr economic conoirions, roo low ro allow
skilleo workers ro make rhe rransirion ro permanenr resioence. The
Tusl Iorce recommends thut quotus jor slilled worl visus lile the H-iB visu
be increused, but uctuute in line with economic conditions. Similurly, the
number oj employment-bused green curds should not juce u hurd cup, but
should be ullowed to increuse und decreuse us economic conditions wurrunt.
Lnder most economic conditions, the number oj employment-bused green
curds should be signicuntly higher thun current levels.
The Unireo Srares shoulo rerain a labor marker resr for rhe hanoful of
companies rhar are heavy users of H-:B visas ro ensure rhar rhey are also
seeking qualieo American workers. The Unireo Srares coulo even con-
sioer resrricring rhe percenrage of H-:B workers rhar any single com-
pany coulo hire. Bur in general, companies shoulo be free ro employ
S6 U.S. Immigrarion Policy
skilleo foreign workers wirhour having ro |ump rhrough expensive ano
rime-consuming huroles ro prove rhar rhey cannor no American work-
ers. There is simply no gooo empirical evioence rhar foreign workers are
oepressing wages, even in rhe skilleo elos in which rhey are mosr abun-
oanr, such as compurer programming ano sofrware engineering.
!3!
The
besr way ro prevenr hiring abuses is for rhe governmenr ro funo ano pri-
oririze enforcemenr ro ensure rhar H-:B workers are paio appropriarely
ano nor useo ro unoercur similarly qualieo American workers. In prin-
ciple, however, ir makes no sense ro resrricr rhe immigrarion of rhose
skilleo workers who are highly soughr afrer by many counrries, ano who
woulo bring rhe grearesr economic beners ro rhe Unireo Srares.
There are orher problems wirh rhe currenr legal regime unoerlying
rhe H-:B ano some orher caregories of remporary visas. The Unireo
Srares has for a long rime arrempreo ro mainrain a rigio oivision berween
remporary, nonimmigranr visas, ano permanenr immigranr visas. For
many caregories of shorr-rerm visas, rhis conrinues ro make sense
rhose who come ro rhe Unireo Srares on rourisr visas, business visas,
or seasonal employmenr visas like rhe H-:A ano H-:B are expecreo ro
rerurn home before rheir visas expire. Bur rhose workers on H-:B visas
or orher caregories of skilleo-worker visas are in many cases inoiviou-
als rhar rhe Unireo Srares woulo like ro see remain permanenrly. Yer
rhe exisring regime makes ir very oifculr for rhem ro oo so. Too many
woulo-be immigranrs no rhemselves living in rhe Unireo Srares for
long perioos wirhour being able ro converr ro permanenr srarus. This
has many negarive ramicarions. In mosr cases, rhe spouses of rempo-
rary visa holoers are nor permirreo ro work. Travel oursioe rhe Unireo
Srares becomes more oifculr ano expensive. Fees musr be paio regu-
larly ro mainrain srarus. Changing |obs is also oifculr because inoivio-
uals may fear losing rheir visa srarus wirhin rhe Unireo Srares.
This siruarion argues for rwo changes. Firsr, wirh regaro ro visas
rhar permir inoiviouals ro work in rhe Unireo Srares, rhe governmenr
shoulo oo away wirh some of rhe resrricrions rhar apply ro rhose on a
genuinely remporary basis, such as rourisr, sruoenr, or business visas.
Ior those in the Lnited Stutes on temporury worl visus, with the exception
oj seusonul worl visus lile the H-z und the H-zB, the Tusl Iorce recom-
mends eliminuting the current requirement thut these visu holders demon-
strute the intent to not immigrute to the Lnited Stutes. Such u requirement
is un unuchronism thut does not reect how immigrution to the Lnited
Stutes uctuully tules pluce jor most people, und does not recognize the L.S.
S; Recommenoarions
nutionul interest in encouruging some oj those visu holders to remuin in the
Lnited Stutes permunently. Enjorcing this rule ulso diverts scurce consulur
und border inspection resources uwuy jrom other, more pressing responsi-
bilities. Such u chunge would obviously not upply to the muny individuuls
who come to the Lnited Stutes on visitor, business, student, or other non-
immigrunt visus, und would still huve to demonstrute their intention not to
immigrute us purt oj their udmission.
Anorher problem is rhe limirarions poseo by narionaliry quoras on
green caros. In an efforr ro promore a more oiverse immigranr popula-
rion, rhe Unireo Srares sers quoras on rhe number of inoiviouals who can
receive green caros each year, wirh rhe lengrh of rhe wair oerermineo by
rhe narionaliry of rhe applicanr ano rhe caregory unoer which he or she
seeks ro become a permanenr immigranr. Alrhough oiversiry in immi-
grarion is a lauoable goal, resrricring permanenr immigrarion by highly
skilleo workers on rhis basis is nor in Americas inreresr. In parricular,
ir arricially resrricrs immigranrs from Inoia ano China whom many
U.S. companies are eager ro arrracr. The Tusl Iorce therejore recommends
eliminuting the nutionulity quotus jor slilled worlers.
The Task Force consioereo, bur oio nor enoorse, crearing a poinrs
sysrem rhar woulo mirror rhose in Canaoa, Ausrralia, ano rhe Unireo
Kingoom, as Congress briey consioereo in :oo;. Alrhough such
schemes have many merirs, rhey have one signicanr orawback: rhey
ser rhe governmenr up as rhe primary arbirer of whar skills are oeemeo
crirical for rhe economy. Civen rhe limirarions of economic forecasr-
ing rools, such schemes ofren eno up serring inappropriare crireria for
aomission. The Unireo Srares has generally hao more success by giving
visas ro rhose who have |ob offers from American companies, rhus leav-
ing rhe privare secror ro make rhe oererminarions abour whar skills are
mosr neeoeo for irs businesses.
temporary worker programs
Alrhough rhe U.S. economy has exhibireo an enormous ano conrinueo
apperire for low-skilleo labor, rhe immigrarion sysrem simply ooes nor
recognize rhe oemano. The quoras for employmenr-baseo aomission
by low-skilleo immigranrs are miniscule, ano in pracrice mosr of rhe
oemano is lleo by unaurhorizeo immigranrs. Recognizing rhar rhe
U.S. economy has hao ano will conrinue ro have a signicanr apperire
for low-skilleo workers is a crirical parr of gaining conrrol over illegal
SS U.S. Immigrarion Policy
immigrarion. One of rhe mosr signicanr failings of rhe :jS6 IRCA was
rhar ir faileo ro make any new provisions for furure immigrarioneirher
remporary or permanenrfor lower-skilleo workers. Yer rhe wioe-
spreao availabiliry of |obs in rhe Unireo Srares for such workers proveo
an irresisrible magner. This will conrinue ro be rrue when economic
recovery rakes holo, ano oemano will grow over rime as rhe American
popularion conrinues ro age. A cenrral parr of any immigrarion reform
package musr be a series of measures for lower-skilleo workers.
There are rhree broao possibiliries for aooressing immigrarion by
low-skilleo workers: conrinueo righr resrricrions, a large remporary
worker program, or increaseo quoras for visas rhar coulo leao ro perma-
nenr resioence coupleo wirh a smaller remporary worker program.
Conrinuing righr resrricrionsrhe srarus quohas on irs face
been a failure. To oare, ir has serveo only ro encourage high numbers
of unskilleo immigranrs ro come ro rhe Unireo Srares illegally. Even if
enforcemenr alone coulo ory up rhar ow, which rhe Task Force ooes
nor believe is feasible, rhe U.S. economy woulo suffer, because of borh
rhe high cosr of enforcemenr measures ano rhe resulring losses ro rhe
economy rhar woulo resulr from rrying ro oiverr berrer-eoucareo narive-
born workers inro lower-skilleo employmenr.
A large remporary worker program has grearer appeal, bur rhe
experience in Europe ano in orher places shoulo be caurionary. The
oifculry wirh such programs is rhar unless rhey allow some avenue
for permanenr resioence, many remporary workers are likely ro remain
permanenrly in violarion of rhe law. Some European counrries now
have large, oisaffecreo popularions of so-calleo remporary workers
who have no possibiliry of ever acquiring cirizenship. Europe is facing
a problem wirh oisaffecreo, raoicalizeo Muslim yourh rhar so far rhe
Unireo Srares has been spareo, ano rhe oifference in rhe hanoling of
immigrarion policy is a signicanr reason. The American pracrice of
expecring rhar immigranrs will embrace American values ano become
full members of American sociery rhrough cirizenship has been far
more successful.
The largesr sruoies of U.S. immigrarion policyincluoing rhe Selecr
Commission on Immigrarion ano Refugee Policy in rhe lare :j;os (rhe
Hesburgh Commission) ano rhe U.S. Commission on Immigrarion
Reform in rhe :jjos (rhe [oroan Commission)have argueo againsr
large remporary worker schemes.
Sj Recommenoarions
Bur even wirh rheir limirarions, rhere is a place for remporary worker
programs. In parricular, such programs shoulo make ir easy for rhose
who wish ro come ro rhe Unireo Srares for seasonal or orher remporary
work. Ir is parricularly imporranr for resroring some of rhe hisrorical
circulariry wirh Mexico, in which Mexicans came ro rhe Unireo Srares
for work ano rhen rerurneo home ro rheir families. Agriculrure is rhe
mosr obvious inousrry for such workers, bur rhe horel, resrauranr, ano
rourisr inousrries, some parrs of rhe consrrucrion inousrry, ano orher
secrors have sharp ucruarions in oemano rhar coulo be mer rhrough
remporary worker programs.
The Tusl Iorce recommends u two-pronged upprouch. Iirst, the Lnited
Stutes should recognize thut, subject to economic uctuutions, contin-
ued demund jor low-slilled lubor is lilely to be un ongoing jeuture oj the
economy. Therejore, the Lnited Stutes should ullow greuter numbers oj low-
slilled immigrunts to enter on worl visus, with the option oj seeling permu-
nent residence ij they wish. Those numbers should be udjusted regulurly bused
on the needs oj the economy, with the goul oj enhuncing L.S. competitive-
ness. t the sume time, the government should creute un expunded seusonul
worl progrumbut one thut is eusier jor employers to use und thut provides
better protections jor the joreign worlers employed in it.
Such seasonal work programs shoulo focus primarily on offering
work opporruniries for resioenrs of Mexico ano Cenrral America, rhe
primary sources of illegal migrarion ro rhe Unireo Srares. The programs
coulo be srrengrheneo by closer cooperarion wirh rhose governmenrs
oesigneo ro ensure rhar inoiviouals in rhe program rerurn home as rheir
visas require. Canaoa, for example, has hao consioerable success in
cooperaring wirh Mexico ano some Caribbean counrries on rhe imple-
menrarion of a seasonal agriculrure worker program.
The Task Force believes rhar rhere is a place for remporary worker
programs, bur rhar rhey shoulo be focuseo on rruly remporary |obs in
such inousrries as agriculrure, hospiraliry, ano recrearion rarher rhan
useo more broaoly. To allow grearer exibiliry in rhe currenr rempo-
rary worker programs, rhey shoulo be alloweo ro apply ro |obs rhar may
be permanenr in narure bur neeo ro be lleo by a remporary worker
on a shorr-rerm basis. Thus, rhe oouble remporary requiremenr
for qualifying posirions shoulo be eliminareo. In aooirion, rhese pro-
grams shoulo be porrable, so rhar guesr workers are nor rieo ro a single
employer ano rhus unable ro seek berrer wages or working conoirions,
jo U.S. Immigrarion Policy
ano rhey shoulo be covereo by all relevanr wage ano healrh ano safery
laws, much as any U.S.-born employee is covereo. The neeo for aooi-
rional low-skilleo labor for more permanenr |obs shoulo be mer insreao
by visa programs rhar allow for rhe possibiliry of permanenr resioence.
famIly-based ImmIgratIon
The U.S. preference for immigranrs who are family members of immi-
granrs alreaoy living in rhis counrry has a long rraoirion, ano has oem-
onsrrareo irs imporrance in builoing srrong immigranr communiries in
rhe Unireo Srares. Family reunicarion accounrs for abour rwo-rhiros
of all permanenr immigrarion ro rhe Unireo Srares, ano is in no small
measure responsible for rhe generally posirive experience rhe Unireo
Srares has hao wirh immigrarion. No immigrarion reform efforr shoulo
unoermine rhe cenrral imporrance of family reunicarion.
Bur rhe sysrem currenrly is nor working in rhe inreresrs of eirher
immigranr families or rhe counrry as a whole. Far roo many family
members are lefr ro wair years before rhey receive permission ro immi-
grare ro rhe Unireo Srares. Spouses ano unmarrieo chiloren of per-
manenr resioenrs alreaoy living in rhe Unireo Srares, for insrance, can
face wairs of ve years or more before being alloweo ro immigrare, a
cruel ano neeoless separarion. Some .j million people who have been
approveo for family-baseo visas are currenrly wairing unril rheir quora
numbers come up ro be alloweo enrry ro rhe Unireo Srares.
!32
In oealing wirh family-baseo immigrarion, rhere are several choices,
each of rhem wirh problems. Firsr, rhe Unireo Srares coulo leave rhe
currenr sysrem inracr, bur for rhe reasons cireo, rhe srarus quo is nor
oesirable. Inoeeo, rhe backlogs are likely ro become much longer if, as
rhe Task Force favors, rhere is an earneo legalizarion program in place.
As unaurhorizeo migranrs acquire permanenr resioence ano evenru-
ally cirizenship, rhe oemano for family visas, ano rhus rhe backlog, is
likely ro grow even larger. Thar woulo worsen an alreaoy bao sirua-
rion. Arriving here afrer rhe mosr prooucrive years of rheir working
lives have passeo is in rhe inreresrs of neirher rhe immigranr families
nor rhe counrry. Secono, rhe Unireo Srares coulo simply lifr all quora
resrricrions on family-baseo immigrarion. Thar, however, woulo push
rhe annual immigrarion numbers ro levels far beyono rhe currenr recoro
levels ano remove effecrive conrrol over aomissions. Thar leaves a rhiro
j: Recommenoarions
choice, which is ro resrricr in new ways rhe number of family members
who can be sponsoreo by U.S. cirizens ano permanenr resioenrs.
Virhin rhe Task Force, rhere was no clear consensus on wherher ir
is necessary ro furrher resrricr immigrarion by family members our-
sioe immeoiare family, ano if so how ir shoulo besr be oone. Currenr
law allows for immigranrs, as rhey acquire permanenr resioence ano
cirizenship, ro sponsor rheir aoulr chiloren, parenrs, ano siblings. The
McCain-Kenneoy comprehensive immigrarion reform bill rhar was
rhe srarring poinr for efforrs in rhe lasr session of Congress is perhaps
rhe mosr serious arrempr ro oare ro rry ro rackle rhe problem, ano ir
is a reasonable approach. Ir appropriarely rewaroeo U.S. cirizens by
exempring rheir immeoiare relarivesspouses, minor chiloren, ano
parenrsfrom rhe overall family visa quora, ano rhen ser an annual cap
of So,ooo for all orher family caregories. Ir raiseo rhe counrry limirs
slighrly, ano rhen ser up a preference sysrem rhar favoreo rhe spouses
ano minor chiloren of legal permanenr resioenrs. Ir hao rhe virrue of
speeoing reunicarion of immeoiare families ano reoucing wairing
rimes for orher relarives bur wirhour signicanrly increasing overall
numbers. Over rime, such a sysrem coulo graoually be ao|usreo ro give
even grearer weighr ro immeoiare relarives ano ro reouce rhe number of
family visas for exrenoeo families.
Anorher approach favoreo by some Task Force members woulo
simply be ro phase our rhe eligibiliry of siblings ro immigrare rhrough
family sponsors, ano perhaps ro resrricr aoulr chiloren ano parenrs as
well. Orhers argueo for rhe imporrance of exrenoeo family nerworks
ano resisreo such recommenoarions. As in rhe lasr efforr, rhis will be
one of rhe mosr oifculr issues Congress faces. The guioing principle
shoulo be ro mainrain rhe cenrraliry of family reunicarion, bur nor
expano ir, ano open new opporruniries for legal immigrarion by rhose
wirh neeoeo skills bur no family ries in rhe Unireo Srares.
a streamlIned, flexIble system
Ir is nor realisric ro rhink rhar rhe Unireo Srares will ever creare a simple
immigrarion sysrem. The number of visirors ano immigranrs is roo large,
ano rhe neeo for special rules for special cases (i.e., oiplomars, foreign
|ournalisrs, religious workers, ano so on) is such rhar some level of com-
plexiry will always be a fearure of rhe sysrem. Bur rhere is no quesrion
j: U.S. Immigrarion Policy
rhar rhe currenr proliferarion of visa caregories, wirh parricular rules
ano policies arracheo ro each, has reacheo a poinr where ir works againsr
effecrive aominisrrarion. Reforming ano simplifying immigrarion laws
is a rask as oaunring as rrying ro simplify rhe Inrernal Revenue Cooe.
Bur rhough efforrs ar simplicarion have been maoe periooically wirhin
rhe rax sysrem, no similar efforr has been unoerraken wirh regaro ro
immigrarion laws ano regularions.
The Tusl Iorce recommends thut Congress und the Obumu udministru-
tion estublish u high-level independent commission to undertule u detuiled
exuminution oj current L.S. immigrution luws und regulutions, und to mule
recommendutions jor simplijying the udministrution und improving the
trunspurency oj those rules.
One commenoable mooel is rhe :oo6 reporr of rhe Migrarion Policy
Insrirure (MPI) rask force, |mmigrution und mericus Iuture. ^ew
Chupter. Ir suggesrs rhe use of rhree broao caregories of visas for rhose
living ano working in rhe Unireo Srares. The remporary caregory woulo
be useo by shorr-rerm seasonal workers who rerurn home each year. Pro-
visional visas woulo allow U.S. companies ro ioenrify ano recruir foreign
workers ar all skill levels. Those recruireo woulo nor be rieo ro a parricular
employer ano woulo be eligible ro seek permanenr resioence. Unlike rhe
currenr sysrem, rhe Task Force believes rhar rhis caregory musr incluoe
a signicanr quora for low-skilleo workers, reecring rhe oemano in rhe
U.S. economy. The permanenr caregory woulo mirror rhe currenr green
caro ano be available borh ro rhose applying oirecrly from abroao ano for
rhose here on provisional visas who wish ro remain permanenrly.
The MPI reporr envisions a somewhar more raoical overhaul of rhe
currenr immigranr visa sysrem rhan rhis Task Force has conremplareo,
bur rhe oirecrion ir sers is rhe correcr one. Rarher rhan conrinuing ro
aoo ro rhe alreaoy hopeless complexiry of rhe exisring sysrem, Con-
gress ano rhe aominisrrarion shoulo be looking for every opporruniry
ro make rhe sysrem simpler ano easier ro unoersrano ano use. The legal
requiremenrs for immigraring ro rhe Unireo Srares musr be simplieo
ano applieo wirh consisrency, preoicrabiliry, ano rransparency.
A secono serious problem wirh rhe currenr sysrem has been unoer-
scoreo by rhe currenr economic oownrurn. The sysrem is relarively
impervious ro economic ucruarions, resulring in a shorrage of immi-
granr workers in buoyanr economic rimes ano a surplus in recessions.
Furrher, rhe Unireo Srares has no ongoing insrirurional capaciry for
j Recommenoarions
evaluaring rhe neeo for immigranr labor, rhe effecrs of immigrarion on
rhe economy, ano orher quesrions rhar are viral ro rhe Unireo Srares.
Insreao, Congress periooically ao|usrs rhe various immigrarion quoras,
wirh no way of knowing wherher rhey will be appropriare for rhe eco-
nomic conoirions of rhe furure.
The MPI reporr recommenoeo rhe crearion of a Sranoing Commis-
sion on Immigrarion ano Labor Markers, whose responsibiliry woulo
be ro evaluare rhe economic impacrs of immigrarion, ano ro make rec-
ommenoarions regaroing rhe appropriare size ano mix of immigranr
inows. The reporr argues persuasively rhar managing immigrarion
in rhe narional inreresr requires a|nj . . . insrirurional capaciry ro moni-
ror ano analyze informarion as rhe basis for making changes.
!33
The
comparison wirh rraoe policy is srriking. Alrhough immigrarion is
every bir as imporranr as rraoe for rhe U.S. economy, rhe insrirurional
experrise on immigrarion policy is a fracrion of rhar in rhe rraoe worlo.
Traoe policymakers can call on a sraff of several hunoreo economisrs
ano orher experrs ar rhe inoepenoenr U.S. Inrernarional Traoe Com-
mission for backgrouno invesrigarions inro rhe effecrs of rraoe on spe-
cic inousrries ano segmenrs of rhe economy.
The proposeo commission woulo be responsible for making rec-
ommenoarions ro rhe presioenr ano Congress on levels ano caregories
of immigrarion neeoeo ro supporr economic growrh while mainrain-
ing low unemploymenr ano prevenring suppression of wages. Derer-
mining rhe manoare of such a commission, ano irs merhooologies,
woulo nor be an easy rask, ano rhere is alreaoy some conrroversy over
rhe possible rerms of reference ano rhe scope of irs aurhoriry.
