CHAPTER III EMPATHY: A SUCCINT OVERVIEW The Meaning of Empathy Definition of Empathy Empathy has been a topic o consi

!e"ab#e st$!y in contempo"a"y psycho#o%y &'$an( )***+, Eisenbe"% an! Mi##e"-s &./01+ ea"#y "esea"ch into the "e#ationship o empathy to p"osocia# beha2io" p"o2i!es the 2a"io$s !e initions o empathy, Eisenbe"% an! Mi##e" !isc$sse! t3o ma4o" concept$a#i5ations o empathy( 3hich a"e #ate" s$ppo"te! by '$an, Affective empathy. 6ene"a##y !e2e#opmenta# an! socia# psycho#o%ists !e ine empathy in a ecti2e te"ms( as an emotiona# "esponse to anothe", This can eithe" entai# ee#in% simi#a" emotions to anothe"( o" ee#in% conce"n o" anothe"-s position an! e7pe"iencin% an a ecti2e "esponse con%"$ent 3ith the othe"-s 3e## bein% &Eisenbe"% 8 Mi##e"( ./01+, '$an &)***+ "e e""e! to this type o 2ica"io$s e7pe"ience as empathic emotion, Cognitive empathy. Empathy can a#so be !e ine! in co%niti2e te"ms, In this case( empathy 3o$#! be consi!e"e! the abi#ity to comp"ehen! the a ecti2e an! co%niti2e stat$s o anothe" pe"son &Eisenbe"% 8 Mi##e"( ./01+, '$an-s &)***+ pa"a##e# te"m is inte##ect$a# empathy( 3hich he !e ines as seein% the 3o"#! "om anothe"-s pe"specti2e, It is impo"tant to note that the !i e"ence bet3een a ecti2e an! co%niti2e empathy is 3hethe" the act$a# emotions a"e e7pe"ience! &a ecti2e empathy+( o" simp#y $n!e"stoo! &co%niti2e empathy+,

//0+( 3hich stems "om anothe"-s emotiona# con!ition &Eisenbe"% 8 Mi##e"+./01+. Sympathy( a#tho$%h sti## an othe":o"iente! "eaction &Vo#b"etch( . Ho3e2e"( a bac<3a"! 2e"sion o this p"ocess can occ$" 3hen a pe"son $ses his o" he" #e2e# o empathic "esponse to in e" the !e%"ee to 3hich he o" she 2a#$es the 3e# a"e o this pe"son in nee! &9atson et a#./0. 11*+.o2in%( 6o##3it5e"( 'a2is( 8 Bo$shee( . Types of Empathy Dispositional Empathy 'ispositiona# empathy has been !e ine! as the ?ten!ency to $ti#i5e the capacity to empathi5e@ &Pe"e5:A#beni5 8 !e Pa$#( )**A( p. Eisenbe"% an! Mi##e" a#so point o$t the impo"tance o !istin%$ishin% bet3een empathy an! sympathy( t3o concepts that a"e common#y con $se!. It is be#ie2e! that hi%h #e2e#s o !ispositiona# empathy in an in!i2i!$a# inc"ease conce"n o" othe"s an! he#pin% ten!encies &A"che"( 'ia5:. Empathic ee#in%s o" someone in nee! a"e %ene"a##y a $nction o 2a#$in% that pe"son-s 3e# a"e as 3e## as pe"cei2in% that pe"son to be in nee! &9atson et a#.)* Other considerations.eme"y:Cha# ant( A<san( =ahn:Wa7#e"( 8 6o#!smith( )**1+( !oes not entai# one-s e7pe"iencin% emotions i!entica# to anothe"-s( as in empathy.( .( . Sympathy mi%ht entai# so""o3 o" conce"n o" the othe"-s 3e# a"e &Eisenbe"% 8 Mi##e"+. Sympathy( in cont"ast to empathy( "e e"s speci ica##y to an a ecti2e "esponse &O#3e$s 8 En!"esen( .//1+. 9eyon! these t3o common concepts o 3hat !e ines empathy the"e a"e sti## othe" theo"ies. Some "e e" to empathy as a combination o emotiona# matchin% an! sympathetic "espon!in% &Eisenbe"% 8 Mi##e"( . .+. A!!itiona##y( "esea"ch se#!om cont"o#s o" !ispositiona# empathy &Se2i##ano( A"a%ones( 8 Sh$#t5( )**1+.//>+.