!3+
The
Task Force believes rhar virrues of rhe U.S. immigrarion sysremrhe
prioriry given family reunicarion ano irs responsiveness ro rhe acrual
neeos of employers rarher rhan ro governmenr evaluarions of rhe labor
markermusr be kepr inracr. The MPI reporr calls for rhe commis-
sion ro recommeno ao|usrmenrs in immigrarion levels every rwo years,
bur a rruly exible sysrem woulo require ao|usrmenrs over fairly shorr
perioos as economic conoirions ucruare. Overall levels for remporary
ano provisional visas in parricular shoulo be ao|usreo regularly. The
governmenr coulo consioer innovarive mechanisms such as an aucrion
or anorher marker-baseo sysrem rhar woulo make immigrarion levels
more responsive ro marker oemano wirhour exacerbaring unemploy-
menr ouring recessions. Alrhough rhe oerails neeo resolurion, rhe
j U.S. Immigrarion Policy
Unireo Srares musr have a more reasoneo ano exible sysrem for serring
immigrarion levels, ano an unbiaseo experr commission is an imporranr
parr of moving in rhar oirecrion.
The Tusl Iorce supports the recommendution in the Ml| report thut the
Lnited Stutes estublish u Stunding Commission on |mmigrution und Lubor
Murlets churged with muling recommendutions to the president on udjust-
ments to levels und cutegories oj immigrution. The commission would curry
out ongoing unulyses oj lubor murlet conditions und trends, und would mule
recommendutions jor immigrution levels uimed ut muintuining strong eco-
nomic growth und low unemployment while preventing wuge suppression.
Lnless overridden by Congress, which would retuin its existing uuthority to
set immigrution quotus, the president would udjust immigrution levels peri-
odicully ujter receiving recommendutions jrom the commission.
government Investment
There is a crirical neeo for renemenrs in how rhe U.S. sysrem for
processing legal visa ano immigrarion applicarions is nanceo. Two
problems in parricular srano our. Firsr, user fees are also useo ro pay
for refugee ano asylum processing, which ooes nor generare fees on irs
own. Secono, USCIS has enormous neeos for improvemenrs in irs case
managemenr infrasrrucrure rhar will involve cosrs beyono whar rhe fee
sysrem can supporr.
Immigrarion is one of rhe mosr rechnologically oemanoing ano
complex funcrions of rhe U.S. governmenr. Yer Americas immigrarion
services have, saoly, been among rhe slowesr in aoopring rhe aovanceo
informarion rechnologies whose grearesr virrue is ro simplify ano
srreamline rhe hanoling of large quanriries of complex oara. Ioeas for
such a comprehensive mooernizarion were oareo well over a oecaoe
ago, bur rhe sysrem remains largely paper baseo, resulring in long
oelays, losr les, ano orher inconveniences rhar can be hugely oamag-
ing for inoivioual applicanrs. Ir has also proouceo a much higher rare of
frauo rhan is acceprable. Only in rhe pasr year, for example, has ir nally
become possible for inoiviouals ro go online ro submir applicarions,
make appoinrmenrs wirh immigrarion ofcers, ano check rhe srarus of
rheir cases.
U.S. Cirizenship ano Immigrarion Services has recenrly esrablisheo
a Transformarion Program Ofce, ano has pur plans in place for an
jj Recommenoarions
ambirious mooernizarion scheme ro be complereo by :o:. The goal is
ro speeo up processing rimes, improve securiry backgrouno checks, ano
allow easier rracking of inoivioual applicarions. Yer rhe funoing for rhe
pro|ecr remains uncerrain. User fees were alreaoy raiseo by an average
of 66 percenr in :oo;, ano rhere is currenrly limireo scope for furrher
increases, USCIS is counring on rhe aooirional revenue from premium
processing, bur if rhe efforr ro reouce processing rimes works, rhe resulr
will be a oecline in rhose fees. Civen the lurger L.S. interest in creuting u
better junctioning legul immigrution system, the Tusl Iorce recommends thut
Congress uppropriute udditionul public nuncing jor trunsjormution.
!35
Such rransformarion is parricularly crirical ro rhe success of any
immigrarion reform legislarion. Unoer some of rhe scenarios envi-
sioneo, DHS woulo face rhe rask of processing applicarions for legal-
izarion involving more rhan ren million new immigranrs, ano perhaps
aominisrering new caregories of legal visas as well as an expanoeo rem-
porary worker program. Ir is unrealisric ro expecr USCIS will be able ro
hanole rhar aooirional volume of work wirhour a larger sraff ano a far
more robusr ano efcienr processing sysrem baseo on srare-of-rhe-arr
informarion managemenr rechnology. The success of rhe rransforma-
rion program is crirical ro reforming U.S. immigrarion laws ano shoulo
be carrieo our as rapioly as possible. Congress shoulo appropriare
aoequare funos for carrying our rhis pro|ecr ano unoerrake careful over-
sighr ro ensure rhar ir is implemenreo on rime ano on buoger.
earned legalIzatIon
As oiscusseo in grearer oerail above, rhe Task Force has concluoeo rhar
earneo legalizarion is necessary ano warranreo for many illegal immi-
granrs living in rhe Unireo Srares. The currenr siruarion is oangerous
for American securiry, corrooes respecr for rhe rule of law, makes rhose
immigranrs vulnerable ro exploirarion, ano creares unfair comperirion
for American workers rhar erooes labor sranoaros. Bur rhe Task Force is
opposeo ro amnesry, insreao, we favor a scheme rhar allows many illegal
immigranrs ro earn rhe righr ro live in rhis counrry lawfully ano ro srarr
on rhe parh ro permanenr resioence ano cirizenship.
Crearing rhar scheme, of course, is an enormous challenge facing
Congress. The conoirions for legalizarion musr be oemanoing enough
rhar rhey bar inoiviouals who are eirher a rhrear ro rhis counrry or are
j6 U.S. Immigrarion Policy
unwilling ro make rhe commirmenrs requireo for full membership in
American sociery. On rhe orher hano, if rhe conoirions are roo onerous ir
may be impossible ro bring many illegal migranrs inro rhe legal sysrem.
Congress has alreaoy consioereo more limireo legalizarion pro-
grams rhar woulo be an imporranr rsr srep in rhe righr oirecrion. The
DREAM Acr, for example, which has been reinrroouceo in rhe :::rh
Congress, woulo provioe a parh ro permanenr resioence for cerrain
young immigranrsborh rhose here illegally ano rhose whose parenrs
are here on remporary visas ano who will no longer be eligible when
rhey become aoulrs. The acr sers our srringenr conoirions for eligibil-
iry. An inoivioual musr have arriveo in rhe Unireo Srares before age six-
reen, liveo here ar leasr ve years, ano graouareo from an American high
school or obraineo a CED. Those eligible woulo receive conoirional
permanenr resioency for six years, ano woulo rhen be requireo ro go on
ro arreno college for ar leasr rwo years or ro perform rwo years of mili-
rary service. They woulo also be requireo ro oemonsrrare gooo moral
characrer, a srringenr legal sranoaro rhar oisqualies an inoivioual for
mosr criminal offenses, provioing false informarion on oocumenrs,
or failing ro regisrer for Selecrive Service. Ar rhe eno of six years, if all
rhese conoirions are mer, rhe inoivioual woulo be eligible for perma-
nenr resioence.
The DREAM Acr is no amnesry. Ir offers ro young people who hao
no responsibiliry for rheir parenrs inirial oecision ro bring rhem inro
rhe Unireo Srares rhe opporruniry ro earn rheir way ro remain here. s
such, the Tusl Iorce supports pussuge oj the DREM ct, und believes thut
it provides u good jrumeworl jor u brouder legulizution scheme.
Exrenoing such a scheme ro aoulrs who were fully responsible for
rheir oecision ro come ro rhe Unireo Srares, ano are alreaoy working
here, proouces an exrra layer of complexiry. Such inoiviouals cannor
be expecreo ro earn rheir legal resioency rhrough schooling or milirary
service. Bur Congress has alreaoy consioereo a number of souno alrer-
narives. The McCain-Kenneoy legislarion, for insrance, woulo have
requireo applicanrs ro show a hisrory of employmenr in rhe Unireo
Srares, ro prove rhar rhey hao paio raxes, ro be in rhe process of sruoy-
ing English ano learning abour U.S. hisrory ano governmenr, ro pass
criminal ano securiry backgrouno checks, ano ro pay signicanr nes
along wirh rhe applicarion fee. Like rhe DREAM Acr, ir woulo have
esrablisheo a six-year probarionary perioo before a green-caro applica-
rion were possible. Some orher versions of rhe legislarion have calleo
j; Recommenoarions
for a oemonsrrareo knowleoge of English ano rhe performance of com-
muniry service. Vhar is cenrral ro rhese approaches is rhar rhey require
rhose seeking legalizarion ro show a hisrory of conrriburion ro rhe
Unireo Srares rhrough work ano raxes, a commirmenr ro remaining by
learning English ano aoopring U.S. oemocraric values, ano a willingness
ro pay some resrirurion. These are nor rhe ingreoienrs of an amnesry.
The Tusl Iorce recommends thut Congress upprove u progrum oj eurned
legulizution jor illegul migrunts in the Lnited Stutes, subject to uppropriute
penulties, wuiting periods, buclground checls, evidence oj morul churucter,
und u commitment to jull purticipution in mericun society by leurning Eng-
lish und embrucing mericun vulues.
employment enforCement
No scheme of immigrarion reform will succeeo wirhour rough, fair,
ano effecrive enforcemenr rhar acrually curbs illegal migrarion, rhis was
one of rhe lessons of rhe afrermarh of rhe :jS6 IRCA legislarion. The
Tusl Iorce recommends u mundutory system jor verijying those who ure
uuthorized to worl in the Lnited Stutes. This is the single most ejjective und
humune enjorcement tool uvuiluble to discouruge illegul migrution. Employ-
ers who use thut system in good juith should be exempt jrom penulties, und
those who rejuse to comply should juce much more stringent sunctions. The
Task Force agrees wirh rhe conclusion of rhe [oroan Commission more
rhan a oecaoe ago rhar work sire vericarion ano sancrions for violarors
are rhe linchpin of a comprehensive srraregy ro reouce illegal immigra-
rion. The core elemenrs for ensuring wioespreao compliance woulo
be rwofolo:
worluble und reliuble biometric electronic vericution system . To per-
mir employers ro check reliably on rhe immigrarion srarus of porenrial
hires, rhose coming ro rhe Unireo Srares unoer remporary or provi-
sional work visas shoulo be issueo biomerric, ramperproof ioenrica-
rion caros rhar aurhorize rhem ro work. Creen caros for permanenr
resioenrs are alreaoy biomerrically enableo. The sysrem coulo be very
similar ro rhe exisring US-VISIT scheme, in which all visas issueo by
rhe Srare Deparrmenr are biomerrically enableo, incluoe oigirizeo
ngerprinrs ano phorograph, ano are on a oarabase reao by U.S.
Cusroms ano Boroer Prorecrion (CBP) ofcers on rhe visa holoers
arrival ar rhe U.S. porr of enrry. The US-VISIT sysrem has virrually
jS U.S. Immigrarion Policy
eliminareo ioenriry frauo in U.S. visas. American employers shoulo
be able ro ioenrify a remporary or provisional worker visa holoer
rhrough a similar sysrem. Coupleo wirh srronger securiry measures
for U.S. ioenricarion oocumenrs, employers shoulo also be able ro
reaoily verify rhe employmenr eligibiliry of new hires.
Strengthening employer sunctions. To be effecrive, sancrions againsr
employers who knowingly hire unoocumenreo foreign workers
neeo ro be srrengrheneo. Unoer rhe :jS6 IRCA, rhe rsr offense for
an employer for knowingly hiring illegal aliens is a minimal aomin-
isrrarive penalry, ano rhe penalry for a secono offense is also aomin-
isrrarive. Only if rhere is a rhiro offense is rhe employer sub|ecr ro a
misoemeanor criminal prosecurion. To srrengrhen rhe employer
sancrions, rhe penalries neeo ro be more srringenr. Aominisrrarive
penalries woulo remain appropriare for a company rhar negligenrly
hireo unaurhorizeo workers, bur rhe rsr offense for knowingly ooing
so shoulo be prosecureo as a misoemeanor. A secono offense, or
even a rsr offense involving a signicanr number of unoocumenreo
employees, woulo warranr prosecurion as a felony. The increase in
penalries, however, is premiseo on rhe crearion of a reliable elecrronic
vericarion sysrem, rhe provision of clear guioance ro employers, ano
a clearly ioenriable biomerric foreign worker ID. Civen a grearer
level of visible enforcemenr ano prosecurion ro achieve oererrence,
rhe vasr ma|oriry of U.S. businesses will comply wirh rhe law.
As parr of an overall srrengrhening of employer sancrion laws, Con-
gress shoulo also consioer aooirional civil consequences, such as facili-
raring privare lawsuirs by in|ureo comperirors by provioing for rreble
oamages againsr employers who hire illegal workers, on rhe grounos
rhar rhis represenrs unfair comperirion. Such a law permirring privare
civil suirs woulo assisr in keeping a level playing elo in parricular busi-
ness secrors ano markers. For example, a mearpacker who is complying
wirh rhe law woulo likely be more vigilanr in moniroring comperirors
who are nor if rhe law alloweo him ro sue a comperiror using illegal
labor. A similar approach has been useo ro augmenr criminal sancrions
ro achieve grearer compliance wirh anrirrusr laws.
\erijy in exchunge jor immunity . An employer who veries a new hire
againsr rhe governmenrs elecrronic oarabase woulo gain immuniry
jj Recommenoarions
from prosecurion. The rougher sancrions will morivare employers
ro insrall a sysrem rhar connecrs wirh E-Verify. Ano because using
rhe oarabase will be enough for an employer ro gain immuniry, rhe
buroen will be on rhe governmenr ro make sure rhe sysrem is accu-
rare ano frauo-proof.
dequute resources to enjorce the luw . The governmenr musr sup-
porr rhe oevelopmenr of an elecrronic vericarion sysrem rhar reaos
biomerrics, nor |usr Social Securiry numbers. ICE invesrigarive
resources also neeo ro be aoequare ro achieve rhe rype of oererrence
enforcemenr rhar facilirares wioespreao compliance ano ro rake on
employers rhar resisr compliance.
The governmenr shoulo be far more aggressive in ioenrifying ano
penalizing employers who choose ro willfully violare rhe law by con-
rinuing ro hire unaurhorizeo workers. The preferreo rools shoulo be
large nes ano, where appropriare, criminal penalries. Large-scale
enforcemenr raios have hao unforrunare humanirarian consequences
ano have hurr Americas image abroao. Such raios shoulo be carrieo our
in a lower-prole manner rhan has somerimes been rhe case, wirh rhe
primary goal of garhering evioence for prosecurion of employers. Ille-
gal workers arresreo rhrough worksire enforcemenr shoulo cerrainly be
pur inro removal proceeoings, bur rhe raios shoulo be useo primarily ro
punish employers who conrinue ro rely on an unaurhorizeo workforce.
The Task Force is encourageo by rhe signals rhar rhe Obama aominis-
rrarion is moving in rhis oirecrion.
border enforCement
Boroer enforcemenr shoulo be seen primarily as a rool for keeping our
rerrorisrs, serious criminals, ano orhers who woulo harm rhe Unireo
Srares, bur ooing so in a way rhar ooes nor oamage legirimare cross-
boroer commerce ano movemenr of people. Alrhough boroer enforce-
menr is also an imporranr parr of oiscouraging illegal immigrarion, rhe
counrry cannor rely on boroer enforcemenr measures alone ro oo so.
Enormous srrioes have been maoe in recenr years in gaining grearer
conrrol over U.S. boroers, ano rhose efforrs shoulo be conrinueo.
The Task Force supporrs rhe cenrral elemenrs of rhe Secure Boroer
Iniriarive, incluoing increaseo manpower for rhe U.S. Boroer Parrol
:oo U.S. Immigrarion Policy
ano rhe crearion of a virrual boroer, in which remore sensing gives rhe
Unireo Srares far grearer visibiliry over who ano whar is crossing irs
lano boroers. By oeploying oerecrion rechnologiesfrom cameras ro
sensors ro aerial vehiclesrhar give rhe Unireo Srares full visibiliry over
irs sourhern boroer, rhe governmenr will for rhe rsr rime be able ro ger
an accurare reaoing on how many unaurhorizeo crossings of rhe boroer
are raking place. Such informarion is crirical ro ulrimarely sremming
rhe ow of illegal migranrs, ano will pay beners in orher areas such as
curbing orug smuggling ano conrrolling violence in rhe boroer region.
Alrhough inirial rrials of rhe new rechnologies have run inro operarional
oifculries, rhey appear ro be surmounrable. The Tusl Iorce recommends
thut DHS continue implementing the Secure Border |nitiutive, with its goul
oj guining greuter operutionul control over L.S. lund borders.
The Task Force is skeprical, however, of rhe securiry value of aooi-
rional fencing along rhe Mexican boroer. Fencing is necessary in cerrain
populareo areas ro prevenr illegal boroer crossers from quickly oisap-
pearing inro rhe local popularion, bur ir is of much less value in remore
regions where ir can more easily be skirreo, rhough somerimes vehicle
barriers can be a useful aooirion ro securiry. Vhar musr be weigheo in
furure oecisions on fencing is wherher rhe cosrsborh monerary ano in
rhe negarive symbolism of an open counrry like rhe Unireo Srares builo-
ing huge fences on irs boroerare ourweigheo by rhe securiry beners.
In mosr cases rhose cosrs argue againsr any expansion beyono rhe 6;o
miles alreaoy aurhorizeo.
As oiscusseo, rhe Task Force also supporrs smarr boroer iniriarives
rhar use informarion rechnologies ano rargering rools ro help oisrin-
guish inoiviouals who may pose a rhrear ro rhe Unireo Srares from rhe
vasr ma|oriry of legirimare visirors ano immigranrs. The Tusl Iorce urges
the udministrution to continue investing in improvements thut ullow scurce
L.S. resources to be jocused on the greutest threuts. Regisrereo rraveler pro-
grams, rhe NEXUS ano SENTRI lanes ar rhe lano boroers ro speeo rhe
enrry of frequenr crossers who have unoergone backgrouno checks, ano
orher measures rhar expeoire cross-boroer rravel for known ano rrusreo
inoiviouals shoulo be encourageo ano expanoeo. Such expansion has
been impeoeo by inconsisrenr sranoaros regaroing which rravelers are
eligible for rhe program ano rhe crireria for remaining in rhe program.
These sranoaros shoulo be clarieo ano implemenreo wirh appropriare
oiscrerion following risk managemenr principles.
:o: Recommenoarions
Balancing securiry ano openness has been especially oifculr given
rhe crampeo, inaoequare faciliries ar some of Americas legal porrs of
enrry, especially ar rhe lano boroers. New invesrmenrs in boroer infra-
srrucrure ano manpower are neeoeo ro reouce oelays ar rhe enrry porrs
yer allow for necessary inspecrions of rhose crossing rhe boroer. The
economic srimulus bill makes an encouraging srarr by allocaring more
rhan S;oo million ro improvemenrs ar rhe lano porrs of enrry on rhe
U.S. boroers wirh Canaoa ano Mexico. Associareo srafng neeos musr
also be aooresseo immeoiarely.
state and loCal enforCement
Enforcemenr of immigrarion laws is funoamenrally a feoeral respon-
sibiliry, bur srare ano local police forces can ano shoulo augmenr rhose
capabiliries as long as ir ooes nor inrerfere wirh rheir core mission of
mainraining safery ano securiry in rhe communiries rhey serve. To some
exrenr, rhe conrroversy over srare ano local enforcemenr of immigra-
rion laws will be alleviareo as a resulr of immigrarion reform rhar ora-
marically reouces rhe number of illegal immigranrs in rhe counrry. s
u guiding principle, the Tusl Iorce recommends thut stute und locul police
jorces not be involved in routine immigrution enjorcement, which could
interjere with their other missions. On the other hund, stute und locul police
jorces should enter into ugreements with the jederul government thut permit
locul ojciuls to checl the immigrution stutus oj individuuls they urrest jor
serious crimes, which cun enhunce their luw enjorcement cupubilities. ppro-
priute jederul junding, personnel, und truining must be provided to stute und
locul ugencies thut choose to enter into these ugreements. Srare ano local law
enforcemenr shoulo be barreo from reporring rhe srarus of any immi-
granr wirh whom rhey come inro conracr because rhar person is a vicrim
of a crime, a wirness ro a crime, or seeking emergency meoical services.
No srare or local policy, however, shoulo prevenr law enforcemenr of-
cials from reporring rhe immigrarion srarus of someone arresreo for or
convicreo of a felony or orher serious crime.
This is also an area in which aooirional consulrarion wirh rhe com-
muniries mosr affecreo by immigrarion enforcemenr woulo be
exrremely valuable. To help reconcile narional-level goals of immigra-
rion reform wirh rhe local rensions rhar resulr, local rrusr- ano consen-
sus-builoing processes shoulo be culrivareo, perhaps wirh rhe help of
:o: U.S. Immigrarion Policy
conicr resolurion organizarions rhar coulo aio communiries in coming
ro agreemenr on rhe besr ways ro balance immigrarion enforcemenr
wirh rhe orher prioriries of local ano srare police.
ONGOING ISSUES
sCIentIfIC CollaboratIon
Increasing Americas openness ro skilleo foreign immigranrs, parric-
ularly rhose wirh scienric ano engineering ralenr, is crirical for U.S.
narional securiry. Science is a global enrerprise ano rhrives wherever
rhe environmenr is mosr open ro collaborarion involving rhe besr
minos from arouno rhe worlo. Vhile rhe Unireo Srares srill en|oys
many aovanrages as rhe cenrer for such collaborarive work, rhe compe-
ririon is increasing. Unnecessary visa ano orher resrricrions oiminish
Americas alreaoy shrinking aovanrage. The Narional Research Coun-
cil argueo rhis poinr recenrly: Traoirionally, rhe Unireo Srares hao ro
worry abour science ano rechnology owing our of rhe counrry. Unoer
rooays conoirions, rhe U.S. musr make sure rhar aovanceo science ano
rechnology will conrinue ro ow inro rhe counrry. The Unireo Srares,
ir urgeo, neeos ro recognize rhe inreroepenoence of narional securiry
ano economic compeririveness. The oefaulr posirion shoulo be open-
ness ano engagemenr unless a compelling case can be maoe for resrric-
rions.
!36
The Task Force agrees.
Virh respecr ro visa policies, rhe Srare Deparrmenr has maoe sig-
nicanr progress in rrying ro ensure rhar visa applicarions by scienrisrs
ano foreign sruoenrs are given prioriry ano processeo rapioly. There
are encouraging signs rhar rhe Obama aominisrrarion will improve rhe
backgrouno screening sysrem ro ensure rhar visa oecisions are maoe
in a more rimely fashion, bur wirhour increasing securiry risks. The
Tusl Iorce urges the continuution oj ejjorts to streumline the buclground
checl process jor grunting visus to scientists und students, und in purticulur
recommends thut the \isus Muntis und deemed export procedures be used
judiciously, und only jor those worling in elds thut represent u genuine
nutionul security concern. The Tusl Iorce ulso juvors more direct interuction
with L.S. universities by the \isu Ojce oj the Stute Depurtment in resolv-
ing uny technology-reluted disclosure or security concerns. lresently, muny
:o Recommenoarions
university ojciuls ure excluded jrom the process, und the redress mechunisms
ure not timely enough.
mIlItary reCruItIng
Immigranrs ano rheir offspring are imporranr porenrial recruirs for rhe
U.S. armeo forces. The war againsr rerrorism has forceo rhe Unireo
Srares ro become engageo eirher oirecrly or inoirecrly in environmenrs
where language skills, culrural knowleoge, ano rhe abiliry ro work wirh
local popularions are viral ingreoienrs of milirary success.
!37
Recruir-
ing wirhin rhe oiverse immigranr popularions of rhe Unireo Srares
is rhe mosr promising avenue for rhe armeo forces ro builo up rhose
capabiliries. Yer policy resrricrions have generally prevenreo recruir-
ing anyone living in rhe Unireo Srares who is nor eirher a cirizen or
a green-caro holoer, even rhough rhere are now millions of porenrial
immigranrs, ano rheir chiloren, living here for long perioos in rempo-
rary srarus.
One parricularly promising pool of recruirs incluoes rhe many young
people whose parenrs are living in rhe Unireo Srares on remporary
work visas. Oroinarily, rhese young people lose rheir nonimmigranr
srarus ar age rwenry-one unless rhey secure sruoenr or work visas. Yer
ofren rhese young people have spenr many years in America ano have
been eoucareo here. Milirary service shoulo be bur is now largely nor
an oprion for rhem. Similarly, rhough rhe Unireo Srares has a hisrory
in warrime of recruiring noncirizens abroao who can make valuable
conrriburions ro rhe armeo forces, ano offering rhem a quicker parh ro
U.S. cirizenship, rhar aurhoriry has nor been useo in recenr conicrs.
This makes parricular sense for inoiviouals who speak languages oes-
perarely neeoeo ro help rhe milirary in currenr conicrs (Arabic, Pashro,
ano so on) ano who have alreaoy oemonsrrareo rheir loyalry by working
closely wirh rhe Unireo Srares ouring rhose missions. These unneces-
sary resrricrions work againsr U.S. securiry inreresrs. The governmenr
has recenrly launcheo a pilor pro|ecr ro recruir up ro one rhousano
people in lawful srarus, bur has limireo rhe pool ro rhose wirh special-
izeo meoical or language skills.
The Tusl Iorce recommends thut the udministrution permit u brouder
recruiting ejjort by the urmed jorces umong noncitizens, with uppropri-
ute security sujeguurds. The L.S. urmed jorces should be ullowed to recruit
:o U.S. Immigrarion Policy
individuuls who huve lived in the Lnited Stutes jor ut leust two yeurs in some
jorm oj nonimmigrunt stutus, us well us u limited number oj joreign citizens
who huve provided exceptionul service to the L.S. urmed jorces ubroud.
ImprovIng amerICas Image
Travel ro rhe Unireo Srares, cross-boroer exchanges, ano orher efforrs
rhar allow a grearer number of foreigners ro see rhe counrry for rhem-
selves are among rhe besr public oiplomacy rools rhe Unireo Srares has.
The U.S. governmenr neeos ro use rhem more fully ano remove unnec-
essary impeoimenrs ro rravel.
In irs [anuary :ooS reporr, rhe Secure Boroers ano Open Doors Aovi-
sory Commirree, esrablisheo by former secrerary of homelano securiry
Michael Cherroff ano former secrerary of srare Conooleezza Rice, maoe
forry-four recommenoarions ro facilirare rravel ro rhe Unireo Srares.
Some of rhese measures have been acreo on by rhe oifferenr oeparr-
menrs involveo, incluoing rhe expansion of programs ro speeo arrival
by frequenr rravelers such as rhe NEXUS ano SENTRI programs, ano
improvemenrs in visa processing. Bur many of rhe core recommenoa-
rions conrinue ro languish, even as rhe governmenr is pushing aheao
wirh ambirious new programs aimeo ar closely moniroring rhe arrival
ano oeparrure of rravelers from rhe Unireo Srares. The commirree co-
chairs have urgeo cabiner ano presioenrial-level arrenrion ro rhe larger
issue of noing rhe righr balance berween securiry ano openness.
!3S
The Tusl Iorce recommends thut the udministrution und Congress tule
u comprehensive lool ut the current security-reluted restrictions on truvel to
the Lnited Stutes, with un eye towurd lijting restrictions thut do not signi-
cuntly reduce the risl oj terrorists or serious criminuls entering the country.
s u sturt, we urge the government to move jorwurd in implementing the
remuinder oj the SBODC recommendutions.
Several imporranr SBODAC recommenoarions have yer ro be
implemenreo:
rhe resumprion of oomesric reissuance of visas for business nonim-
migranr visirors, ano irs exrension ro foreign sruoenrs ano exchange
visirors, which woulo allow holoers of rhese visas ro remain in rhe
Unireo Srares wirhour rhe expense ano oifculry of rerurning home
ro renew rheir visas,
:oj Recommenoarions
rhe expansion of consular posrs abroao ano conrinueo oevelopmenr
of vioeoconferencing ro ease rhe visa applicarion process, ano
rhe expansion of rhe U.S. Inrernarional Regisrereo Traveler program
ro speeo enrry by frequenr visirors ro rhe Unireo Srares.
Several aooirional sreps, however, shoulo be consioereo beyono rhe
SBODAC reporr. Afrer jj::, rhe Unireo Srares ser up special screen-
ing proceoures for mosr male visa applicanrs from a lisr of roughly rwo
oozen preoominanrly Muslim ano Arab counrries. The sysrem, known
as rhe Narional Securiry Enrry-Exir Regisrrarion Sysrem, collecreo
exrensive informarion ano aooeo aooirional backgrouno checks before
visas coulo be granreo ro rhese applicanrs, ano requireo rhese inoi-
viouals ro unoergo seconoary inspecrion every rime rhey arrive in rhe
Unireo Srares ano ar specieo inrervals ouring rheir rime in rhe coun-
rry. NSEERS also applieo ro cirizens of rhose counrries alreaoy living
in rhe Unireo Srares. The program was scaleo back in :oo afrer rhe
Deparrmenr of Homelano Securiry concluoeo rhar ir was of lirrle value
in ioenrifying ano keeping rerrorisrs our of rhe counrry. The Narional
Commission on Terrorisr Arracks Upon rhe Unireo Srares (rhe jj::
Commission) also concluoeo rhar rhe program oemonsrrareo few ben-
ers from a counrerrerrorism perspecrive.
!39
The vesriges of rhe pro-
gram srill beoevil rhose who are caughr up in ir. Civen rhar rhe program
has been maoe reounoanr by orher securiry measures, the Tusl Iorce
recommends thut the speciul ^SEERS requirements jor mule visu upplicunts
jrom Muslim und rub countries be eliminuted us soon us possible. L.S. con-
sulur ojcers und border inspectors, however, should continue to huve the
exibility to require udditionul buclground checls or other inspection meu-
sures wherever they deem uppropriute.
Congress shoulo also consioer reversing legislarion passeo in :oo
rhar makes manoarory whar was previously oprional: rhar Srare Deparr-
menr consular ofcers conoucr personal inrerviews before granring a
visa ro woulo-be rravelers ro rhe Unireo Srares. The manoarory require-
menr, in many cases where biomerrics have alreaoy been obraineo from
rhe applicanr ano remain available for oarabase checks, wasres scarce
consular resources on low-risk rravelers ano increases rhe cosrs ano oif-
culry for many porenrial visirors. This is parricularly so in large coun-
rries like Brazil, Inoia, ano China, where an inoivioual mighr have ro
:o6 U.S. Immigrarion Policy
rravel hunoreos of miles ro rhe nearesr U.S. embassy or consulare for
whar is ofren a perfuncrory inrerview. The Tusl Iorce recommends thut
Congress lijt the mundutory interview requirement und restore the discretion
oj Stute Depurtment consulur ojcers to wuive interviews when wurrunted,
bused on the upplicution oj sound risl munugement principles.
Finally, alrhough efforrs have been maoe ro promore courresy ano
a welcoming spirir inro rhe fronrline boroer agency, roo many visirors
ro rhe Unireo Srares are simply poorly rreareo when rhey arrive, eirher
rhrough lengrhy oelays in seconoary inspecrion or neeolessly brusque
rrearmenr by boroer inspecrors. Because rhis is ofren rhe only conracr
rhar foreign cirizens have wirh U.S. governmenr aurhoriry, ir conveys an
unnecessarily poor image of rhe Unireo Srares. The oifculry of rhe |ob
facing U.S. boroer inspecrors cannor be overesrimareo. They see rhem-
selves righrly as consriruring a lasr line of oefense for keeping rerrorisrs
our of rhe counrry, ano since jj:: rheir mission has been oeneo over-
whelmingly by rhe imporrance of rhar rask. The Tusl Iorce recommends u
cleur messuge jrom the highest level oj the government thut the responsibility
oj border inspectors is u duul one, und thut treuting the vust mujority oj luw-
ubiding visitors to the Lnited Stutes with dignity und juirness is us importunt
us leeping out those who do not belong here.
UPHOLDING AMERICAN VALUES
Even as rhe Unireo Srares enforces irs immigrarion laws vigorously, ir
is viral rhar rhis be oone in a way rhar upholos core American values,
humane rrearmenr, ano rhe oigniry of rhe inoivioual. The Tusl Iorce
believes three ureus in purticulur ure in need oj immediute und serious review.
incurcerution policies, the severe penulties jor some immigrution und minor
criminul violutions, und policies on rejugees und usylees.
The Task Force believes rhar all immigranrs ro rhe Unireo Srares,
regaroless of rheir legal srarus, have a righr ro fair consioerarion unoer
rhe law ano humane rrearmenr. Ve rherefore encourage rhe aominis-
rrarion ano Congress ro implemenr rhe following measures:
:. Expund the use oj ulternutives to detention. Pilor pro|ecrs in DHS have
shown rhar programs rhar provioe an alrernarive ro incarcerarion
from resrricrive measures such as ankle bracelers ro less resrric-
rive measures rhar are rhe equivalenr of moniroring paroleesare
:o; Recommenoarions
successful in many insrances ar keeping rrack of asylum claimanrs or
orhers facing removal hearings, ano ar lower cosrs rhan incarcerarion.
Alrhough any inoivioual consioereo a criminal or a securiry rhrear
shoulo be oeraineo for as long as necessary, excepr in a few cases,
asylum claimanrs or immigrarion violarors are nor who woulo oroi-
narily be rhoughr of as criminals ano shoulo nor be rreareo as such.
Thar same principle also calls for berrer rrearmenr of rhose
oeraineo while rhey awair oeporrarion or ao|uoicarion of legal chal-
lenges or asylum requesrs. Those who musr be oeraineo for securiry
reasons shoulo be houseo in faciliries separare from regular crimi-
nal popularions ano as close as possible ro rheir family ano commu-
niry, provioeo wirh safe ano healrhy living conoirions, ano given full
access ro meoical rrearmenr when necessary. Derainees shoulo also
be alloweo reaoy access ro legal counsel (ano inrerprerers if neeoeo),
which in mosr cases is necessary for inoiviouals rrying ro oeal wirh
rhe complexiries of U.S. immigrarion law. Their rerms of oerenrion
shoulo be kepr as shorr as possible.
:. Revisit some oj the penulties pussed by Congress us purt oj the ntiterror-
ism und Ejjective Deuth lenulty ct oj i,,6 und the |llegul |mmigrution
Rejorm und |mmigrunt Responsibility ct oj i,,6. Congress shoulo
reconsioer provisions of rhe :jj6 laws rhar insrirureo manoarory
rhree-year, ve-year, ren-year, ano permanenr bans from rhe Unireo
Srares for cerrain violarions of U.S. immigrarion law. Too ofren rhese
bars on aomission, rarher rhan oererring people from remaining ille-
gally in rhe Unireo Srares, have poseo an insurmounrable hurole ro
rhose who mighr orherwise be able ro obrain lawful srarus by going
abroao ano applying for reenrry. Alrhough such provisions have rheir
place, rhey shoulo nor always be manoarory, ano rhere shoulo be ois-
crerion for immigrarion ofcers ano rhe immigrarion courrs ro waive
rhem when appropriare. Congress shoulo also clarify rhe meaning of
rhe rerm uggruvuted jelony so as ro limir manoarory oeporrarions ro
rhose founo guilry of serious crimes, especially crimes of violence,
ano ro clarify rhe siruarions in which U.S. arrorneys ano immigrarion
|uoges will be alloweo ro consioer alrernarive penalries.
Ior its purt, the udministrution should increuse the discretion oj
immigrution triul counsel to hult deportution proceedings in certuin
cuses. Before jj::, governmenr immigrarion lawyers haoano were
encourageoro exercise oiscrerion ro nor seek oeporrarion oroers
:oS U.S. Immigrarion Policy
againsr unlawful immigranrs in cases in which ir woulo cause severe
haroship for rheir families or for orher humanirarian reasons. Thar
oiscrerion shoulo be resroreo. Immigrarion |uoges shoulo also have
rhe abiliry ro consioer exrenuaring circumsrances such as rhe narure
of rhe offense, rhe rime since ir occurreo, ano an inoiviouals family
ries ro rhe Unireo Srares in making oecisions on cases involving
aggravareo felonies.
. The udministrution should creute un ojce within DHS thut is responsible
jor rejugee protection, und give greuter priority jor rejugee issues through-
out DHS und in the White House. As recommenoeo, rhe governmenr
shoulo limir oerenrion of asylum seekers, wherever ir is consisrenr
wirh securiry neeos, ano esrablish berrer rrearmenr for rhose who
musr be oeraineo. Congress musr revisir rhe broao oenirions of
marerial supporr for rerrorisr organizarions rhar were approveo afrer
jj:: ro ensure rhar rhose laws berrer rarger persons wirh genuine rer-
rorisr ries or who have volunrarily aioeo ano assisreo rerrorisr orga-
nizarions. The governmenr shoulo also supporr efforrs ro rescue
acaoemic scholars facing persecurion in rheir home counrries.
Furrher, rhe Task Force supporrs rhe recommenoarions of rhe
Unireo Srares Commission on Inrernarional Religious Freeoom,
which calls for improvemenrs in rhe rrearmenr of asylum seekers
who face expeoireo removal when rhey make rheir claims ar a U.S.
porr of enrry.
!+0
Finally, rhe Task Force recommenos rhe crearion of a new non-
immigranr visa caregory for enoangereo ano persecureo scholars,
which woulo signicanrly increase rhe U.S. capaciry nor only ro pro-
recr lives bur also ro bring ro rhis counrry some of rhe worlos mosr
brillianr minos.
development
Permirring migrarion from oeveloping counrries is one of rhe more
effecrive ways rhar rhe Unireo Srares encourages oevelopmenr in poorer
counrries. The subsranrial increase in incomes for rhose who move here
from oeveloping counrries, much of which is rerurneo home as remir-
rances, makes a signicanr conrriburion ro alleviaring poverry ano oevel-
oping rhe economy. In aooirion, many migranrs ro rhe Unireo Srares,
parricularly rhose who come inirially as sruoenrs, rerurn home wirh
:oj Recommenoarions
knowleoge, skills, ano conracrs in rhe Unireo Srares rhar are exrremely
valuable for economic ano polirical progress in rheir home counrries.
The Tusl Iorce believes thut the best contribution L.S. immigrution policy
cun mule to development in poorer countries is the estublishment oj policies
thut ojjer generous opportunities jor both slilled und unslilled migrunts to
come to worl in the Lnited Stutes.
Ulrimarely, however, rhe goal of rhe Unireo Srares is ro see oevelop-
menr rake holo in poorer counrries so rhar new |ob opporruniries are
creareo rhar reouce rhe pressure ro migrare. Alrhough emigrarion can
yielo rremenoous economic beners for some in poor counrries, ir has
some negarive consequencesofren incluoing splirring familiesano
is an oprion only available ro cerrain persons, usually nor rhe oesrirure.
The Tusl Iorce urges the L.S. government to worl with mujor sending coun-
tries to uddress the core development issues whose resolution would ullow
the benets oj migrution to be most jully reulized, to tule u more systemutic
lool ut the impuct oj L.S. immigrution policies on development, und to begin
juctoring immigrution concerns into trude und uid policies uimed ut lijting
living stundurds in poorer countries.
relatIons wIth mexICo
As oiscusseo, rhere are reasons ro believe rhar some of rhe pressures
rhar have leo ro very high levels of migrarion from Mexico ro rhe Unireo
Srares will abare, rhough rhe consequences of rhe currenr weakness in
borh rhe U.S. ano Mexican economies are oifculr ro forecasr. Even if
immigrarion from Mexico ooes slow, rhe Unireo Srares will never be
able ro esrablish ano mainrain an oroerly sysrem for managing migra-
rion ows wirhour closer cooperarion wirh Mexico. Mexico is a special
case in U.S. immigrarion policy, ano neeos ro be rreareo as such. Yer rhe
failure of rhe efforrs of former presioenrs Fox ano Bush ro concluoe a
bilareral accoro on migrarion has lefr borh sioes unoersranoably wary
of anorher efforr. There will neeo ro be a graoual rebuiloing of rrusr on
borh sioes of rhe boroer.
In rhe longer run, rhe lasring solurion ro rhe problem of illegal immi-
grarion from Mexico is fasrer, susrainable economic growrh in Mexico
rhar reouces rhe huge income oispariries berween rhe rwo counrries, ano
creares |obs for rhe vasr ma|oriry of Mexicans who woulo rarher sray ar
home. The Norrh American Free Traoe Agreemenr has been an impor-
ranr conrriburor ro Mexican growrh. Traoe berween rhe Unireo Srares
::o U.S. Immigrarion Policy
ano Mexico has nearly rripleo since rhe agreemenr came inro force. Bur
rhere is srill a long way ro go. The Tusl Iorce recommends thut the Lnited
Stutes tule udditionul steps to encouruge economic growth in Mexico, und
in purticulur worl to remove border-reluted impediments to trude.
!+!
|t ulso
recommends un expunsion oj occuputionul cutegories ullowed jor Trude
^IT visus under the ^orth mericun Iree Trude greement to Mexicun
und Cunudiun citizens.
The Unireo Srares, for insrance, shoulo be invesring more in rhe
infrasrrucrure ar rhe legal porrs of enrry, ano hiring aooirional CBP
inspecrors, ro ensure rhar oelays in cross-boroer rraoe are nor ois-
couraging invesrmenr in Mexico. The currenr rraoe oispure over rules
regaroing Mexican rrucks operaring on American roaos has oone neeo-
less oamage ro cross-boroer rraoe ar a rime when neirher counrry can
afforo ir, rhe oispure shoulo be resolveo quickly ano nally in a way rhar
expeoires commerce bur mainrains rhe safery of vehicles on American
roaos. Away from rhe boroer, rhe U.S. governmenr shoulo consioer
increaseo oevelopmenr aio rargereo ar poorer communiries in Mexico
rhar are rhe source of many illegal migranrs ro rhe Unireo Srares. None
of rhese measures is a panacea, bur rhe Unireo Srares has a srrong inrer-
esr in exploring all reasonable means ro srrengrhen rhe economy of irs
sourhern neighbor.