Se2i##ano et a#. Bo" e7amp#e( a 4$"o" 3ith hi%h #e2e#s o !ispositiona# empathy mi%ht p#ace #ess b#ame on a !e en!ant i the !e ense atto"ney appea#s to his o" he" empathy. &)**1+ in2esti%ate! the "o#e o !ispositiona# empathy on mo!e"atin% the e ect o pe"specti2e:ta<in% manip$#ations on en2i"onmenta# conce"n. &.+. 9atson( T$"<( et a#.//>+( e7emp#i y this in a sit$ation 3he"e one has !e2e#ope! empathy o" Ethiopians s$ e"in% in a amine. A"che" et a#.+. Empathy can come an! %o !epen!in% on sit$ationa# acto"s.). Ho3e2e"( thei" mo!e"ation ana#ysis !i! not !emonst"ate !ispositiona# empathy as a mo!e"ato" o en2i"onmenta# conce"n &Se2i##ano et a#. Pe"sons 3ith hi%h #e2e#s o !ispositiona# empathy ha2e been sho3n to be mo"e "esponsi2e to sa#ient sit$ationa# 2a"iab#es an!( the"e o"e( may shi t C$ic<#y bet3een positions( base! on a2ai#ab#e in o"mation./0. The e7pe"imente"s hypothesi5e! that pa"ticipants 3ith hi%he" #e2e#s o nat$"a# empathy 3o$#! ha2e hi%he" #e2e#s o conce"n o" the en2i"onment than those 3ith #o3e" #e2e#s o initia# empathy( a te" both %"o$ps ha! $n!e"%one a pe"specti2e:ta<in% manip$#ation. Ima%ine that the 2e"y ne7t !ay one !isco2e"s that the "ains ha2e "et$"ne! to the a"ea an! a ne3 ha"2est has come to en! . Shortcoming in regards to environmental research. A#on% this #ine o consi!e"ation it o##o3s that !ispositiona# empathy cannot be "e#ie! $pon to a#3ays "es$#t in the same action. &. Whe"eas ha! the 4$"o" not hea"! this appea#( mo"e b#ame mi%ht be p#ace! on the !e en!ant &A"che" et a#. This st$!y $se! s#i!es o ha"me! anima#s an! enco$"a%e! pa"ticipants to ta<e the pe"specti2e o the anima#s.+ point o$t anothe" iss$e 3ith !ispositiona# empathy as an in!icato" o en2i"onmenta# conce"n in "e%a"!s to stabi#ity.

In!$cin% empathy "e%a"!in% a #i2in% thin% a#so inc"eases the !esi"e to he#p it &9e"en%$e"( )**1+. '$e to the appa"ent #ac< o mo!e"ation o en2i"onmenta# conce"n by !ispositiona# empathy &Se2i##ano et a#. O2e"a##( st$!ies ha2e !emonst"ate! that !ispositiona# empathy is mo"e cha##en%in% to cont"o# an! #ess $se $# in e7pe"imenta# techniC$es. 9e"en%$e" teste! the concept that in!$ce! empathy o" a nat$"a# ob4ect &an anima# o" p#an+ "ep"esente! in an ima%e( can imp"o2e p"o:en2i"onmenta# attit$!es an! beha2io"s.+( an! the #ac< o "e#iabi#ity o !ispositiona# empathy &9atson( T$"<( et a#. Mo"eo2e"( the e ects o nat$"a##y occ$""in% empathy an! manip$#ate! empathy a"e 2e"y simi#a" &9atson( T$"<( et a#.( .( .+.+. Induced Empathy Sch$#t5-s &)***+ st$!y s$%%este! that it mi%ht be possib#e o" empathy to be %ene"ate! 3ith "e%a"! to the en2i"onment.)) the amine.//>+ "esea"ch has estab#ishe! in!$ce! empathy as mo"e $se $# than !ispositiona# empathy in attit$!e an! beha2io"a# mo!i ication techniC$es./0. This constit$tes a ca$sa# mo!e# bet3een empathy an! en2i"onmenta# attit$!es an! beha2io"s &9e"en%$e"+. With this ne3 in o"mation( one-s empathy o" the Ethiopian-s sit$ation sho$#! ha2e !isappea"e! &9atson( T$"<( et a#. 9e"en%$e" p"opose! that en2i"onmenta# beha2io"s an! attit$!es co$#! be imp"o2e! $sin% empathic pe"specti2e:ta<in% to in!$ce empathy. N$me"o$s psycho#o%ists posit this theo"y an! a"%$e that e2o<in% empathy . 9e"en%$e"-s &)**1+ st$!y 3as mo!e#e! "om 9atson( Chan%( O""( 8 Ro3#an!-s )**) st$!y. In!$cin% empathy o" the nat$"a# en2i"onment may( in t$"n( acti2ate en2i"onmenta# conce"ns &Sh$#t5( )***+.( )**1+( the !epen!ence o !ispositiona# empathy on sit$ationa# 2a"iab#es &A"che" et a#.