In aooirion, Mexico ano rhe Unireo Srares have murual inreresrs in
cooperaring on immigrarion ano securiry issues. Each has a srake in or-
oerly managemenr of rhe boroer rhar borh allows legirimare commerce
ano cross-boroer rravelers ro move quickly berween rhe rwo counrries
ano prorecrs each counrry from exrernal ano inrernal rhrears.
Parrly as a consequence of growing violence in rhe boroer region,
securiry cooperarion is becoming increasingly cenrral ro U.S.-Mexico
relarions. The S:. billion Merioa Iniriarive ro assisr Mexico in irs ghr
againsr rhe powerful orug carrels is a milesrone, ano borh sioes shoulo
builo on rhar iniriarive. The Unireo Srares has recenrly acknowleogeo irs
own responsibiliry for rhe orug crisis, ano has pleogeo new measures ro
rry ro srem rhe ow of arms ano launoereo cash from rhe Unireo Srares
inro Mexico, ano ro reouce oomesric oemano for illegal orugs. Efforrs
ro rackle rhe orug crisis have proouceo closer binarional cooperarion,
parricularly ar rhe milirary level, rhan has been seen before. If success-
ful, rhese efforrs may begin ro erooe some of rhe wariness, especially
on rhe Mexican sioe, rhar has been an obsracle ro closer collaborarion.
The Council on Foreign Relarions recenr Inoepenoenr Task Force
::: Recommenoarions
reporr, L.S.-Lutin mericu Relutions. ^ew Direction jor u ^ew Reulity,
for insrance, calleo for closer cooperarion berween U.S. ano Mexican
law enforcemenr aurhoriries in inreroicring rhe human smuggling ner-
works rhar operare across rhe boroer as well as in rackling rhe problem
of orug smuggling. The Unireo Srares ano Mexico have also cooperareo
exrremely closely ro prevenr rerrorisrs from rransiring Mexican rerri-
rory en roure ro rhe Unireo Srares, ano borh governmenrs shoulo builo
on rhese efforrs.
Ulrimarely, however, resolving rhe immigrarion issue neeos ro srarr
wirh rhe Unireo Srares reforming irs own immigrarion laws ano prac-
rices. The Tusl Iorce believes thut the most importunt positive signul thut the
Lnited Stutes cun send to Mexico is to brouden the current nurrow jocus on
enjorcement, und to reenguge with the issue oj comprehensive immigrution
rejorm. Mexico ano rhe Unireo Srares woulo be rhe biggesr beneciaries
of immigrarion reform, by provioing new legal channels for Mexicans
ro live ano work in rhe Unireo Srares, offering a parh ro legalizarion for
millions of Mexicans alreaoy in rhe Unireo Srares, ano reoucing rhe
securiry risks of rhe srarus quo.
:::
Conclusion: Mainraining rhe Focus
This Task Force reporr has arrempreo rwo rhings. Firsr, ir has rrieo ro
show why Americas narional inreresrs require a berrer immigrarion
policy rhar will help rhe Unireo Srares enhance irs economic, oiplo-
maric, ano milirary sranoing in rhe worlo. Secono, ir has argueo rhar
comprehensive immigrarion reform, coupleo wirh new invesrmenrs
ro improve rhe funcrioning of rhe U.S. legal immigrarion sysrem ano
ensure effecrive enforcemenr of immigrarion laws, are necessary ro
achieve rhar eno. To reiterute the Tusl Iorces vision, we believe the Lnited
Stutes must generously welcome immigrunts through un orderly und ejcient
legul system, must enjorce sensible und understunduble visu und immigrution
luws thut welcome both permunent immigrunts und temporury visitors, und
must ejjectively control und secure its borders, denying entry to those who
ure not permitted und denying jobs to those not uuthorized to worl here.
Despire rhe very real oifculries rhar will have ro be surmounreo ro pass
legislarion ano creare a more efcienr ano effecrive immigrarion sysrem,
rhe Task Force believes rhar a hisroric opporruniry exisrs ro make such
improvemenrs.
The passage of new immigrarion reform legislarion by Congress
along rhe principles ourlineo in rhis reporr woulo be a ma|or accom-
plishmenr. Bur, as rhe hisrory of repeareo rounos of immigrarion legis-
larion has oemonsrrareo, immigrarion is nor an issue rhar can simply be
revisireo every oecaoe or so ano rhen forgorren. Immigrarion policy is
simply roo imporranr ro a broao range of U.S. inreresrs, borh foreign ano
oomesric, ro be consioereo in such a sporaoic fashion. The lisr of issues
oiscusseosome of which are long-sranoing problems bur orhers of
which have emergeo only in rhe pasr few yearsoemonsrrares why
immigrarion policy musr receive regular arrenrion ano acrion by any
U.S. aominisrrarion ano rhe Congress.
More rhan a oecaoe ago, rhe Commission for rhe Sruoy of Inrerna-
rional Migrarion ano Cooperarive Developmenr, creareo by Congress
:: Conclusion: Mainraining rhe Focus
afrer rhe passage of IRCA in :jS6, urgeo rhar a governmenr srrucrure
be oeviseo ro assure rhar rhe issue of migrarion policy receive as much
arrenrion as oo rhe consuming bur ofren rransienr oay-ro-oay concerns
rhar orherwise oominare rhe process. Since rhen, rhe srrucrure of
immigrarion policymaking has been overhauleo wirh rhe crearion of
rhe Deparrmenr of Homelano Securiry, bur rhe funoamenral problem
remains. Immigrarion is srill an issue rhar is consioereo only sporaoi-
cally imporranr, rarher rhan one rhar is viral ro Americas well-being as
a narion. Thar musr change.
The Task Force consioereo, bur ooes nor recommeno, any signi-
canr srrucrural changes in rhe U.S. governmenr appararus for hanoling
immigrarion policy. The Deparrmenr of Homelano Securiry is a new
organizarion rhar has unoergone many growing pains, ano a fresh
rouno of reorganizarion woulo likely creare more problems rhan ir
solves. Insreao, ir is simply rime for rhe aominisrrarion ano Congress ro
rrear immigrarion policy as an issue rhar requires regular arrenrion.
The Tusl Iorce recommends thut immigrution policy be un ongoing sub-
ject oj udministrution und congressionul munugement. The crearion of a
Sranoing Commission on Immigrarion ano Labor Markers woulo be
a posirive srep in rhar oirecrion, forcing Congress ano rhe aominisrra-
rion ro oeal regularly, rarher rhan sporaoically, wirh some of rhe ma|or
elemenrs of immigrarion policy. New congressional appropriarions
ro speeo rhe rransformarion of rhe legal immigrarion sysrem inro a
mooern, efcienr bureaucracy woulo creare grearer ongoing congres-
sional oversighr of rhe operarion of U.S. Cirizenship ano Immigrarion
Services. Congress is alreaoy vigilanr in moniroring rhe aominisrra-
rions efforrs ro keep bao people our of rhe counrry rhrough boroer
securiry ano immigrarion enforcemenr, ano neeos ro be equally vigilanr
in moniroring irs efforrs ro bring gooo people in.
Borh Congress ano rhe aominisrrarion neeo ro consioer on an ongo-
ing basis rhe broao range of immigrarion ano boroer policies, ano ro be
cerrain rhey are facroreo appropriarely inro borh foreign ano oomes-
ric policy. Immigrarion policy shoulo be on rhe rable nor only ar rhe
Domesric Policy Council in rhe Vhire House, where ir has hisrorically
been consioereo, bur also ar rhe Narional Economic Council (NEC)
ano rhe Narional Securiry Council (NSC). Civen rhe crirical role rhar
immigrarion policy plays in rhe economic compeririveness of rhe
Unireo Srares ano irs long-run milirary securiry, rhese issues musr be
on rhe agenoa ar rhe highesr levels of rhe aominisrrarion. The recenr
:: U.S. Immigrarion Policy
plan by rhe Obama Vhire House ro creare a new posirion on rhe NSC
sraff responsible for U.S. srraregies on global engagemenr is an encour-
aging srep in rhis oirecrion.
As wrirren ar rhe ourser of rhis reporr, how America hanoles irs
immigrarion policy is viral ro irs sranoing in rhe worlo, ano rhe failure
ro make signicanr improvemenrs will have repercussions for years
ro come. Immigrarion has long been a secrer ro Americas success,
ano no issue will be more imporranr for irs success in rhe furure. The
aominisrrarion ano Congress have an opporruniry ro pur rhe coun-
rrys immigrarion policy on a parh ro rhar furure. This Task Force
urges rhem ro seize ir.
::j
Aooirional or Dissenring Views
The reporr is rimely ano neeoeo, ano I concur wirh mosr of rhe recom-
menoarions. I woulo aoo rhe following, however: rsr, rhe reporr fails
ro oiscuss rhe long-sranoing U.S. pracrice of granring cirizenship auro-
marically ro almosr anyone born in rhe Unireo Srares, regaroless of rheir
parenrs srarus (rhe exceprion being chiloren of oiplomars). I believe
as a policy marrer rhe Unireo Srares shoulo nor exreno cirizenship ro
chiloren born in our counrry ro parenrs who are here illegally. The cur-
renr pracrice invires illegal migrarion, promores public cynicism, ano is
ofren rhe only basis for rhe cry of family separarion when rhe parenrs
are oeporreo. Besioes Canaoa, rhe Unireo Srares is rhe only Vesrern
narion allowing birrhrighr cirizenship for chiloren of illegal aliens. This
pracrice coulo probably be changeo by Congress (I woulo nor make ir
rerroacrive) wirhour a consrirurional amenomenr, bur I woulo favor
such an amenomenr if absolurely necessary.
Secono, I believe rhe Unireo Srares shoulo aoopr a poinrs sysrem for
ioenrifying ano prioririzing immigrarion by skilleo workers, rhough
wirhour sacricing rhe benecial aspecrs of rhe U.S. visa sysrem rhar
allow companies ro seek our ano sponsor foreign workers. Canaoa,
Ausrralia, ano New Zealano have been able ro implemenr such sysrems
successfully. There shoulo be no quora for cerrain highly skilleo |obs
rhar are oeemeo crirical ro our economy, ano for orher highly skilleo
|obs rhar are neeoeo, rhe quora shoulo be signicanrly larger rhan rhe
currenr H-:B visa cap. The rasks of ioenrifying neeoeo |obs ano serring
caps woulo be appropriare for rhe new Sranoing Commission on Immi-
grarion ano Labor Markers recommenoeo by rhe Task Force.
Thiro, as we shifr rhe focus of immigranr visas ro workers neeoeo for
our economy ano away from family preferences, I favor limiring family
preferences ro rhe spouses ano minor chiloren of cirizens or green-caro
holoers. I woulo eliminare preferences for siblings ano aoulr chiloren.
Finally, I believe our currenr sysrem for processing asylum claims is
::6 U.S. Immigrarion Policy
generally aoequare ano rhar rhe sranoaro shoulo be ro meer our rreary
obligarions in gooo fairh, nor ro esrablish rhe highesr sranoaros of oue
process, as rhe reporr argues.
Roberr C. Bonner
Proposals for immigrarion policy reform increasingly focus on rhe
neeo ro gain conrrol ano impose oroer. Oroerly enrry ano exir of visi-
rors ano immigranrs ro rhe Unireo Srares is an imporranr ob|ecrive, as
rhe Task Force reporr righrly argues. Bur ir is imporranr also ro unoer-
srano rhar some of rhose who seek ro enrer rhe Unireo Srares are in an
inherenrly oisoroerly siruarion. Refugees are in many respecrs involun-
rary migranrs. Forceo ro ee rheir home counrries, upeno rheir lives, ano
abanoon loveo ones, homes, ano careers, rhey ofren musr make a hasry
exir wirhour rhe bener of ofcial governmenr permission, rravel papers,
or enrry visas. Thar is rhe refugee experience, ir is by oenirion chaoric.
Vhile we can ano shoulo seek ro impose as much regulariry as possible
on rhe ao|uoicarion of refugee claims, we also musr rake care nor ro penal-
ize refugees for, essenrially, being refugees. The currenr sysrem of expe-
oireo removal ano manoarory oerenrion has workeo an exrraoroinary
haroship on many oeserving refugees. Expeoireo removala process
builr on rhe backwaros assumprion rhar asylum seekers who fail ro pres-
enr valio rravel oocumenrs are prima facie ineligible for refugee prorec-
rionposes an insurmounrable hurole for many ano has resulreo in rhe
Unireo Srares erroneously rerurning refugees inro rhe very aurhoriries
from whom rhey eo in fear. Ano rhe wioespreao ano growing resorr ro
oerenrion of asylum seekers in immigrarion |ails wirhour |uoicial over-
sighr has raiseo quesrions abour U.S. compliance wirh irs human righrs
obligarions unoer rhe inrernarional refugee prorecrion rreary, which ir
leo rhe worlo in orafring ano ro which ir is a parry. See Human Righrs
Firsr, L.S. Detention oj sylum Seelers. Seeling lrotection, Iinding lrison
(April :ooj). The Unireo Srares shoulo consioer rhe impacr of such poli-
cies, nor only on rhe refugees oirecrly affecreo by rhem, bur on broaoer
U.S. foreign policy inreresrs. For berrer or worse, rhe Unireo Srares sers
rhe sranoaro for reasonable ano humane rrearmenr of migranrs arouno
rhe worlo. If rhe Unireo Srares enoorses harsh rrearmenr of immigranrs,
ir erooes rhe norms oesigneo ro prorecr rhem, ano orher counrries will
have license ro oo rhe same. Trearmenr of immigranrs ano refugees is
::; Aooirional or Dissenring Views
one of many areas in which rhe Unireo Srares sers rhe example for rhe
resr of rhe worlo. Ir neeos ro be a berrer one.
Elisa Massimino
I agree wirh rhe reporrs conclusion rhar boroer ano immigrarion resrric-
rions useo in a rargereo ano focuseo way are imporranr ro our narions
securiry. Bur rhar is nor rrue of rhe misoirecreo enforcemenr efforrs of
rhe lasr rwo oecaoes rhar have renoeo ro focus on farmworkers, nan-
nies, garoeners, ano facrory workers insreao of legirimare narional
securiry concerns. For rhis reason, alrhough rhe recenr exrraoroinary
boroer enforcemenr efforrs have, inoeeo, been impressive, rhey have
nor been effecrive or benecial. Similarly, increasingly aggressive inter-
nul enforcemenr efforrssuch as raios ano local police enforcemenr of
immigrarionhave unoermineo rraoirional American values ano cre-
areo a hosrile environmenr, bur have nor maoe us safer.
The oursizeo enforcemenr buogers have creareo an imbalance where
immigrarion violarions are far more aggressively enforceo rhan orher
workplace violarions. Focusing resources on wage ano hour ano healrh
ano safery violarions woulo be far more benecial for U.S. workers.
Implemenrarion of a more viable legal immigrarion sysrem woulo
relieve rhe pressure on boroer ano inrerior enforcemenr alike, reouc-
ing rhe neeo for expensive ano oivisive immigrarion enforcemenr mea-
sures. Failure ro aooress furure migrarion ows was rhe real lesson of
rhe :jS6 amnesry.
Virh respecr ro which, ir is inaccurare ro characrerize our experi-
ence wirh remporary worker schemes as mixeo. Disasrrous is a berrer
woro, ar leasr wirh respecr ro lower-skilleo |obs. Therefore, I am pleaseo
rhe reporr enoorses rhe ioea of a commission ro reshape furure ows.
The AFL-CIO ano Change ro Vin union feoerarions have enoorseo a
similar commission ro improve rhe march berween immigrarion poli-
cies ano rhe changing economy.
Eliseo Meoina
The reporr of rhe Task Force is well reasoneo ano sensirively oelin-
eares rhe complexiry of rhe immigrarion policy challenges faceo in rhe
::S U.S. Immigrarion Policy
Unireo Srares. I woulo oisagree wirh or aoo ro several of rhe recom-
menoarions, however.
The ioea for a Sranoing Commission on Immigrarion ano Labor
Markers remains roo amorphous conceprually. Sufcienr oversighr ano
enforcemenr of currenr labor prorecrions musr be a crirical goal, bur
such a commission woulo aoo a layer of narional-level oererminarions
of local labor marker neeos. This woulo make rhe sysrem more complex
rarher rhan serving rhe reporrs srareo goal of simplicarion. Mecha-
nisms alreaoy exisr ro ioenrify locally oerermineo labor neeos, ano rhese
woulo have merireo furrher consioerarion.
The reporr neeoeo grearer focus on issues ar rhe legal porrs of enrry,
where srafng is srill woefully shorr ano arrririon has erooeo rhe collec-
rive experience of CBP ofcers. Ir is preoicrable rhar porr ofcers are
less rhan welcoming ro visirors when rhey have inaoequare srafng sup-
porr, roo lirrle rime for rraining, ano rremenoous increasing oemanos.
Also, specialisrs in immigrarion, cusroms, ano agriculrure laws shoulo
be available :j; ar rhe porrs of enrry.
Furrher, as noreo in rhe reporr, enforcemenr-only approaches oo
nor help eirher our securiry or rhe economy. Such approaches have
also erooeo rhe long-sranoing use of prosecurorial oiscrerion in oeal-
ing wirh immigrarion offenses. Operarion Srreamline, for example,
has cloggeo rhe feoeral courrs wirh rsr-rime misoemeanor offenoers,
weakening oue process prorecrions wirhour improving boroer securiry.
I agree wirh rhe reporrs core recommenoarion rhar rarional reform of
immigrarion laws in concerr wirh securiry measures is a berrer way ro
reouce illegal boroer crossings.
Finally, rhe reporr is roo sanguine abour rhe effecrs of expanoing
secrion :S;(g) agreemenrs. Numerous law enforcemenr associarions
supporr preserving rhe line berween feoeral civil immigrarion law
enforcemenr ano srare ano local criminal law enforcemenr. Any expan-
sion or enoorsemenr of :S;(g) programs or rheir Criminal Alien Pro-
gram companions musr be limireo ro felony violarions. Orherwise,
securiry in local communiries will nor be enhanceo.
Karhleen Campbell Valker
::j
Enonores
!. Anronio Spilimbergo, Democracy ano Foreign Eoucarion (IMF working paper no.
o;jj:, March :oo;).
2. Vorlo Bank, Remirrance Flows ro Developing Counrries Are Esrimareo ro Exceeo
Soo Billion in :ooS, hrrp:jjpeoplemove.worlobank.orgjenjconrenrjremirrance-
ows-ro-oeveloping-counrries.
3. Apprehension rares ar rhe sourhern boroer, which are useo by rhe Boroer Parrol as a
rough measure of rhe level of illegal migrarion across rhe lano boroer, have fallen ro
rheir lowesr levels since rhe :j;os. See Richaro Marosi, Boroer Arresrs Drop ro :j;os
Levels, Los ngeles Times, March S, :ooj, see also [effrey S. Passel ano DVera Cohn,
Trenos in Unaurhorizeo Immigrarion: Unoocumenreo Inow Now Trails Legal
Inow (reporr, Pew Hispanic Cenrer, Ocrober :, :ooS), hrrp:jjwww.pewhispanic.
orgjlesjreporrsjj.pof.
+. See for insrance, Thelma Curierrez ano Vayne Drash, Bao economy forcing immi-
granrs ro reconsioer U.S., CNN.com, February :o, :ooj. Research, however, suggesrs
no oenirive evioence yer rhar illegal immigranrs are rerurning home eirher as a resulr
of rhe slowing U.S. economy or increaseo inrerior enforcemenr. See Demerrios C.
Papaoemerriou ano Aaron Terrazas, Immigranrs ano rhe Currenr Economic Crisis:
Research Evioence, Policy Challenges, ano Implicarions (reporr, Migrarion Policy
Insrirure, [anuary :ooj), hrrp:jjwww.migrarionpolicy.orgjpubsjlmi_recession[anoj.
pof.
5. Davio L. Barrlerr, U.S. Immigrarion Policy in Clobal Perspecrive: Inrernarional Mi-
grarion in OECD Counrries (special reporr, Immigrarion Policy Cenrer, Vinrer
:oo;).
6. Senare Commirree on rhe [uoiciary, Subcommirree on Immigrarion, Cirizenship, Ref-
ugees, Boroer Securiry ano Inrernarional Law, The Role of Immigranrs in rhe U.S.
Labor Marker, resrimony by Perer R. Orszag, ::orh Cong. :sr sess., May , :oo;.
7. Ceorge Bor|as has argueo rhar immigrarion ro rhe Unireo Srares berween :jSo ano
:ooo reouceo rhe wages of narive workers by percenr, ano wages of rhe leasr eoucareo
workers by j percenr. Bur orher economisrs have come up wirh quire oifferenr gures,
esrimaring a : percenr gain for all narive workers ano only a : percenr oecline for rhe
leasr eoucareo. See Ceorge Bor|as, The Labor Demano Curve is Downwaro Slop-
ing: Reexamining rhe Impacr of Immigrarion on rhe Labor Marker, Quurterly journul
oj Economics vol. ::S, no. (:oo), pp. :;, Davio Caro, Is rhe New Immigrarion
Really So Bao? Economic journul vol. ::j, no. jo; (:ooj), pp. Foo-F:, Cianmarco
Orraviano ano Ciovanni Peri, Rerhinking rhe Effecrs of Immigrarion on Vages
(NBER Vorking Paper No. ::j;, [uly :oo6), see also rhe excellenr overview of rhe
oebare in Roger Lowensrein, The Immigrarion Equarion, ^ew Yorl Times Muguzine,
[uly j, :oo6.
::o Enonores
S. Senare Commirree on rhe [uoiciary, The Role of Immigranrs in rhe U.S. Labor
Marker, p. .
9. Nicholas Ebersraor, Born in rhe USA, The mericun |nterest, Summer :oo;.
!0. Unireo Narions Popularion Division, Replacemenr Migrarion: Is ir a Solurion ro De-
clining ano Aging Popularions? (New York: UN Publicarion Ofce, :oo:).
!!. U.S. Bureau of Labor Srarisrics, Occuparional Ourlook Hanobook, :ooS:ooj Eoi-
rion, hrrp:jjoara.bls.govjcgi-binjprinr.pljocojoco:oo.hrm.
!2. Compileo from American Communiries Survey, :oo; oara, hrrp:jjwww.lpums.org.
!3. Michael Fix, Ranoolph Capps, ano Karrina Forruny, Trenos in rhe Low-Vage Im-
migranr Labor Force, :ooo:ooj (reporr, The Urban Insrirure, March :oo;), hrrp:jj
www.urban.orgjurl.cfm?ID=:::6.
!+. See rhe powerful recenr sruoy by Perer B. Dixon ano Maureen T. Rimmer, Illegal Im-
migrarion: Resrricr or Liberalize (Cenrer of Policy Sruoies, Monash Universiry, April
:ooj), which uses economy-wioe mooels ro esrimare rhe welfare cosrs of legalizing
illegal immigranrs in rhe Unireo Srares versus rurning rhem away rhrough rougher en-
forcemenr. Ir concluoes rhar resrricring rhe inow of illegal immigranrs biases rhe oc-
cuparional mix of employmenr for U.S. workers rowaro low-paio, low-skilleo |obs (p.
), which woulo have signicanr negarive impacrs on overall U.S. economic welfare.
!5. Barrlerr, U.S. Immigrarion Policy in Clobal Perspecrive, p. j.
!6. Elizaberh Collerr, The Proposeo European Blue Caro Sysrem: Arming for rhe Clobal
Var for Talenr? Migrution |njormution Source, [anuary ;, :ooS, hrrp:jjwww.migra-
rioninformarion.orgjfearurejoisplay.cfm?ID=66;.
!7. Demerrios C. Papaoemerriou, Selecring Economic Srream Immigranrs rhrough
Poinrs Sysrems, Migrution |njormution Source, May :S, :oo;, hrrp:jjwww.migrarion-
informarion.orgjFearurejoisplay.cfm?io=6o:.
!S. Kirk Semple, Applicarions for Foreign Vorker Visas Are Down, ^ew Yorl Times,
April j, :ooj.
!9. Covernmenr Accounrabiliry Ofce, Higher Eoucarion: Challenges in Arrracring In-
rernarional Sruoenrs ro rhe Unireo Srares ano Implicarions for Clobal Comperirive-
ness, sraremenr of Ceorge A. Scorr, oirecror of Eoucarion, Vorkforce ano Income
Securiry Issues, ::orh Cong. :sr sess., [une :j, :oo;, hrrp:jjwww.gao.govjnew.iremsj
oo;:o;r.pof.
20. [apanese Immigrarion: Donr Bring Me Your Huooleo Masses, The Economist, De-
cember o, :ooS.
2!. Ra|ika Bhanoari ano Peggy Blumenrhal, Clobal Sruoenr Mobiliry: Moving Towaros
Brain Exchange, in The Europu World oj Leurning zoo8, vol. : (Lonoon: Rourleoge,
:ooS).
22. Cornelia Dean, Scienrisrs Fear Visa Trouble Vill Drive Foreign Sruoenrs Away, ^ew
Yorl Times, March , :ooj.
23. Norman R. Augusrine, Scilence, Science, Seprember :j, :ooS.
2+. [acob Funk Kirkegaaro, The cceleruting Decline in mericus High-Slilled Worljorce.
|mplicutions jor |mmigrution lolicy (Vashingron, DC: Pererson Insrirure for Inrerna-
rional Economics, :oo;).
25. Insrirure of Inrernarional Eoucarion, Open Doors zoo8. Report on |nternutionul Educu-
tionul Exchunge (New York: Insrirure of Inrernarional Eoucarion), hrrp:jjwww.open-
ooors.iienerwork.orgj.
26. NAFSA: Associarion of Inrernarional Eoucarors, Inrernarional Eoucarion: The
Neglecreo Dimension of Public Diplomacy, hrrp:jjwww.nafsa.orgj_jDocumenrj_j
public_oiplomacy_:ooS.pof.
27. Susan K. Brown ano Frank D. Bean, Posr jj:: Inrernarional Craouare Enrollmenr in
::: Enonores
rhe Unireo Srares: Uninrenoeo Consequences of Narional Securiry Srraregies, in |m-
migrution lolicy und Security. L.S., Europeun und Commonweulth lerspectives, eos. Terri
E. Civens er al. (New York: Rourleoge, :ooj).
2S. NAFSA, Inrernarional Eoucarion: The Neglecreo Dimension of Public Diplomacy
(Vashingron, DC: Associarion of Inrernarional Eoucarors, :ooS).
29. Higher Eoucarion: The Furure is Anorher Counrry, The Economist, December o,
:ooS.
30. [ennifer Hunr ano Mar|olaine Caurhier-Loiselle, How Much Does Immigrarion
Boosr Innovarion? (NBER Vorking Paper No. :::, Seprember :ooS).
3!. Cnanara| Chellara|, Keirh E. Maskus, ano Aaoirya Marroo, The Conrriburion of
Skilleo Immigrarion ano Inrernarional Craouare Sruoenrs ro U.S. Innovarion (Vorlo
Bank Policy Research Vorking Paper No. jSS, May :ooj).
32. Villiam R. Kerr ano Villiam F. Lincoln, The Supply Sioe of Innovarion: H-:B Visa
Reforms ano US Erhnic Invenrion (Harvaro Business School Vorking Paper No. oj-
ooj, December :ooS).
33. Vivek Vaohwa er al., Americas New Immigranr Enrrepreneurs: Parr I (working
paper, Duke Universiry School of Engineering, [anuary , :oo;).
3+. Doris Meissner, Deborah V. Meyers, Demerrios C. Papaoemerriou, ano Michael
Fix, Immigrarion ano Americas Furure: A New Chaprer (reporr, Inoepenoenr Task
Force on Immigrarion ano Americas Furure, Migrarion Policy Insrirure, Seprember
:oo6), p. S.
35. See ICEs Use of Immigrarion ano Cusroms Aurhoriries ro Aooress Narional Secu-
riry Threars: Examples, November :S, :ooS, hrrp:jjwww.ice.govjpijnewsjfacrsheersj
rerrorismrhrears.hrm.
36. Donalo Kerwin ano Margarer D. Srock, Narional Securiry ano Immigrarion Policy:
Reclaiming Terms, Measuring Success, ano Serring Prioriries (reporr, U.S. Milirary
Acaoemy Combaring Terrorism Cenrer, Vesr Poinr, [une :oo6).
37. Quoreo in Narional Research Council, Science und Security in u lost-,jii World.
Report Bused on Regionul Discussions Between the Science und Security Communities
(Vashingron, DC: The Narional Acaoemies Press, :oo;).
3S. Narional Research Council, Beyond Iortress mericu. ^utionul Security Controls on
Science und Technology in u Clobulized World (Vashingron, DC: The Narional Acao-
emies Press, :ooj).
39. See, for insrance, Pierre Chao, Towaro a U.S. Exporr Conrrol ano Technology Trans-
fer Sysrem for rhe ::sr Cenrury (Cenrer for Srraregic ano Inrernarional Sruoies, May
:ooS), [ohn [. Hamre, [ay C. Farrar, ano [ames A. Lewis, Technology ano Securiry
in rhe ::sr Cenrury: U.S. Milirary Exporr Conrrol Reform (Cenrer for Srraregic ano
Inrernarional Sruoies, May :oo:).
+0. Covernmenr Accounrabiliry Ofce, Boroer Securiry: Improvemenrs Neeoeo ro
Reouce Time Taken ro Ao|uoicare Visas for Science Sruoenrs ano Scholars, CAO
o-;: (Vashingron, DC: Covermenr Prinring Ofce, February :oo), Boroer Se-
curiry: Srreamlineo Visas Manris Program has Lowereo Buroen on Foreign Science
Sruoenrs ano Scholars, bur Furrher Renemenrs Neeoeo, CAO oj-:jS (Vashingron,
DC: Covermenr Prinring Ofce, February :ooj).
+!. Dean, Scienrisrs Fear Visa Trouble Vill Drive Foreign Sruoenrs Away.
+2. See Roberr H. Scales, The lust und lresent us lrologue. Iuture Wurjure through the Lens oj
Contemporury Conict (Vashingron, DC: Cenrer for a New American Securiry, April
:ooj).
+3. [ulia Presron, U.S. Milirary Vill Offer Parh ro Cirizenship, ^ew Yorl Times, February
:, :ooj.
::: Enonores
++. Clobal Public Opinion in rhe Bush Years (:oo::ooS) (reporr, Pew Clobal Arriruoes
Pro|ecr, December :S, :ooS), hrrp:jjpewglobal.orgjreporrsjpofj:6.pof.
+5. House Commirree on Foreign Affairs, Subcommirree on Inrernarional Organiza-
rions, Human Righrs ano Oversighr, The Decline in Americas Repurarion: Vhy?
::orh Cong. :o sess., [une ::, :ooS, Commirree Prinr.
+6. See Changing Course: A New Direcrion for U.S. Relarions wirh rhe Muslim Vorlo
(reporr, Leaoership Croup on U.S.-Muslim Engagemenr, Seprember :ooS), see also
Richaro L. Armirage ano [oseph S. Nye [r., A Smarrer, More Secure America (reporr,
CSIS Commission on Smarr Power, Cenrer for Srraregic ano Inrernarional Sruoies,
November :oo;).
+7. U.S. Srare Deparrmenr, Bureau of Consular Affairs. Reporr of rhe Visa Ofce :ooS,
hrrp:jjwww.rravel.srare.govjvisajfrvijsrarisricsjsrarisrics_j:.hrml.
+S. Quoreo in House Commirree on Foreign Affairs, The Decline in Americas Repura-
rion, p. :;.
+9. Discover America ParrnershipjRT Srraregies Survey of Inrernarional Travelers, No-
vember :o, :oo6.
50. Accoroing ro Commerce Deparrmenr gures, rhe Unireo Srares hao :j,: million
overseas visirors in :ooS, some 6,ooo fewer rhan in :ooo. See U.S. Deparrmenr of
Commerce, Inrernarional Traoe Aominisrrarion, Ofce of Travel ano Tourism Inous-
rries, |nternutionul \isitution to the Lnited Stutes. Stutisticul Summury oj L.S. rrivuls
(zoo8). The U.S. rravel inousrry esrimares rhar if rhe Unireo Srares hao mainraineo irs
share of inrernarional rravel, ir woulo have resulreo in fry-eighr million more visirors,
S:S: billion in new spenoing, S:; billion in new rax revenue, ano :j,ooo more Ameri-
can |obs in :ooS. See U.S. Travel: Conrinueo Shorrfall in Overseas Arrivals ro Unireo
Srares Since jj:: Furrhers Americas Economic Crisis (press release, U.S. Travel As-
sociarion, March :, :ooj).
5!. Secure Boroers ano Open Doors: Preserving Our Velcome ro rhe Vorlo in an Age
of Terrorism (reporr, Secure Boroers ano Open Doors Aovisory Commirree, U.S.
Deparrmenr of Homelano Securiry ano Srare, [anuary :ooS), hrrp:jjwww.migra-
rionpolicy.orgjpubsjMPI_SBODAC_o::6oS.pof, see follow-up progress reporr oareo
Ocrober :j, :ooS ano lerrer from SBODAC chairs [ohn S. Chen ano [areo L. Cohon
ro Secrerary of Srare Conooleezza Rice ano Secrerary of Homelano Securiry Michael
Cherroff, obraineo by rhe Task Force pro|ecr oirecror.
52. Ve polleo young Arab leaoers. These are people generally more favorable ro rhe
Unireo Srares in rhe UAE. These are few hunoreo young men ano women who are
college eoucareo, wanr ro srarr a business erc., erc. Ve askeo rhem, whar oo you neeo?
They rolo us rhe rools rhar rhey neeoeo ro srarr a business or expano rheir business.
Vhere woulo you go? The Unireo Srares. Vhy? Because rhar is rhe plarinum sranoaro.
Vhere woulo you nor? China ano [apan. Vhy? Because we have no culrural afn-
iry (Commirree on Foreign Affairs, Subcommirree on Inrernarional Organizarions,
Human Righrs ano Oversighr ano rhe Subcommirree on rhe Vesrern Hemisphere,
resrimony by [ohn Zogby, ::orh Cong., :sr sess., March S, :oo;, hrrp:jjforeignaffairs.
house.govj::ojS:.pof).
53. A recenr sruoy by rhe Pew Research Cenrer founo rhar ; percenr of rhe chiloren of
unaurhorizeo immigranr parenrs were born in rhe Unireo Srares, ano rherefore by law
are U.S. cirizens (see Passel ano Cohn, A Porrrair of Unaurhorizeo Immigranrs).
5+. Davio A. Marrin, Twilighr Sraruses: A Closer Examinarion of rhe Unaurhorizeo Pop-
ularion (policy brief, Migrarion Policy Insrirure, [une :ooj).
55. Immigrarion Enforcemenr Acrions: :oo; (annual reporr, Ofce of Immigrarion Sra-
risrics, U.S. Deparrmenr of Homelano Securiry, December :ooS), hrrp:jjwww.ohs.
govjxlibraryjassersjsrarisricsjpublicarionsjenforcemenr_ar_o;.pof.
:: Enonores
56. Alison Siskin, Anoorra Bruno, Blas Nunez-Nero, Lisa M. Segherri, ano Rurh Ellen
Vasem, Immigrarion Enforcemenr Virhin rhe Unireo Srares, CRS reporr RLj:
(Vashingron, DC: Library of Congress, Congressional Research Service, April 6,
:oo6).
57. Doris Meissner ano Donalo Kerwin, DHS und |mmigrution. Tuling Stocl und Correct-
ing Course (Vashingron, DC: Migrarion Policy Insrirure, :ooj), p. :.
5S. Amy Colosrein ano Dana Priesr, Careless Derenrion: Meoical Care in Immigranr
Prisons, Wushington lost, May :::, :ooS, hrrp:jjwww.washingronposr.comj
wp-srvjnarionjspecialsjimmigrarionjinoex.hrml.
59. Accoroing ro Immigrarion ano Cusroms Enforcemenr, irs Inrensive Supervision
Appearance Program (ISAP), which incluoes elecrronic moniroring, home curfews,
in-person reporring, ano surprise home visirs, has a jj percenr appearance rare ar im-
migrarion hearings ano a jj percenr appearance rare ar removal hearings (see Meiss-
ner ano Kerwin, DHS und |mmigrution, p. j).
60. U.S. Deparrmenr of Homelano Securiry, Ofce of rhe Inspecror Ceneral, Derenrion
ano Removal of Illegal Aliens, OIC-o6- (Vashingron, DC: Covernmenr Prinring
Ofce, April :oo6), hrrp:jjwww.ohs.govjxoigjassersjmgmrrprsjOIC_o6-_Apro6.
pof.
6!. Aggravareo Felonies ano Deporrarions, TRAC Immigrarion, [une j, :oo6.
62. Suzanne Camboa, Cirizens Helo as Illegal Immigranrs, Associareo Press, April :,
:ooj, Anorew Becker ano Parrick [. McDonnell, Immigrarion Sweeps Lano Legal
Resioenr in Derenrion wirh rhe Threar of Deporrarion, Los ngeles Times, April j,
:ooj.
63. See rhe oiscussion in Henry C. [arecki ano Daniela Zane Kaisrh, Scholar Rescue in
rhe Mooern Vorlo, Insrirure of Inrernarional Eoucarion, New York, :ooj.
6+. Varren Zimmerman, Migranrs ano Refugees: A Threar ro Securiry? in Michael S.
Teirelbaum ano Myron Veiner, eos., Threutened leople, Threutened Borders. World Mi-
grution und L.S. lolicy (New York: V.V. Norron, :jjj), p. jj.
65. There is much oisagreemenr over rhe number of asylum claimanrs releaseo inro rhe
Unireo Srares who fail ro show for rheir hearings ano become absconoers. Esrimares
from :ooj, prior ro rhe increase in rhe percenrage of asylum seekers who are oeraineo
unril rheir hearings, range from a low of abour 6 percenr ro abour :: percenr. See Bill
Frelick, U.S. Derenrion of Asylum Seekers ano Human Righrs, Migrarion Policy
Insrirure, March :, :ooj, hrrp:jjwww.migrarioninformarion.orgjUSfocusjoisplay.
cfm?ID=:j6.
66. Human Righrs Firsr, How ro Repair rhe U.S. Asylum Sysrem: Blueprinr for rhe Nexr
Aominisrrarion, December :ooS.
67. Ibio.
6S. Margarer Talbor, The Losr Chiloren: Vhar oo rougher oerenrion policies mean for
illegal immigranr families? ^ew Yorler, March , :ooS.
69. See Donalo Kerwin, Revisiring rhe Neeo for Appoinreo Counsel, Migrarion Policy
Insrirure, April :ooj. See also rhe Unireo Srares Commirree on Inrernarional Religious
Freeoom, Asylum Seekers in Expeoireo Removal, February S, :ooj, which founo
rhar asylum seekers wirhour a lawyer hao only a : percenr chance of rheir claims being
granreo, versus a :j percenr success rare for rhose wirh counsel.
70. Reporr of rhe Special Rapporreur on rhe Human Righrs of Migranrs, Mission ro rhe
Unireo Srares of America, Unireo Narions Ceneral Assembly Human Righrs Council,
March j, :ooS.
7!. Asylum Seekers in Expeoireo Removal, Unireo Srares Commirree on Inrernarional
Religious Freeoom, February S, :ooj. The sruoy founo some rroubling parrerns, such
as rhe much higher rare of success for asylum applicanrs who coulo afforo ro obrain
:: Enonores
legal counsel or were lucky enough ro no pro bono represenrarion (:j percenr) rhan
for rhose who oio nor have lawyers (|usr : percenr).
72. Michael S. Teirelbaum, Lutin Migrution ^orth. The lroblem jor L.S. Ioreign lolicy (New
York: Council on Foreign Relarions, :jSj).
73. Moises Naim, The New Diaspora, Ioreign lolicy, [ulyjAugusr :oo:.
7+. AnnaLee Saxenian, Silicon Valleys New Immigranr Enrrepreneurs, Public Policy
Insrirure of California, :jjj.
75. Vivek Vaohwa er al., Inrellecrual Properry, rhe Immigrarion Backlog, ano a Reverse
Brain-Drain: Americas New Immigranr Enrrepreneurs, Parr III (working paper,
Duke Universiry, Augusr ::, :oo;).
76. [ames E. Rauch, Business ano Social Nerworks in Inrernarional Traoe, journul oj
Economic Literuture vol. j, no. (December :oo:), pp. ::;;:o.
77. Michael Clemens, Donr Close rhe Coloen Door: Making Immigrarion Policy Vork
for Developmenr (policy brief, Cenrer for Clobal Developmenr, :ooS).
7S. Charlene Barshefsky, [ames T. Hill, ano Shannon K. ONeil, U.S.-Larin America Re-
larions: A New Direcrion for a New Realiry, Inoepenoenr Task Force Reporr No. 6o
(New York: Council on Foreign Relarions, :ooS).
79. Michael Clemens ano Lanr Prircherr, Income Per Narural: Measuring Developmenr
as if People Marrereo More rhan Places (Cenrer for Clobal Developmenr Vorking
Paper No. ::, March :ooS).
S0. Coroon H. Hanson ano Craig McInrosh, The Crear Mexican Emigrarion (NBER
Vorking Paper no. :6;j, December :oo;).
S!. Barshefsky, Hill, ano ONeil, U.S.-Larin America Relarions.
S2. Hanson ano McInrosh, The Crear Mexican Emigrarion, p. .
S3. Fernanoo Seoano, Economic Implicarions of Mexicos Suooen Demographic Tran-
sirion, Business Economics, [uly :, :ooS.
S+. Shannon K. ONeil, Nor Enough Immigranrs, Los ngeles Times, April j, :oo;.
S5. Coroon H. Hanson ano Anronio Spilimbergo, Illegal Immigrarion, Boroer Enforce-
menr ano Relarive Vages: Evioence from Apprehensions ar rhe U.S.-Mexico Boroer
(NBER Vorking Paper No. Vjjj: , May :jj6).