It is not yet $##y $n!e"stoo! 3hat speci ic sit$ationa# acto"s a ect empathic e7pe"iences &'$an( )***+. A secon! sit$ationa# acto" that may impact empathic episo!es is the nat$"e o the ta"%et pe"son-s emotions( 3hethe" they a"e positi2e o" ne%ati2e &'$an( )***+. The potentia# o" socia# e2a#$ation comes into p#ay in p$b#ic pe" o"mance . Ho3e2e"( se2e"a# sit$ationa# acto"s ha2e been !isco2e"e!( s$ch as #e2e# o moti2ation to empathi5e( the nat$"e o the ta"%et pe"son-s emotions &'$an+( an! the potentia# o" socia# e2a#$ation &A"che" et a#.( .+. Aspects of Empathic Episodes Conditions A#tho$%h empathy has been a topic o consi!e"ab#e st$!y in contempo"a"y psycho#o%y( n$me"o$s C$estions "e%a"!in% con!itions in 3hich empathy is e7pe"ience! "emain./0. Obse"2e"s a"e %ene"a##y moti2ate! to $n!e"stan! othe"s they enco$nte" b$t some may ha2e st"on%e" moti2ation to empathi5e in pa"tic$#a" sit$ations.)A $#timate#y inc"eases p"o:en2i"onmenta# beha2io" &Wa#<e" 8 Chapman( )**A+. Res$#ts "om this an! othe" st$!ies !emonst"ate that in!$cin% empathy may be a s$ccess $# techniC$e o" c"eatin% mo"e "esponsib#e en2i"onmenta# attit$!es &9e"en%$e"+. Attit$!es to3a"!s this nat$"a# ob4ect 3e"e meas$"e! by %i2in% pa"ticipants an oppo"t$nity to he#p the #i2in% thin% "ep"esente! in the pict$"e in a 3ay that 3o$#! not bene it the pict$"e! ob4ect !i"ect#y. Resea"ch is yet to !emonst"ate 3hethe" chan%es in this moti2ation 3o$#!( in t$"n( #ea! to chan%es in empathetic #e2e#s. This !emonst"ate! the mo!e"atin% e ects o e2o<in% empathy o" a nat$"a# ob4ect &s$ch as a bi"! o" a t"ee+ on 3i##in%ness to act in a 3ay that p"otects the en2i"onment.

( .)D con!itions( 3hen in!i2i!$a#s p"esent themse#2es in a manne" consistent 3ith his o" he" "epo"te! be#ie s( o ten inc"easin% he#pin% beha2io" in empathi5in% in!i2i!$a#s &A"che" et a#. Empathic ee#in%s inc#$!e sympathy( compassion( so t hea"te!ness( 3a"mth( an! ten!e"ness &9e"en%$e"( )**1+.//>+. E7pe"iencin% empathic emotions may( the"e o"e( in2o#2e e7ten!in% bo$n!a"ies o se# :concept to inc#$!e anothe" &Hi"sh 8 'o#!e"man( )**1+. &)**1+.3e# a"e is th"eatene!( the i"st pe"son 3i## attempt to maintain it( an! may e7pe"ience empathic ee#in%s &9atson( T$"<( et a#. Characteristics An empathetic episo!e can be !esc"ibe! in te"ms o o$" aspects( 3hich a"e apt#y !esc"ibe! by Se2i##ano et a#. Int"ape"sona# o$tcomes( inc#$!in% co%niti2e an! a ecti2e beha2io"( 3hich is not mani este! in e7p#icit beha2io"( a"e a thi"! aspect o an empathetic episo!e. The"e o"e( it 3o$#! appea" that st$!ies that oc$s on empathy sho$#! consi!e" the cha"acte"istics o the sit$ation in 3hich in!i2i!$a#-s empathic emotions a"e obse"2e! &'$an+. When othe"s. Anothe" is the p"ocess in2o#2e! in the sit$ation( 3hich inc#$!e nonco%niti2e( simp#e co%niti2e an! a!2ance! co%niti2e p"ocesses.+. A!!itiona##y( inte"pe"sona# o$tcomes( o" beha2io"a# "esponses( a"e an inte%"a# pa"t o empathetic sit$ations &Se2i##ano et a#. The i"st is antece!ents( 3hich a"e cha"acte"istics o the obse"2e"( ta"%et o" sit$ation./0.+. Results A <ey conseC$ence o empathy is inco"po"ation o othe" into se# . A ecti2e p"o!$cts o empathic episo!es .( . The impact o sit$ationa# acto"s b"in%s to attention the "ea#ity that empathetic episo!es m$st be $n!e"stoo! in conte7t.

/01+.)> can "es$#t in t3o possib#e o$tcomes. Secon!#y( the"e a"e "eacti2e o$tcomes( !$"in% 3hich one a ecti2e#y "eacts to the ta"%et-s e7pe"iences !i e"ent#y than one obse"2es the ta"%et "eactin% &Se2i##ano et a#.i<e"t:sty#e( se# :"epo"t C$estionnai"e is compose! o o$" s$bsca#esE pe"specti2e ta<in%( empathic conce"n( pe"sona# !ist"ess( an! antasy s$bsca#e &Pe"e5:A#beni5 8 !e Pa$#( )**A+. The pe"sona# !ist"ess s$bsca#e assesses the e7tent o !iscom o"t one ee#s as a "esponse to othe"s in !ist"ess.+ apt#y !esc"ibes a## o$" s$bsca#es. The IRI has been s$ppo"te! in te"ms o const"$ct 2a#i!ity in se2e"a# st$!ies an! is st"on%#y in!icati2e o p"e!ispositions to3a"!s a$thentic empathic beha2io". Bi"st( the"e a"e pa"a##e# o$tcomes( 3hich occ$" 3hen one e7pe"iences the act$a# emotions that the ta"%et pe"son is pe"cei2e! to be $n!e"%oin%. The pe"specti2e ta<in% s$bsca#e meas$"es one-s ten!ency to spontaneo$s#y ta<e the pe"specti2e o anothe". This )0:item( . Measurement Scale The inte"pe"sona# "eacti2ity in!e7 &IRI+ 3as p"opose! by 'a2is an! meas$"es !e%"ees to 3hich in!i2i!$a#s empathi5e 3ith othe"s &as cite! in Sh$#t5( )**. Resea"ch on p"osocia# moti2ation has c#ea"#y . The empathic conce"n s$bsca#e consi!e"s one-s capabi#ity o ee#in% compassion an! sympathy o" othe"s in nee!.+.ast#y( the antasy s$bsca#e assesses the ten!ency to ima%ine onese# in ictiona# sit$ations &Sch$#t5( )**.( )**1+. .+. The Efficacy of Empathy rosocial Influence P"osocia# beha2io" is !e ine! as 2o#$nta"y( intentiona# beha2io"( pe" o"me! 3ith an $nspeci ie! moti2e &may be positi2e o" ne%ati2e+ that "es$#ts in bene its o" anothe" pe"son &Eisenbe"% 8 Mi##e"( . Sh$#t5 &)**.

//1+. Altruism A#t"$istic actions a"e consi!e"e! a s$btype o p"osocia# beha2io". Res$#ts o 9atson et a#-s &)**)+ st$!y s$%%ests that the e ect o empathy can be inc"e!ib#y b"oa! an! occ$"s !espite "esistance attempts.( . Uti#i5in% pe"specti2e:ta<in%( empathy has been sho3n to imp"o2e attit$!es to3a"!s peop#e 3ith AI'S( the home#ess( an! to3a"!s "acia# an! ethnic mino"ities &9atson et a#.( )**)+.)F "e2ea#e! empathy as a st"on% p"e!icto" o he#pin% beha2io" &Sh$#t5( )***+. Empathic emotion is the most common#y p"opose! so$"ce o a#t"$istic moti2ation.( )**)+. In!$cin% empathy o" a membe" o a sti%mati5e! %"o$p can imp"o2e attit$!es o" the %"o$p as a 3ho#e &9atson et a#. A!!itiona##y( the i!ea that empathy is a ma4o" 2a"iab#e in p"osocia# intentions is 3i!e#y accepte! amon% psycho#o%ists &Eisenbe"% 8 Mi##e"+. Consi!e"ab#e e2i!ence has been acc"$e! !emonst"atin% that inc"ease! empathy o" a pe"son in nee! !oes( in act( inc"ease inc#ination to he#p this pe"son &9atson et a#. This $n!e"stan!in% o empathy %oes bac< to the i!eas o Thomas . A#t"$ism is 2o#$nta"y beha2io" that is inten!e! to bene it anothe" an! is pe" o"me! 3itho$t e7pectation o "ecei2in% e7te"na# "e3a"!s o" in a2oi!ance o e7te"na# p$nishment &Eisenbe"% 8 Mi##e"( ./01+. E2en e7t"eme#y ne%ati2e attit$!es can be imp"o2e! &9atson et a#. Empathy may be a potent an! inc"e!ib#y 2a#$ab#e techniC$e o" c"eatin% mo"e positi2e "esponses to 2a"io$s sti%mati5e! socia# %"o$ps &9atson et a#.( )**)+. The"e o"e( empathy( as an e7pan!e! sense o se# ( is #i<e#y to "es$#t in he#pin% beha2io"s to3a"!s othe"s &Hi"sh 8 'o#!e"man( )**1+.( )**)+. Attitude modification.