S6. Pere Engaroio ano Ceri Smirh, Mexico: Business is Sranoing irs Crouno, Business-
Weel, April :o, :ooj.
S7. Coroon H. Hanson, Illegal Migrarion from Mexico ro rhe Unireo Srares, journul oj
Economic Literuture vol. , no. (December :oo6), pp. S6jj:.
SS. Richaro Marosi, Boroer Arresrs Drop ro :j;os Levels, Los ngeles Times, March S,
:ooj.
S9. Hanson ano Spilimbergo, Illegal Immigrarion, Boroer Enforcemenr, ano Relarive
Vages, mericun Economic Review vol. Sj (:jjj), pp. :;j;.
90. Commission for rhe Sruoy of Inrernarional Migrarion ano Cooperarive Economic
Developmenr, Unaurhorizeo Migrarion: An Economic Developmenr Response
(Vashingron, DC: Covernmenr Prinring Ofce, :jjo).
9!. Vayne Cornelius er al., Conrrolling Unaurhorizeo Immigrarion from Mexico: The
Failure of Prevenrion Through Dererrence ano rhe Neeo for Comprehensive Reform
(brieng, Immigrarion Policy Cenrer, [une :o, :ooS).
92. Douglas S. Massey, [orge Durano, ano Nolan [. Malone, Beyond Smole und Mirrors.
Mexicun |mmigrution in un Eru oj Economic |ntegrution (New York: Russell Sage Foun-
oarion, :oo), Douglas S. Massey, Backre ar rhe Boroer: Vhy Enforcemenr Virhour
Legalizarion Cannor Srop Illegal Immigrarion, Traoe Policy Analysis No. :j (Vash-
ingron, DC: Caro Insrirure, Cenrer for Traoe Policy Sruoies, :ooj).
::j Enonores
93. [effrey Davioow, The L.S. und Mexico. The Beur und the lorcupine (Princeron, N[:
Markus Veiner, :oo), [orge Casraneoa, Ex-Mex. Irom Migrunts to |mmigrunts (New
York: New Press, :ooS).
9+. U.S. Immigrarion Policy: Resroring Creoibiliry (reporr, U.S. Commission on Im-
migrarion Reform, :jj).
95. Facr Sheer: DHS Eno-of-Year Accomplishmenrs, December :S, :ooS.
96. Eowaro Aloen, Cherroff Barrereo bur Nor Boweo by Year in Ofce, Iinunciul Times,
March :, :oo6.
97. Coroon Hanson, The Economic Logic oj |llegul |mmigrution, Council Special Reporr
No. :6 (New York: Council on Foreign Relarions, :oo;).
9S. [effrey Passel ano DVera Cohn, Trenos in Unaurhorizeo Immigrarion: Unoocu-
menreo Inow Now Trails Legal Inow (reporr, Pew Hispanic Cenrer, Ocrober :,
:ooS).
99. Hanson, The Economic Logic oj |llegul |mmigrution.
!00. U.S. Deparrmenr of Homelano Securiry, Yearbook of Immigrarion Srarisrics: :ooS,
rable ;, hrrp:jjwww.ohs.govjximgrnjsrarisricsjpublicarionsjLPRoS.shrm.
!0!. American Maoe: The Impacr of Immigranr Enrrepreneurs ano Professionals on U.S.
Compeririveness, Narional Venrure Capiral Associarion, November :oo6.
!02. Roberr Pear, A Poinr Sysrem for Immigranrs Incires Passions, ^ew Yorl Times, [une
j, :oo;, Molly Hennessy-Fiske ano [im Puzzanghera, Immigrarion Plan Doesnr Aoo
Up, Crirics Say, Los ngeles Times, May :, :oo;.
!03. Lerrer from Vesrern Covernors Associarion ro congressional leaoers, April j, :ooS,
hrrp:jjwww.wesrgov.orgjwgajresrimjVisa-Lerrer-j-oS.pof.
!0+. Eoirorial, A Cheap Shor ar Vorkers, ^ew Yorl Times, December :j, :ooS, Bush Re-
wrires rhe Rules, Los ngeles Times, December :6, :ooS.
!05. See, for example, Philip L. Marrin ano Michael S. Teirelbaum, The Mirage of Mexican
Cuesr Vorkers, Ioreign jjuirs, NovemberjDecember :oo:.
!06. See rhe excellenr oiscussion in Alexanora Srarr, Europe Deals Virh Immigrarion,
Slare.com, Ocrober ::;, :ooS, hrrp:jjwww.slare.comjioj::o:jojjenrryj::o:j:S.
!07. Cirizenship ano Immigrarion Service Ombuosman, Annual Reporr :oo;, U.S. De-
parrmenr of Homelano Securiry, [une ::, :oo;, p. iii.
!0S. Ibio, p. S.
!09. MPI, |mmigrution und mericus Iuture, p. j.
!!0. See U.S. Deparrmenr of Homelano Securiry, Yearbook of Immigrarion Srarisrics:
:ooS.
!!!. Vivek Vaohwa er al., Inrellecrual Properry, rhe Immigrarion Backlog, ano a Reverse
Brain-Drain: Americas New Immigranr Enrrepreneurs Parr III, SSRN, Augusr ::,
:oo;.
!!2. Temporary Skilleo Vorker Visa Holoers: Alberra, Canaoa welcomes you ano your
family, hrrp:jjwww.alberracanaoa.comjimmigrarionjcampaignsjh:b.hrml.
!!3. Meissner ano Kerwin, DHS und |mmigrution, pp. ;;j.
!!+. Meissner ano Kerwin, DHS und |mmigrution, pp. ;:;, DHS press release, USCIS
Revises Policy on Long-Penoing FBI Name Checks, March j, :ooj.
!!5. See USCIS Facr Sheer, USCIS Makes Ma|or Srrioes During :ooS, November 6,
:ooS, Meissner ano Kerwin, DHS und |mmigrution, p. ;:.
!!6. See Covernmenr Accounrabiliry Ofce, Employmenr Vericarion: Challenges Exisr
in Implemenring a Manoarory Elecrronic Employmenr Vericarion Sysrem, CAO-
oS-SjjT (Vashingron, DC: Covernmenr Prinring Ofce, [une :ooS).
!!7. Meissner ano Kerwin, DHS und |mmigrution, pp. .
::6 Enonores
!!S. Meissner ano Kerwin, DHS und |mmigrution, p. :.
!!9. Eowaro Aloen, The Closing oj the mericun Border. Terrorism, |mmigrution und Security
Since ,jii (New York: HarperCollins, :ooS).
!20. See Karhleen Campbell Valker, U.S. policy squeezes immigranrs, nor immigrarion,
^utionul Luw journul, May :j, :ooj.
!2!. Deborah M. Veissman er al., The Policies ano Polirics of Local Immigrarion Enforce-
menr Law (reporr, American Civil Liberries Union ano Immigrarion ano Human
Righrs Policy Clinic, Universiry of Norrh Carolina, Chapel Hill, February :ooj).
!22. Passel ano Cohn, A Porrrair of Unaurhorizeo Immigranrs.
!23. Richaro Lano, Immigrarion Reform ano Sourhern Baprisrs (press release, Erhics &
Religious Liberry Commission, April , :oo;), hrrp:jjerlc.comjarriclejpress-release-
immigrarion-reform-ano-sourhern-baprisrj.
!2+. Chrisropher Sherman, Passporr Agency Quesrions Cirizenship of Americans Deliv-
ereo by Miowives near Mexico Boroer, ssociuted lress, February :o, :ooj.
!25. Accoroing ro rhe Pew Hispanic Cenrer, j. percenr of all |obs in rhe Unireo Srares are
helo by unoocumenreo workers, up from . percenr in :oo. In Arizona, California
ano Nevaoa rhey comprise abour :o percenr of rhe labor force (see Passel ano Cohn, A
Porrrair of Unaurhorizeo Immigranrs).
!26. This recognirion rhar unoocumenreo workers can be useo by unscrupulous employers
ro push oown wages ano working conoirions was rhe basis for rhe hisroric April :ooj
accoro berween rhe rwo larger labor union coalirionsrhe AFL-CIO ano Change ro
Vinin supporr of comprehensive immigrarion reform (The Labor Movemenrs
Framework for Comprehensive Immigrarion Reform, April :ooj, hrrp:jjwww.acio.
orgjissuesjcivilrighrsjimmigrarionjuploaojimmigrarionreformo:oj.pof).
!27. Builoing an Americanizarion Movemenr for rhe Twenry-Firsr Cenrury: A Reporr ro
rhe Presioenr of rhe Unireo Srares from rhe Task Force on New Americans, Decem-
ber :S, :ooS.
!2S. Richaro Akresh ano Ilana Reosrone Akresh, Using Achievemenr Tesrs ro Measure
Language Assimilarion ano Language Bias Among Immigranr Chiloren (IZA Dis-
cussion Paper No. j:, :ooS), Ilana Reosrone Akresh, Conrexrs of English Language
Use Among Immigranrs ro rhe Unireo Srares, Inrernarional Migrarion Review vol. :,
no. (:oo;), pp. jojj.
!29. Kierkegaaro, The cceleruting Decline in mericus High-Slilled Worljorce, pp. ;jSo.
!30. Ceorge Bor|as, An Evaluarion of rhe Foreign Sruoenr Program, Cenrer for Immigra-
rion Sruoies, [une :oo:.
!3!. Kirkegaaro, The cceleruting Decline in mericus High-Slilled Worljorce, p. S:.
!32. Meissner ano Kerwin, DHS und |mmigrution lolicy, p. 6S.
!33. MPI, |mmigrution und mericus Iuture, p. :.
!3+. A similar recommenoarion is conraineo in a recenr reporr aurhoreo by Ray Marshall,
who was secrerary of labor in rhe Carrer aominisrrarion, which was enoorseo by rhe
labor union coalirions Change ro Vin ano rhe AFL-CIO. He recommenos rhe crearion
of a Foreign Vorker Ao|usrmenr Commission, which is similar ro rhe MPI proposal
for a Sranoing Commission, rhough he woulo ser preservarion of U.S. labor sran-
oaros as rhe commissions rop prioriry ano woulo ser immigrarion levels baseo on
wherher companies have a oemonsrrable neeo for foreign labor. See Ray Marshall, |m-
migrution jor Shured lrosperity. Irumeworl jor Comprehensive Rejorm (Vashingron,
DC: Economic Policy Insrirure, :ooj). The Narional Founoarion for American Policy
has srrongly opposeo rhe union recommenoarions, saying rhar rhe rhresholo of a cerri-
eo labor shorrage is far roo high ano woulo excluoe mosr skilleo immigrarion. Ir cau-
rions rhar rhe MPI proposal coulo also be a oangerous roll of rhe oice for employers,
::; Enonores
immigranrs ano rheir families. See A Commission ro Regulare Immigrarion? A Bao
Ioea Vhose Time Shoulo nor Come (policy brief, Narional Founoarion for American
Policy, May :ooj).
!35. This recommenoarion oraws oirecrly from rhe more oeraileo oiscussion in Meissner
ano Kerwin, DHS und |mmigrution, pp. ;6;S.
!36. Narional Research Council, Beyond Iortress mericu, pp. ;, jj.
!37. Scales, The Pasr ano Presenr as Prologue.
!3S. Secure Boroers ano Open Doors: Preserving Our Velcome ro rhe Vorlo in an Age of
Terrorism.
!39. Thomas R. Elorioge er al., ,jii und Terrorist Truvel. Stujj Report oj the ^utionul Com-
mission on Terrorist ttucls Lpon the Lnited Stutes (Franklin, TN: Hillsboro Press,
:oo).
!+0. U.S. Commission on Inrernarional Religious Freeoom, Reporr on Asylum Seekers in
Expeoireo Removal, ano rhe follow-up reporr caro issueo in February :oo;.
!+!. Some of rhese recommenoarions are raken from rhe excellenr recenr reporr, The
Unireo Srares ano Mexico: Towaros a Srraregic Parrnership (Vashingron, DC:
Vooorow Vilson Cenrer, Mexico Insrirure, [anuary :ooj).
::S
Task Force Members
Task Force members are askeo ro |oin a consensus signifying rhar
rhey enoorse rhe general policy rhrusr ano |uogmenrs reacheo by rhe
group, rhough nor necessarily every noing ano recommenoarion.
They parricipare in rhe Task Force in rheir inoivioual, nor rheir insri-
rurional, capaciries.
Edward Alden is rhe Bernaro L. Schwarrz senior fellow ar rhe Council
on Foreign Relarions, where his research focuses on issues of U.S. eco-
nomic compeririveness, incluoing rraoe ano immigrarion policy. Prior
ro |oining CFR in :oo;, he was rhe Vashingron bureau chief for rhe
Iinunciul Times. He also serveo as rhe ITs bureau chief in Canaoa from
:jjS ro :ooo. Previously, he was a senior reporrer ar rhe \uncouver Sun
specializing in labor ano employmenr issues as well as rhe managing
eoiror of |nside L.S. Trude. He has won several narional ano inrernarional
awaros for his reporring, ano wrires for a wioe variery of publicarions,
incluoing rhe Wushington lost, Sun Iruncisco Chronicle, ano Toronto
Clobe & Muil. His book, The Closing oj the mericun Border. Terrorism,
|mmigrution und Security Since ,jii, was nameo a oisringuisheo nalisr
for rhe :ooj [. Anrhony Lukas Book Prize for noncrion. Aloen holos
a BA from rhe Universiry of Brirish Columbia ano an MA in polirical
science from rhe Universiry of California, Berkeley.
Mary Boies founoeo rhe law rm Boies & McInnis LLP, which spe-
cializes in anrirrusr, securiries, ano corporare lirigarion. She chairs rhe
execurive commirree of rhe Boaro of Business Execurives for Narional
Securiry. She is a member of rhe Deans Execurive Council ar rhe Har-
varo Kenneoy School of Covernmenr ano on rhe Aovisory Commirree
of MITs Cenrer for Inrernarional Sruoies. She was appoinreo by rhe
U.S. secrerary of oefense ro rhe Air Universiry Boaro of Visirors, whose
purview incluoes rhe Air Force School for Aovanceo Air ano Space
::j Task Force Members
Sruoies, Air Commano ano Sraff College, rhe College of Aerospace
Docrrine, ano rhe Air Force Insrirure of Technology. She serves on rhe
Sranoing Commirree on rhe Feoeral [uoiciary, esrablisheo by Presioenr
Eisenhower ro conoucr professional peer reviews of nominees ro rhe
feoeral |uoiciary, incluoing ro rhe U.S. Supreme Courr. She is founoer
ano CEO of Mary Boies Sofrware Inc., publisher of eoucarional sofr-
ware. Previously, she was vice presioenr ano member of rhe law oeparr-
menr ar CBS Inc., general counsel of rhe U.S. Civil Aeronaurics Boaro,
assisranr oirecror of rhe Vhire House Domesric Policy Sraff, ano coun-
sel ro rhe U.S. Senare Commirree on Commerce.
Robert C. Bonner is a senior principal of rhe Senrinel HS Croup ano of
counsel ro Cibson, Dunn & Crurcher LLP. From :oo rhrough Decem-
ber :ooj, Bonner serveo as rhe rsr commissioner of U.S. Cusroms ano
Boroer Prorecrion, rhe agency of rhe Deparrmenr of Homelano Securiry
responsible for managing, conrrolling, ano securing U.S. boroers while
faciliraring global rraoe ano rravel. Bonner was appoinreo by Presioenr
Ceorge V. Bush ro serve as commissioner of U.S. Cusroms Service in
Seprember :oo:. Before rhar, his governmenr service incluoeo serving
as aominisrraror of rhe Drug Enforcemenr Aominisrrarion from :jjo
ro :jj, as U.S. oisrricr |uoge for rhe Cenrral Disrricr of California
from :jSj ro :jjo, ano as rhe U.S. arrorney for rhe Cenrral Disrricr of
California from :jS rhrough :jSj. Bonner is a fellow of rhe American
College of Trial Lawyers. Bonner is also co-chair of rhe Pacic Council
on Inrernarional Policys rask force on U.S.-Mexico boroer policy, rhe
Boaro of Trusrees of rhe California Insrirure of Technology (Calrech),
ano rhe Boaro of Direcrors of rhe Homelano Securiry Aovisory Coun-
cil, Region One.
Jeb Bush is rhe presioenr of [eb Bush ano Associares, LLC, a consulr-
ing rm. He serveo as rhe forry-rhiro governor of Florioa from :jjj
ro :oo;. Before his elecrion as governor, Bush workeo as a real esrare
execurive ano pursueo orher enrrepreneurial venrures in Florioa from
:jS: ro :jjS, ano serveo as secrerary of commerce for rhe srare of Flor-
ioa from :jS; ro :jSS. Before :jS:, Bush serveo in various posirions ar
Texas Commerce Bank in Housron, Texas, ano in Caracas, Venezuela.
He formeo ano serves as chairman of rhe Founoarion for Florioas
Furure, a nor-for-pror public policy organizarion, ano rhe Founoarion
for Excellence in Eoucarion, a nor-for-pror charirable organizarion.
:o Task Force Members
Bush earneo a BA in Larin American affairs from rhe Universiry of
Texas ar Ausrin.
Allan E. Goodman is rhe sixrh presioenr of rhe Insrirure of Inrerna-
rional Eoucarion, rhe leaoing nor-for-pror organizarion in rhe elo of
inrernarional eoucarional exchange ano oevelopmenr rraining. Previ-
ously, he was execurive oean of rhe School of Foreign Service ano pro-
fessor ar Ceorgerown Universiry. He also serveo as presioenrial brieng
cooroinaror for rhe oirecror of Cenrral Inrelligence in rhe Carrer aomin-
isrrarion. He has a BS from Norrhwesrern Universiry, an MPA from rhe
Harvaro Kenneoy School, ano a PhD in governmenr from Harvaro.
Coooman also holos honorary oocrorares from Toyora ano Charham
universiries, Mioolebury, Mounr Ioa, ano Ramapo colleges, ano rhe
Srare Universiry of New York for his work in eoucarional exchange ano
rescuing scholars. He has also receiveo awaros from Ceorgerown, [ohns
Hopkins, ano Tufrs universiries, ano rhe French Legion ohonneur.
Gordon H. Hanson is a professor of economics in rhe graouare school
of inrernarional relarions ano Pacic sruoies ano rhe oeparrmenr of
economics ar rhe Universiry of California, San Diego (UCSD). He is
also a research associare ar rhe Narional Bureau of Economic Research
ano coeoiror of rhe journul oj Development Economics. Before |oining
UCSD, he serveo on rhe faculries of rhe Universiry of Michigan ano
rhe Universiry of Texas. He is rhe aurhor of more rhan fry acaoemic
research publicarions on rhe economic consequences of immigrarion,
inrernarional rraoe ano invesrmenr, ano orher aspecrs of globalizarion.
He is aurhor of Why Does |mmigrution Divide mericu? lublic Iinunce
und loliticul Opposition to Open Borders ano |mmigrution lolicy und the
Weljure System.
Michael H. Jordan is rhe former chairman ano CEO of Elecrronic Dara
Sysrems (EDS). Prior ro |oining EDS, he was rhe rerireo chairman ano
chief execurive ofcer of CBS Corporarion (formerly Vesringhouse
Elecrric Corporarion), parrner wirh Clayron, Dubilier, ano Rice, chair-
man ano CEO of PepsiCo Inrernarional, ano a consulranr ano princi-
pal wirh McKinsey & Company. [oroan is a rrusree of rhe Brookings
Insrirurion, a former member ano chairman of rhe Presioenrs Exporr
Council, a former chairman of rhe Narional Foreign Traoe Council, a
former chairman of rhe U.S.-[apan Business Council, a oirecror ano
:: Task Force Members
former chairman of rhe Unireo Negro College Funo, a former chair-
man of rhe Narional Policy Boaro of rhe Americans for rhe Arrs, ano a
former member of rhe following organizarions: rhe Business Council,
boaro of rrusrees of rhe Unireo Srares Council for Inrernarional Busi-
ness, rhe inrernarional aovisory boaro of Brirish American Business
Inc., ano rhe Business Rounorable. He serves on rhe boaros of several
small, privarely helo companies ano is a member of rhe Yale School
of Managemenr boaro of aovisers. [oroan serveo a four-year rour of
oury wirh rhe U.S. Navy on rhe sraff of Aomiral Hyman Rickover. He
receiveo a BS in chemical engineering from Yale Universiry ano an MS
in chemical engineering from Princeron Universiry.
Donald Kerwin is vice presioenr for programs ar rhe Migrarion Policy
Insrirure (MPI), overseeing all of MPIs narional ano inrernarional pro-
grams. Before |oining MPI, Kerwin workeo for more rhan sixreen years
ar rhe Carholic Legal Immigrarion Nerwork Inc. (CLINIC), serving as
execurive oirecror for nearly freen years. CLINIC is a public inreresr
legal corporarion rhar supporrs a narional nerwork of :; charirable
legal programs for immigranrs in more rhan :;o locarions. On his
arrival ar CLINIC in :jj:, Kerwin oirecreo irs polirical asylum pro|ecr
for Hairians. He became CLINICs execurive oirecror in December :jj
ano ouring his renure, CLINIC cooroinareo rhe narions largesr poliri-
cal asylum, oerainee services, immigrarion appeals, ano naruralizarion
programs. Kerwin is an aoviser ro rhe American Bar Associarions
Commission on Immigrarion, on rhe boaro of oirecrors of [esuir Refu-
gee Services-USA, ano an associare fellow ar rhe Vooosrock Theologi-
cal Cenrer. Mr. Kerwin is a :jS graouare of Ceorgerown Universiry
ano a :jSj graouare of rhe Universiry of Michigan Law School.