!readth of application. Sch$#t5 &)***+ posits that( i the empathy:a#t"$ism hypothesis is e7ten!e! to the st$!y o en2i"onmenta# iss$es( then it o##o3s that en2i"onmenta# conce"n may be inc"ease! th"o$%h in!$ce! empathy o" the nat$"a# 3o"#!. . In the absence o empathy the !esi"e to bene it othe" in nee! 3ea<ens. It can be e7pe"ience! 3hene2e" a pe"sona# contact is pe"cei2e! to be in nee!. In sit$ations 3he"e the othe" pe"son is pe"cei2e! to be in nee! empathic ee#in%s #i<e#y to be e7pe"ience! inc#$!e sympathy( compassion an! ten!e"ness &9atson( 9atson( et a#.//>+. The"e o"e( empathy is an othe":o"iente! emotiona# "esponse con%"$ent 3ith the pe"cei2e! 3e# a"e o the othe" &9atson( 9atson( et a#. &. 9atson( 9atson( et a#.( .+. Ho3e2e"( 9atson( 9atson( et a#. Empathy %oes beyon! pe"cei2in% someone in nee! to ima%inin% ho3 one is bein% a ecte! by one-s sit$ation &9atson( 9atson( et a#. E2e"y time one !eci!es 3hethe" to spen! time o" money to bene it onese# ( the comm$nity( o" anothe" in!i2i!$a#( one has the potentia# to act in acco"!ance 3ith this hypothesis. In this 3ay( ma<in% a#t"$istic !ecisions base! on empathy mi%ht a#so impact en2i"onmenta# attit$!es an! beha2io"s.+. points o$t that this occ$"s so o ten that it is mo"e !i ic$#t to thin< o e7ceptions than e7amp#es.( .//>+ point o$t that the empathy:in!$ce! a#t"$ism hypothesis "eaches a" beyon! the con ines o #abo"ato"ies. Con2e"se#y( the p"esence o empathy si%ni icant#y inc"eases the !esi"e to he#p the %"o$p o the pe"son in nee!.)1 AC$inas( 'a2i! H$me( an! A!am Smith( an! is s$ppo"te! by mo"e than )> e7pe"iments &9atson( 9atson( et a#.//>+.

This !isconnection is in opposition to inc#$!in% the en2i"onment as a pa"t o one-s se# :concept( as may occ$" 3ith empathy. The"e o"e( inc"ease! sensiti2ity to h$mans may inc"ease sensiti2ity to the en2i"onment &Ga"pia< an! 9a"i#( )**0+. Empathy and the Environment Disconnection from the Environment Hi"sh an! 'o#!e"man &)**1+ a"%$e that the "oot o en2i"onmenta# iss$es may be the !isconnection o h$mans "om nat$"e. Empathy can se"2e both a moti2ation $nction an! an in o"mation $nction. Empathy is a#so "e #ecte! in connecti2ity 3ith nat$"e beca$se o $nity bet3een se# an! nat$"e inhe"ent in this concept &'$tche" et a#. T"a!itiona##y( empathy "esea"ch has been oc$se! on ta"%et pe"sons &those "ecei2in% empathy+ e7pe"iencin% ne%ati2e emotions( s$ch as !ist"ess. The inc#$sion o nat$"e into se# ( a "es$#t o hi%h #e2e#s o empathy( is a bette" p"e!icto" . The moti2ation $nction it se"2es is to amp#i y o" intensi y moti2ation to "e#ie2e the nee! o anothe" pe"son. Con2e"se#y( the in o"mation $nction o empathy is its abi#ity to ca""y in o"mation abo$t the !e%"ee to 3hich one 2a#$es anothe" pe"son-s 3e# a"e an! 3ants him o" he" to be "e#ie2e! o a nee! &9atson( T$"<( et a#.( .//>+. Hi"sh an! 'o#!e"man &)**1+ s$%%est that this "e#ationship is base! on b"oa!e" inc#$sions o othe"s into one-s o3n se# :concept.( )**1+.)0 Motivation and information functions. This oc$s has p"actica# 2a#$e ac"oss n$me"o$s a"eas( inc#$!in% psychothe"apy an! a#t"$ism &'$an( )***+. Hi%h #e2e#s o empathy inc"ease the #i<e#ihoo! o ee#in% 3a"mth( compassion( 8 conce"n &Pe"e5:A#beni5 8 !e Pa$#( )**A+.