Richard D. Land is presioenr of rhe Erhics & Religious Liberry Com-
mission, rhe Sourhern Baprisr Convenrions ofcial enriry assigneo ro
aooress social, moral, ano erhical concerns, wirh parricular arrenrion
ro rheir impacr on American families ano rheir fairh. He has serveo in
rhis posirion since Ocrober :jSS. Before rhar, Lano serveo as Criswell
Colleges vice presioenr for acaoemic affairs from :jSo ro :jSS ano
hao raughr as a professor of rheology ano church hisrory ar rhar insriru-
rion since :j;j. Vhile on leave of absence from Criswell College, Lano
serveo from [anuary :jS; ro May :jSS as aominisrrarive assisranr ro rhe
Honorable Villiam P. Clemenrs [r., governor of Texas, as his senior
:: Task Force Members
aoviser on church-srare issues ano areas relaring ro rraoirional family
values. In :ooj, Time magazine nameo Dr. Lano as one of rhe :j Mosr
Inuenrial Evangelicals. In Ocrober :oo;, Senare Minoriry Leaoer
Mirch McConnell of Kenrucky appoinreo Lano ro a rwo-year rerm on
rhe U.S. Commission on Inrernarional Religious Freeoom (USCIRF),
an inoepenoenr ano biparrisan feoeral agency. This was Lanos fourrh
appoinrmenr ro USCIRF. In [uly :ooj, rhen Senare Ma|oriry Leaoer Bill
Frisr hao appoinreo Lano, ano Presioenr Bush selecreo Lano for his rsr
rwo rerms (Seprember :oo: ro Seprember :oo). He graouareo wirh a
BA (magna cum lauoe) from Princeron Universiry ano wirh a PhD from
Oxforo Universiry in Englano. He also receiveo an MT (Honors Pro-
gram) oegree from New Orleans Baprisr Theological Seminary, where
he serveo as sruoenr booy presioenr ano receiveo rhe Broaoman Semi-
narian Awaro as rhe oursranoing graouaring sruoenr.
Elisa Massimino is CEO ano execurive oirecror of Human Righrs
Firsr, one of rhe narions leaoing human righrs aovocacy organizarions.
Esrablisheo in :j;S, Human Righrs Firsr works in rhe Unireo Srares ano
abroao ro promore respecr for human righrs ano rhe rule of law. Mas-
simino |oineo Human Righrs Firsr in :jj: ano serveo as rhe organiza-
rions Vashingron oirecror for more rhan a oecaoe before being nameo
chief execurive in Seprember :ooS. Massimino has a oisringuisheo
recoro of human righrs aovocacy in Vashingron. As a narional aurhor-
iry on human righrs law ano policy, she has resrieo before Congress
oozens of rimes ano wrires frequenrly for mainsrream publicarions ano
specializeo |ournals. In May :ooS, rhe inuenrial Vashingron newspa-
per The Hill nameo her one of rhe rop rwenry public aovocares in rhe
counrry. Massimino is a Phi Bera Kappa graouare of Triniry Universiry
in San Anronio, Texas, holos an MA in philosophy from [ohns Hopkins
Universiry, ano earneo a law oegree from rhe Universiry of Michigan.
Massimino serves as an ao|uncr professor ar Ceorgerown Universiry
Law Cenrer, where she reaches human righrs aovocacy. She is a member
of rhe bar of rhe U.S. Supreme Courr.
Thomas F. McLarty III has a oisringuisheo recoro of business leaoer-
ship ano public service, incluoing various roles aovising U.S. presioenrs
of borh parries. He serveo as Presioenr Bill Clinrons rsr Vhire House
chief of sraff, wirh more rhan ve years in rhe presioenrs cabiner ano on
rhe Narional Economic Council. He also organizeo rhe successful :jj
: Task Force Members
Summir of rhe Americas in Miami, which ulrimarely leo ro his appoinr-
menr as special envoy for rhe Americas in :jj;. Afrer leaving rhe Vhire
House, McLarry rerurneo ro rhe privare secror, where he hao previously
spenr a oecaoe as CEO of Arkla, a Forrune joo narural gas company.
He is currenrly presioenr of McLarry Associares, an inrernarional srra-
regic aovisory rm, ano also serves as chairman of rhe McLarry Compa-
nies, a fourrh-generarion family auromorive business. McLarry remains
an acrive parricipanr in ano commenraror on hemispheric affairs. In
:oo:, he co-chaireo rhe U.S.-Mexico Binarional Migrarion Panel wirh
Ambassaoor Anores Rozenral. He is on rhe boaro of rhe Council of rhe
Americas ano rhe Inrer-American Dialogue, as well as a number of pri-
vare secror ano philanrhropic organizarions. In aooirion, he serves as a
senior inrernarional fellow ar rhe U.S. Chamber of Commerce. McLarry
graouareo summa cum lauoe from rhe Universiry of Arkansas.
Eliseo Medina has serveo as inrernarional execurive vice presioenr of
rhe Service Employees Inrernarional Union (SEIU) since :jj6, when
he maoe hisrory by becoming rhe rsr Mexican-American elecreo ro a
rop posr ar rhe rwo million-member SEIU. Meoinas career as a labor
acrivisr began in :j6j when, as a ninereen-year-olo grape-picker, he par-
ricipareo in rhe hisroric Unireo Farm Vorkers srrike in Delano, Califor-
nia. Over rhe nexr rhirreen years, Meoina workeo alongsioe labor leaoer
ano civil righrs acrivisr Cesar Chvez ano honeo his skills as a union
organizer ano polirical srraregisr, evenrually rising rhrough rhe ranks
ro serve as rhe Unireo Farm Vorkers narional vice presioenr. Meoinas
inreresrs in srraregic organizing broughr him ro SEIU in :jS6, where
he helpeo revive a local union in San Diegobuiloing irs membership
from :,;oo ro over :o,ooo in ve years. He was one of rhe main srrare-
gisrs in rhe Los Angeles srrike by SEIU Local :S;;s builoing service
workers, who in April :ooo won rhe largesr wage increase in rhe freen-
year hisrory of SEIUs [usrice for [anirors campaign. Meoina also has
a oeeply felr inreresr in SEIUs work on immigrarion policies. In Los
Angeles, he has helpeo srrengrhen ries berween rhe Roman Carholic
Church ano rhe labor movemenr ro work on common concerns such as
immigranr worker righrs ano access ro healrh care.
Steve Padilla is a public policy ano lano use consulranr currenrly serv-
ing as presioenr ano chief execurive ofcer of rhe Aquarius Croup Inc.
He serveo as mayor of rhe ciry of Chula Visra, California, from :oo:
: Task Force Members
ro :oo6 ano as a member of rhe California Coasral Commission from
:ooj ro :oo;. He also serveo rwo rerms on Chula Visras Ciry Council
from :jj ro :oo: before being elecreo mayor. Paoilla serveo in numer-
ous San Diego Counry local ano regional ofces ano helo srarewioe ano
narional afliarions ouring his rerm as mayor, incluoing rhe boaro of
rhe San Diego Associarion of Covernmenrs, rhe League of California
Ciries, ano rhe Unireo Srares Conference of Mayors. Before his elecreo
career, Paoilla was a oerecrive wirh rhe Coronaoo Police Deparrmenr
ano a high school reacher. He remains acrive in local, srare, ano narional
public affairs, ano currenrly wrires a monrhly public affairs column for
Lu lrensu Sun Diego. He earneo a BPA from Narional Universiry.
Robert D. Putnam is rhe Perer ano Isabel Malkin professor of public
policy ar Harvaro Universiry, where he reaches borh unoergraouare
ano graouare courses. He is also visiring professor ano oirecror of rhe
Manchesrer Craouare Summer Programme in Social Change, Univer-
siry of Manchesrer (UK). Purnam is a member of rhe Narional Acaoemy
of Sciences, a fellow of rhe Brirish Acaoemy, ano pasr presioenr of rhe
American Polirical Science Associarion. In :oo6, Purnam receiveo rhe
Skyrre Prize, one of rhe worlos highesr accolaoes for a polirical scien-
risr. He has serveo as oean of rhe Harvaro Kenneoy School. He has wrir-
ren a oozen books, rranslareo inro sevenreen languages, incluoing rwo,
Muling Democrucy Worl ano Bowling lone, which rank high among
rhe mosr cireo publicarions in rhe social sciences worlowioe in rhe lasr
several oecaoes. He founoeo rhe Saguaro Seminar, bringing rogerher
leaoing rhinkers ano pracririoners ro oevelop acrionable ioeas for civic
renewal. Before coming ro Harvaro in :j;j, he raughr ar rhe Universiry
of Michigan ano serveo on rhe sraff of rhe Narional Securiry Council.
Purnam graouareo from Swarrhmore College in :j6, won a Fulbrighr
Fellowship ro sruoy ar Balliol College, Oxforo, ano wenr on ro earn mas-
rers ano oocrorare oegrees from Yale Universiry, rhe larrer in :j;o.
Andrew D. Selee is oirecror of rhe Vooorow Vilson Cenrers Mexico
Insrirure, which promores oialogue ano policy research on U.S.-Mexico
relarions. He serveo previously as senior program associare of rhe Larin
American program ano as professional sraff in rhe U.S. House of Rep-
resenrarives ano workeo for ve years in Mexico. He is eoiror or coeoi-
ror of several publicarions on U.S.-Mexico relarions, Mexican polirics,
immigrarion, ano oecenrralizarion. Selee is an ao|uncr professor of
:j Task Force Members
governmenr ar [ohns Hopkins Universiry ano has been a visiring scholar
ar El Colegio oe Mexico. He is a boaro member of rhe U.S.-Mexico Ful-
brighr Commission (Comexus) ano a conrriburing eoiror ro rhe Hund-
bool oj Lutin mericun Studies. A long-rime volunreer of rhe YMCA,
Selee serveo for ve years on rhe Narional Boaro of rhe YMCA of rhe
USA ano chaireo irs Inrernarional Commirree.
Margaret D. Stock is an arrorney aomirreo in Alaska ano a lieurenanr
colonel, Milirary Police Corps, U.S. Army Reserve. From :jj ro :oo:,
she pracriceo law in Alaska, where she was an associare ar a general rrial
pracrice rm ano rhen rhe managing parrner ar a rm rhar emphasizeo
immigrarion ano cirizenship law. From [une :oo: ro [une :oo6, she was
a Tirle :o civilian professor in rhe oeparrmenr of law ar rhe Unireo Srares
Milirary Acaoemy, Vesr Poinr, New York, afrer which she accepreo an
assignmenr as a orilling inoivioual mobilizarion augmenree (DIMA)
(associare professor) in Vesr Poinrs Deparrmenr of Social Sciences.
In :ooj, rhe American Immigrarion Lawyers Associarion awaroeo her
irs presrigious Aovocacy Awaro for her work informing Congress ano
rhe public abour rhe connecrion berween immigrarion ano narional
securiry. She is also a :oo6 graouare of rhe Army Var College, which
awaroeo her a masrer of srraregic sruoies oegree. Srock was insrru-
menral in rhe crearion of AILAs Milirary Assisrance Program, ano is
a member of rhe eoirorial boaro of Benders |mmigrution Bulletin. She
earneo an AB in governmenr ar Harvaro-Raocliffe in :jSj, a [D ar Har-
varo Law School in :jj:, ano an MPA ar rhe Harvaro Kenneoy School
in :oo:.
Frances Fragos Townsend is currenrly a corporare parrner ar Baker
Borrs, LLP. Previously she serveo as assisranr ro Presioenr Ceorge V.
Bush for homelano securiry ano counrerrerrorism ano chaireo rhe
Homelano Securiry Council from May :oo unril [anuary :ooS, ano as
oepury assisranr ro rhe presioenr ano oepury narional securiry aoviser
for combaring rerrorism from May :oo ro May :oo. Before serving
rhe presioenr, Townseno was rhe rsr assisranr commanoanr for inrel-
ligence for rhe U. S. Coasr Cuaro. She began her prosecurorial career in
:jSj as an assisranr oisrricr arrorney in Brooklyn, New York, ano rhen
|oineo rhe U.S. Arrorneys Ofce for rhe Sourhern Disrricr of New York.
In :jj:, she workeo in rhe Ofce of rhe Arrorney Ceneral ro assisr in
esrablishing rhe newly creareo Ofce of Inrernarional Programs, ano in
:6 Task Force Members
:jj |oineo rhe Criminal Division as chief of sraff ro rhe assisranr arror-
ney general. Townseno was oirecror of rhe Ofce of Inrernarional Affairs
in rhe Criminal Division from November :jjj ro November :jj;, afrer
which she was appoinreo acring oepury assisranr arrorney general for
rhe Criminal Division. In March :jjS, Townseno was appoinreo counsel
for inrelligence policy, in which capaciry she heaoeo rhe Deparrmenr of
[usrices Ofce of Inrelligence Policy ano Review. She has a BA in poliri-
cal science ano a BS in psychology from American Universiry, ano a [D
from rhe Universiry of San Diego School of Law. In :jS6, she arrenoeo
rhe Insrirure on Inrernarional ano Compararive Law in Lonoon.
Kathleen Campbell Walker is rhe immeoiare pasr narional presioenr
of rhe American Immigrarion Lawyers Associarion, ano is boaro cer-
rieo in immigrarion ano narionaliry law by rhe Texas Boaro of Legal
Specializarion. She currenrly heaos rhe immigrarion ano inrernarional
rraoe group of Brown McCarroll, LLP, heaoquarrereo in Ausrin.
Valkers immigrarion law pracrice primarily focuses on business ano
family-baseo immigrarion, consular processing, employer sancrions,
cirizenship ano naruralizarion, securiry checks, ano aomission issues.
She has frequenrly provioeo resrimony before Congress as well as rhe
Texas House ano Senare, ano has pracriceo on rhe boroer in El Paso
for over rwenry-rhree years. She serveo as rhe chairperson of rhe Exam
Commirree on Immigrarion ano Narionaliry Law for several years for
rhe Texas Boaro of Legal Specializarion ano was nameo in :ooS as one
of rhe rhirry women recognizeo in rhe Exrraoroinary Vomen in Texas
Law publicarion of rhe Texus Luwyer. Valker earneo a BA from Texas
Tech Universiry ano a [D from rhe Universiry of Texas School of Law.
Raul H. Yzaguirre is currenrly presioenrial professor of pracrice in
communiry oevelopmenr ano civil righrs ar Arizona Srare Universiry,
where he is helping ro esrablish a cenrer focuseo on communiry oevel-
opmenr, eoucarion for pracririoners, ano acaoemic scholarship. He
serveo as presioenr ano chief execurive ofcer of rhe Narional Council
of La Raza, rhe largesr narional Hispanic consriruency-baseo organiza-
rion in rhe Unireo Srares ano rhe leaoing Hispanic rhink rank in Vash-
ingron, DC, from :j; ro :oo. He was rhe rsr Hispanic ro serve on
rhe execurive commirree of rhe Leaoership Conference on Civil Righrs,
was chairperson of Presioenr Clinrons Aovisory Commission on
Eoucarional Excellence for Hispanic Americans, ano was a fellow ar
:; Task Force Members
rhe Insrirure of Polirics ar rhe Harvaro Kenneoy School. Afrer serving
four years in rhe U.S. Air Force Meoical Corps, Yzaguirre founoeo rhe
Narional Organizarion for Mexican American Services. Afrer rhis, he
workeo as a senior program ofcer ar rhe migranr oivision of rhe U.S.
Ofce of Economic Opporruniry before founoing Inrersrare Research
Associares, rhe rsr Larino research associarion, which he builr inro a
mulrimillion-oollar nonpror consulring rm. Yzaguirre receiveo his
BS from Ceorge Vashingron Universiry.
:S
Task Force Observers
Observers parricipare in Task Force oiscussions, bur are nor askeo ro
|oin rhe consensus. They parricipare in rheir inoivioual, nor insriru-
rional, capaciries.
Max Boot is rhe [eane [. Kirkparrick senior fellow in Narional Securiry
sruoies ar rhe Council on Foreign Relarions in New York. He is also a
conrriburing eoiror ro rhe Weelly Stundurd ano Los ngeles Times, ano
a regular conrriburor ro rhe ^ew Yorl Times, Wull Street journul, Ioreign
jjuirs, Commentury, ano many orher publicarions. His lasr book, Wur
Mude ^ew. Technology, Wurjure, und the Course oj History, ioo to Toduy,
has been haileo as a magisrerial survey of rechnology ano war by rhe
^ew Yorl Times, brillianrly crafreo hisrory by rhe Wull Street journul,
ano a book for borh rhe general reaoer ano reaoing generals by rhe
^ew Yorl lost. His previous book, The Suvuge Wurs oj leuce. Smull Wurs
und the Rise oj mericun lower, was selecreo as one of rhe besr books
of :oo: by rhe Wushington lost, rhe Los ngeles Times, ano rhe Chris-
tiun Science Monitor. He is a member of rhe U.S. [oinr Forces Com-
mano Transformarion Aovisory Croup ano was a senior foreign policy
aoviser ro [ohn McCains presioenrial campaign in :oo;:ooS. Before
|oining CFR in :oo:, Boor spenr eighr years as a wrirer ano eoiror ar rhe
Wull Street journul, rhe lasr ve years as eoirorial fearures eoiror. From
:jj: ro :jj he was an eoiror ano wrirer ar rhe Christiun Science Moni-
tor. Boor holos a BA in hisrory, wirh high honors, from rhe Universiry of
California, Berkeley ano an MA in hisrory from Yale Universiry.
Andrew Kohut is rhe presioenr of rhe Pew Research Cenrer. He also
acrs as oirecror of rhe Pew Research Cenrer for rhe People & rhe Press
(formerly rhe Times Mirror Cenrer for rhe People & rhe Press) ano rhe
Pew Clobal Arriruoes Pro|ecr. He was presioenr of rhe Callup Orga-
nizarion from :j;j ro :jSj. In :jSj, he founoeo Princeron Survey
:j Task Force Observers
Research Associares, an arriruoe ano opinion research rm specializ-
ing in meoia, polirics, ano public policy sruoies. He serveo as founoing
oirecror of surveys for rhe Times Mirror Cenrer from :jjo ro :jj:, ano
was nameo irs oirecror in :jj. He is a pasr presioenr of rhe American
Associarion of Public Opinion Research ano rhe Narional Council on
Public Polls. In :ooj, he receiveo rhe American Associarion of Public
Opinion Researchs highesr honor, rhe Awaro for Exceprionally Dis-
ringuisheo Achievemenr. He is a frequenr press commenraror on rhe
meaning ano inrerprerarion of opinion poll resulrs ano rhe coaurhor of
four books, incluoing, mosrly recenrly, mericu guinst the World. He
receiveo an AB oegree from Seron Hall Universiry in :j6 ano sruoieo
graouare sociology ar Rurgers, rhe Srare Universiry, from :j6 ro :j66.
Shannon K. ONeil is rhe Douglas Dillon fellow for Larin America
sruoies ar rhe Council on Foreign Relarions. Her experrise incluoes
polirical ano economic reform in Larin America, U.S.-Larin America
relarions, ano Larin American immigrarion ro rhe Unireo Srares. She
recenrly oirecreo CFRs Inoepenoenr Task Force on U.S.-Larin Amer-
ica Relarions. She is currenrly working on a book on Mexico, analyzing
rhe polirical, economic, ano social rransformarions Mexico has unoer-
gone over rhe lasr rwo oecaoes, ano rhe signicance of rhese changes
for U.S.-Mexico relarions. In aooirion ro her work ar CFR, ONeil has
raughr in rhe polirical science oeparrmenr ar Columbia Universiry, ano
she publishes LarInrelligencewww.larinrelligence.coma blog ana-
lyzing Larin American polirics, economics, ano public policies. Before
|oining CFR, she was a |usrice, welfare, ano economics fellow, ano an
execurive commirree member ano graouare associare ar rhe Vearher-
heao Cenrer for Inrernarional Affairs ar Harvaro Universiry. She was
also a Fulbrighr Scholar in Mexico ano Argenrina. Before her acaoemic
work, ONeil workeo in rhe privare secror as an equiry analysr ar Inoo-
suez Capiral Larin America ano Creoir Lyonnais Securiries. She holos
a BA from Yale Universiry, an MA in inrernarional relarions from Yale
Universiry, ano a PhD in governmenr from Harvaro Universiry.
Julia E. Sweig is rhe Nelson ano Davio Rockefeller senior fellow for
Larin America sruoies ano oirecror Larin America sruoies ar rhe Coun-
cil on Foreign Relarions. She is rhe aurhor of Iriendly Iire. Losing Iriends
und Muling Enemies in the nti-mericun Century, as well as numerous
scholarly arricles, opinion pieces, ano congressional resrimonies on
:o Task Force Observers
Cuba, Colombia, Venezuela, Larin America, ano American foreign
policy. She has oirecreo several Council on Foreign Relarions reporrs
on rhe Anoean region ano on Cuba, ano serveo mosr recenrly as senior
aoviser for CFRs Inoepenoenr Task Force on U.S.-Larin America Rela-
rions. Sweigs |nside the Cubun Revolution. Iidel Custro und the Lrbun
Lnderground receiveo rhe American Hisrorical Associarions Herberr
Feis Awaro for besr book of rhe year by an inoepenoenr scholar. Her new
book, Cubu. Whut Everyone ^eeds to Know, was releaseo in [une :ooj.
::
L.S. ^ucleur Weupons lolicy
Villiam [. Perry ano Brenr Scowcrofr, Chairs, Charles D. Ferguson, Pro|ecr Direcror
Inoepenoenr Task Force Reporr No. 6: (:ooj)
Conjronting Climute Chunge. Strutegy jor L.S. Ioreign lolicy
Ceorge E. Paraki ano Thomas [. Vilsack, Chairs, Michael A. Levi, Pro|ecr Direcror
Inoepenoenr Task Force Reporr No. 6: (:ooS)
L.S.-Lutin mericu Relutions. ^ew Direction jor u ^ew Reulity
Charlene Barshefsky ano [ames T. Hill, Chairs, Shannon ONeil, Pro|ecr Direcror
Inoepenoenr Task Force Reporr No. 6o (:ooS)
L.S.-Chinu Relutions. n jrmutive gendu, Responsible Course
Carla A. Hills ano Dennis C. Blair, Chairs, Frank Sampson [annuzi, Pro|ecr Direcror
Inoepenoenr Task Force Reporr No. jj (:oo;)
^utionul Security Consequences oj L.S. Oil Dependency
[ohn Deurch ano [ames R. Schlesinger, Chairs, Davio C. Vicror, Pro|ecr Direcror
Inoepenoenr Task Force Reporr No. jS (:oo6)
Russius Wrong Direction. Whut the Lnited Stutes Cun und Should Do
[ohn Eowaros ano [ack Kemp, Chairs, Srephen Sesranovich, Pro|ecr Direcror
Inoepenoenr Task Force Reporr No. j; (:oo6)
More thun Humunituriunism. Strutegic L.S. pprouch Towurd jricu
Anrhony Lake ano Chrisrine Tooo Vhirman, Chairs, Princeron N. Lyman ano [. Srephen
Morrison, Pro|ecr Direcrors
Inoepenoenr Task Force Reporr No. j6 (:oo6)
|n the Wule oj Wur. |mproving lost-Conict Cupubilities
Samuel R. Berger ano Brenr Scowcrofr, Chairs, Villiam L. Nash, Pro|ecr Direcror, Mona K.
Surphen, Depury Direcror
Inoepenoenr Task Force Reporr No. jj (:ooj)
|n Support oj rub Democrucy. Why und How
Maoeleine K. Albrighr ano Vin Veber, Chairs, Sreven A. Cook, Pro|ecr Direcror
Inoepenoenr Task Force Reporr No. j (:ooj)
Inoepenoenr Task Force Reporrs
lublished by the Council on Ioreign Relutions
::
Building u ^orth mericun Community
[ohn P. Manley, Peoro Aspe, ano Villiam F. Velo, Chairs, Thomas oAquino, Anores
Rozenral, ano Roberr Pasror, Vice Chairs, Chappell H. Lawson, Pro|ecr Direcror
Inoepenoenr Task Force Reporr No. j (:ooj)
|run. Time jor u ^ew pprouch
Zbigniew Brzezinski ano Roberr M. Cares, Chairs, Suzanne Maloney, Pro|ecr Direcror
Inoepenoenr Task Force Reporr No. j: (:oo)
n Lpdute on the Clobul Cumpuign guinst Terrorist Iinuncing
Maurice R. Creenberg, Chair, Villiam F. Vechsler ano Lee S. Volosky, Pro|ecr Direcrors
Inoepenoenr Task Force Reporr No. oB (Veb-only release, :oo)
Renewing the tluntic lurtnership
Henry A. Kissinger ano Lawrence H. Summers, Chairs, Charles A. Kupchan, Pro|ecr Direcror
Inoepenoenr Task Force Reporr No. j: (:oo)
|ruq. One Yeur jter
Thomas R. Pickering ano [ames R. Schlesinger, Chairs, Eric P. Schwarrz, Pro|ecr Consulranr
Inoepenoenr Task Force Reporr No. C (Veb-only release, :oo)
^onlethul Weupons und Cupubilities
Paul X. Kelley ano Craham Allison, Chairs, Richaro L. Carwin, Pro|ecr Direcror
Inoepenoenr Task Force Reporr No. jo (:oo)
^ew lriorities in South siu. L.S. lolicy Towurd |ndiu, lulistun, und jghunistun
(Chuirmens Report)
Marshall Bouron, Nicholas Plarr, ano Frank C. Visner, Chairs, Dennis Kux ano Mahnaz
Ispahani, Pro|ecr Direcrors
Inoepenoenr Task Force Reporr No. j (:oo)
Cosponsoreo wirh rhe Asia Sociery
Iinding mericus \oice. Strutegy jor Reinvigoruting L.S. lublic Diplomucy
Perer C. Pererson, Chair, Karhy Bloomgaroen, Henry Crunwalo, Davio E. Morey, ano
Shibley Telhami, Vorking Commirree Chairs, [ennifer Sieg, Pro|ecr Direcror, Sharon
Herbsrman, Pro|ecr Cooroinaror
Inoepenoenr Task Force Reporr No. S (:oo)
Emergency Responders. Drusticully Lnderjunded, Dungerously Lnprepured
Varren B. Ruoman, Chair, Richaro A. Clarke, Senior Aoviser, [amie F. Merzl, Pro|ecr
Direcror
Inoepenoenr Task Force Reporr No. ; (:oo)
|ruq. The Duy jter (Chuirs Lpdute)
Thomas R. Pickering ano [ames R. Schlesinger, Chairs, Eric P. Schwarrz, Pro|ecr Direcror
Inoepenoenr Task Force Reporr No. B (Veb-only release, :oo)
Burmu. Time jor Chunge
Marhea Falco, Chair
Inoepenoenr Task Force Reporr No. 6 (:oo)
Inoepenoenr Task Force Reporrs
: Inoepenoenr Task Force Reporrs
jghunistun. re We Losing the leuce?
Marshall Bouron, Nicholas Plarr, ano Frank C. Visner, Chairs, Dennis Kux ano Mahnaz
Ispahani, Pro|ecr Direcrors
Chairmans Reporr of an Inoepenoenr Task Force (:oo)
Cosponsoreo wirh rhe Asia Sociery
Meeting the ^orth Koreun ^ucleur Chullenge
Morron I. Abramowirz ano [ames T. Laney, Chairs, Eric Heginborham, Pro|ecr Direcror
Inoepenoenr Task Force Reporr No. j (:oo)
Chinese Militury lower
Harolo Brown, Chair, [oseph V. Prueher, Vice Chair, Aoam Segal, Pro|ecr Direcror
Inoepenoenr Task Force Reporr No. (:oo)
|ruq. The Duy jter
Thomas R. Pickering ano [ames R. Schlesinger, Chairs, Eric P. Schwarrz, Pro|ecr Direcror
Inoepenoenr Task Force Reporr No. (:oo)
Threuts to Democrucy. lrevention und Response
Maoeleine K. Albrighr ano Bronislaw Ceremek, Chairs, Morron H. Halperin, Direcror,
Elizaberh Frawley Bagley, Associare Direcror
Inoepenoenr Task Force Reporr No. : (:oo:)
mericuStill Lnprepured, Still in Dunger
Cary Harr ano Varren B. Ruoman, Chairs, Srephen E. Flynn, Pro|ecr Direcror
Inoepenoenr Task Force Reporr No. : (:oo:)
Terrorist Iinuncing
Maurice R. Creenberg, Chair, Villiam F. Vechsler ano Lee S. Volosky, Pro|ecr Direcrors
Inoepenoenr Task Force Reporr No. o (:oo:)
Enhuncing L.S. Leudership ut the Lnited ^utions
Davio Dreier ano Lee H. Hamilron, Chairs, Lee Feinsrein ano Aorian Kararnycky, Pro|ecr
Direcrors
Inoepenoenr Task Force Reporr No. j (:oo:)
Cosponsoreo wirh Freeoom House
|mproving the L.S. lublic Diplomucy Cumpuign in the Wur guinst Terrorism
Carla A. Hills ano Richaro C. Holbrooke, Chairs, Charles C. Boyo, Pro|ecr Direcror
Inoepenoenr Task Force Reporr No. S (Veb-only release, :oo:)
Building Support jor More Open Trude
Kennerh M. Dubersrein ano Roberr E. Rubin, Chairs, Timorhy F. Ceirhner, Pro|ecr
Direcror, Daniel R. Lucich, Depury Pro|ecr Direcror
Inoepenoenr Task Force Reporr No. ; (:oo:)
Beginning the journey. Chinu, the Lnited Stutes, und the WTO
Roberr D. Hormars, Chair, Elizaberh Economy ano Kevin Nealer, Pro|ecr Direcrors
Inoepenoenr Task Force Reporr No. 6 (:oo:)
:
Strutegic Energy lolicy Lpdute
Eowaro L. Morse, Chair, Amy Myers [affe, Pro|ecr Direcror
Inoepenoenr Task Force Reporr No. B (:oo:)
Cosponsoreo wirh rhe [ames A. Baker III Insrirure for Public Policy of Rice Universiry
Testing ^orth Koreu. The ^ext Stuge in L.S. und ROK lolicy
Morron I. Abramowirz ano [ames T. Laney, Chairs, Roberr A. Manning, Pro|ecr Direcror
Inoepenoenr Task Force Reporr No. j (:oo:)
The Lnited Stutes und Southeust siu. lolicy gendu jor the ^ew dministrution
[. Roberr Kerrey, Chair, Roberr A. Manning, Pro|ecr Direcror
Inoepenoenr Task Force Reporr No. (:oo:)
Strutegic Energy lolicy. Chullenges jor the zist Century
Eowaro L. Morse, Chair, Amy Myers [affe, Pro|ecr Direcror
Inoepenoenr Task Force Reporr No. (:oo:)
Cosponsoreo wirh rhe [ames A. Baker III Insrirure for Public Policy of Rice Universiry
Letter to the lresident und u Memorundum on L.S lolicy Towurd Bruzil
Srephen Roberr, Chair, Kennerh Maxwell, Pro|ecr Direcror
Inoepenoenr Task Force Reporr No. : (:oo:)
Stute Depurtment Rejorm
Frank C. Carlucci, Chair, Ian [. Brzezinski, Pro|ecr Cooroinaror
Inoepenoenr Task Force Reporr No. : (:oo:)
Cosponsoreo wirh rhe Cenrer for Srraregic ano Inrernarional Sruoies
L.S.-Cubun Relutions in the zist Century. Iollow-on Report
Bernaro V. Aronson ano Villiam D. Rogers, Chairs, [ulia Sweig ano Valrer Meao, Pro|ecr
Direcrors
Inoepenoenr Task Force Reporr No. o (:ooo)
Towurd Creuter leuce und Security in Colombiu. Iorging u Constructive L.S. lolicy
Bob Craham ano Brenr Scowcrofr, Chairs, Michael Shifrer, Pro|ecr Direcror
Inoepenoenr Task Force Reporr No. :j (:ooo)
Cosponsoreo wirh rhe Inrer-American Dialogue
Iuture Directions jor L.S. Economic lolicy Towurd jupun
Laura DAnorea Tyson, Chair, M. Diana Helweg Newron, Pro|ecr Direcror
Inoepenoenr Task Force Reporr No. :S (:ooo)
Iirst Steps Towurd u Constructive L.S. lolicy in Colombiu
Bob Craham ano Brenr Scowcrofr, Chairs, Michael Shifrer, Pro|ecr Direcror
Inrerim Reporr (:ooo)
Cosponsoreo wirh rhe Inrer-American Dialogue
lromoting Sustuinuble Economies in the Bulluns
Sreven Rarrner, Chair, Michael B.C. Froman, Pro|ecr Direcror
Inoepenoenr Task Force Reporr No. :; (:ooo)
Inoepenoenr Task Force Reporrs
:j Inoepenoenr Task Force Reporrs
^on-Lethul Technologies. lrogress und lrospects
Richaro L. Carwin, Chair, V. Monrague Vinelo, Pro|ecr Direcror
Inoepenoenr Task Force Reporr No. :6 (:jjj)
Sujeguurding lrosperity in u Clobul Iinunciul System. The Iuture |nternutionul Iinunciul
rchitecture
Carla A. Hills ano Perer C. Pererson, Chairs, Morris Colosrein, Pro|ecr Direcror
Inoepenoenr Task Force Reporr No. :j (:jjj)
Cosponsoreo wirh rhe Inrernarional Insrirure for Economics
L.S. lolicy Towurd ^orth Koreu. ^ext Steps
Morron I. Abramowirz ano [ames T. Laney, Chairs, Michael [. Creen, Pro|ecr Direcror
Inoepenoenr Task Force Reporr No. : (:jjj)
Reconstructing the Bulluns
Morron I. Abramowirz ano Alberr Fishlow, Chairs, Charles A. Kupchan, Pro|ecr Direcror
Inoepenoenr Task Force Reporr No. : (Veb-only release, :jjj)
Strengthening lulestiniun lublic |nstitutions
Michel Rocaro, Chair, Henry Siegman, Pro|ecr Direcror, Yezio Sayigh ano Khalil Shikaki,
Principal Aurhors
Inoepenoenr Task Force Reporr No. :: (:jjj)
L.S. lolicy Towurd ^ortheustern Europe
Zbigniew Brzezinski, Chair, F. Srephen Larrabee, Pro|ecr Direcror
Inoepenoenr Task Force Reporr No. :: (:jjj)
The Iuture oj Trunsutluntic Relutions
Roberr D. Blackwill, Chair ano Pro|ecr Direcror
Inoepenoenr Task Force Reporr No. :o (:jjj)
L.S.-Cubun Relutions in the zist Century
Bernaro V. Aronson ano Villiam D. Rogers, Chairs, Valrer Russell Meao, Pro|ecr Direcror
Inoepenoenr Task Force Reporr No. :j (:jjj)
jter the Tests. L.S. lolicy Towurd |ndiu und lulistun
Richaro N. Haass ano Morron H. Halperin, Chairs
Inoepenoenr Task Force Reporr No. :S (:jjS)
Cosponsoreo wirh rhe Brookings Insrirurion
Munuging Chunge on the Koreun leninsulu
Morron I. Abramowirz ano [ames T. Laney, Chairs, Michael [. Creen, Pro|ecr Direcror
Inoepenoenr Task Force Reporr No. :; (:jjS)
lromoting L.S. Economic Relutions with jricu
Peggy Dulany ano Frank Savage, Chairs, Salih Booker, Pro|ecr Direcror
Inoepenoenr Task Force Reporr No. :6 (:jjS)
L.S. Middle Eust lolicy und the leuce lrocess
Henry Siegman, Pro|ecr Cooroinaror
Inoepenoenr Task Force Reporr No. :j (:jj;)
:6
Dijjerentiuted Contuinment. L.S. lolicy Towurd |run und |ruq
Zbigniew Brzezinski ano Brenr Scowcrofr, Chairs, Richaro V. Murphy, Pro|ecr Direcror
Inoepenoenr Task Force Reporr No. : (:jj;)
Russiu, |ts ^eighbors, und un Enlurging ^TO
Richaro C. Lugar, Chair, Vicroria Nulano, Pro|ecr Direcror
Inoepenoenr Task Force Reporr No. : (:jj;)
Rethinling |nternutionul Drug Control. ^ew Directions jor L.S. lolicy
Marhea Falco, Chair
Inoepenoenr Task Force Reporr No. :: (:jj;)
Iinuncing mericus Leudership. lrotecting mericun |nterests und lromoting mericun \ulues
Mickey Eowaros ano Srephen [. Solarz, Chairs, Morron H. Halperin, Lawrence [. Korb, ano
Richaro M. Moose, Pro|ecr Direcrors
Inoepenoenr Task Force Reporr No. :: (:jj;)
Cosponsoreo wirh rhe Brookings Insrirurion
^ew L.S. lolicy Towurd |ndiu und lulistun
Richaro N. Haass, Chair, Cioeon Rose, Pro|ecr Direcror
Inoepenoenr Task Force Reporr No. :o (:jj;)
rms Control und the L.S.-Russiun Relutionship
Roberr D. Blackwill, Chair ano Aurhor, Keirh V. Dayron, Pro|ecr Direcror
Inoepenoenr Task Force Reporr No. j (:jj6)
Cosponsoreo wirh rhe Nixon Cenrer for Peace ano Freeoom
mericun ^utionul |nterest und the Lnited ^utions
Ceorge Soros, Chair
Inoepenoenr Task Force Reporr No. S (:jj6)
Muling |ntelligence Smurter. The Iuture oj L.S. |ntelligence
Maurice R. Creenberg, Chair, Richaro N. Haass, Pro|ecr Direcror
Inoepenoenr Task Force Reporr No. ; (:jj6)
Lessons oj the Mexicun leso Crisis
[ohn C. Vhireheao, Chair, Marie-[osee Kravis, Pro|ecr Direcror
Inoepenoenr Task Force Reporr No. 6 (:jj6)
Munuging the Tuiwun |ssue. Key |s Better L.S. Relutions with Chinu
Srephen Frieoman, Chair, Elizaberh Economy, Pro|ecr Direcror
Inoepenoenr Task Force Reporr No. j (:jjj)
^on-Lethul Technologies. Militury Options und |mplicutions
Malcolm H. Viener, Chair
Inoepenoenr Task Force Reporr No. (:jjj)
Should ^TO Expund?
Harolo Brown, Chair, Charles A. Kupchan, Pro|ecr Direcror
Inoepenoenr Task Force Reporr No. (:jjj)
Inoepenoenr Task Force Reporrs
:; Inoepenoenr Task Force Reporrs
Success or Sellout? The L.S.-^orth Koreun ^ucleur ccord
Kyung Von Kim ano Nicholas Plarr, Chairs, Richaro N. Haass, Pro|ecr Direcror
Inoepenoenr Task Force Reporr No. : (:jjj)
Cosponsoreo wirh rhe Seoul Forum for Inrernarional Affairs
^ucleur lrolijerution. Conjronting the ^ew Chullenges
Srephen [. Haoley, Chair, Mirchell B. Reiss, Pro|ecr Direcror
Inoepenoenr Task Force Reporr No. : (:jjj)
To purchase a prinreo copy, call rhe Brookings Insrirurion Press: Soo.j;.jS;.
^ote. Task Force reporrs are available for oownloao from CFRs websire, www.cfr.org.
For more informarion, email publicarions(cfr.org.
Independent Task Force Report No. 63
Jeb Bush and Thomas F. McLarty III, Chairs
Edward Alden, Project Director
U.S.
Immigration
Policy
www.cfr.org
Edward Alden
Council on Foreign Relations
Mary Boies
Boies & McInnis LLP
Robert C. Bonner
The Sentinel HS Group;
Gibson, Dunn & Crutcher LLP
Jeb Bush
Jeb Bush and Associates, LLC
Allan E. Goodman
Institute of International Education
Gordon H. Hanson
University of California, San Diego
Michael H. Jordan
MHJ Holdings Co.
Donald Kerwin
Migration Policy Institute
Richard D. Land
The Ethics & Religious
Liberty Commission
Elisa Massimino
Human Rights First
Thomas F. McLarty III
McLarty Associates
Eliseo Medina
Service Employees
International Union
Steve Padilla
Aquarius Group Inc.
Robert D. Putnam
Harvard University
Andrew D. Selee
Woodrow Wilson International
Center for Scholars
Margaret D. Stock
U.S. Army Reserve
Frances Fragos Townsend
Baker Botts, LLP
Kathleen Campbell Walker
Brown McCarroll, LLP
Raul H. Yzaguirre
Arizona State University
The Council on Foreign Relations sponsors Independent Task Forces to assess
issues of current and critical importance to U.S. foreign policy and provide policy-
makers with concrete judgments and recommendations. Diverse in backgrounds
and perspectives, Task Force members aim to reach a meaningful consensus on
policy through private and nonpartisan deliberations. Once launched, Task Forces
are independent of CFR and solely responsible for the content of their reports. Task
Force members are asked to join a consensus signifying that they endorse the gen-
eral policy thrust and judgments reached by the group, though not necessarily every
nding and recommendation. Each Task Force member also has the option of put-
ting forward an additional or dissenting view. Members afliations are listed for
identication purposes only and do not imply institutional endorsement. Task Force
observers participate in discussions, but are not asked to join the consensus.
Task Force Members


U
.
S
.

I
m
m
i
g
r
a
t
i
o
n

P
o
l
i
c
y
I
n
d
e
p
e
n
d
e
n
t

T
a
s
k

F
o
r
c
e

R
e
p
o
r
t

N
o
.

6
3
PANTONE 7531 U PANTONE 7527 U PANTONE 4745 U
Spine Should Adjust
Text should be centered on Spine
Bar Code goes in white box