Relationship !et"een Empathy and ro#Environmental !ehavior Since past "esea"ch has !emonst"ate! a positi2e "e#ationship bet3een empathy an! en2i"onmenta# conce"ns &Sh$#t5( )**. This en2i"onmenta#:connecti2eness has been te"me! eco#o%ica# se# :concept.( )**)+.( )**1+. . Resea"ch has !ete"mine! a positi2e "e#ationship bet3een empathic !imensions an! en2i"onmenta# conce"ns &Sh$#t5( )**.+.)/ o p"o:en2i"onmenta# beha2io" than en2i"onmenta# conce"n &'$tche" et a#. Empathic 2a#$es ca$se in!i2i!$a#s to inco"po"ate the en2i"onment into se# ( moti2atin% inc"ease! en2i"onmenta# "esponsibi#ity 2a#$es an!( in t$"n( inc"ease! p"o:en2i"onmenta# beha2io"s &Hi"sh 8 'o#!e"man+. The"e o"e( a <ey step in enco$"a%in% p"o:en2i"onmenta# beha2io" 3o$#! be !e2e#opin% a sense o pe"sona# connection( 3ithin in!i2i!$a#s( to the en2i"onment. Relationship !et"een Empathy and Environmental Concern Most st$!ies ha2e oc$se! on 3hethe" empathy can enhance he#pin% attit$!es( "athe" than act$a##y enco$"a%e beha2io" chan%e &9atson et a#. This "e#ationship( 3hich 3as s$%%este! by Sch$#t5 &)***+( has %"eat potentia# o" chan%in% en2i"onmenta# beha2io" 3o"#!3i!e. P"e2io$s "esea"ch has !emonst"ate! that a st"on% eco#o%ica# se# :concept is a bette" p"e!icto" o a 3i!e a""ay o p"o:en2i"onmenta# moti2ations than en2i"onmenta# conce"n &Hi"sh 8 'o#!e"man+.+( "ecent st$!ies ha2e in2esti%ate! 3hethe" this "e#ationship ca""ies o2e" into the "ea#m o action. Empathy !oes appea" to be associate! 3ith p"o:en2i"onmenta# 2a#$es &Hi"sh 8 'o#!e"man( )**1+ an! p"e2io$s st$!ies ha2e !emonst"ate! the impo"tance o empathy in imp"o2in% attit$!es to3a"!s the en2i"onment &as cite! in 9e"en%$e"( )**1+.

///+. .( . On the #o3est #e2e# o commitment the"e is me"e s$ppo"t o" acceptance o p$b#ic po#icies( s$ch as 3i##in%ness to pay hi%he" ta7es o" en2i"onmenta# p"otection. ro#environmental $ehavior defined. Ne7t( the"e is acti2e en2i"onmenta# citi5enship. Ste"n &)***+ posite! !i e"ent #e2e#s o p"o:en2i"onmenta# beha2io".///+. Recent#y( "es$#ts o 9e"en%$e"-s &)**1+ st$!y !emonst"ate! that empathic ee#in%s me!iate en2i"onmenta# beha2io" as pa"ticipants 3ith hi%he" #e2e#s o empathy !isp#aye! st"on%e" p"o:en2i"onmenta# beha2io". The"e o"e( "esea"ch has sho3n that emotiona# a inity to3a"!s nat$"e can be an in #$entia# p"e!icto" o p"o:en2i"onmenta# beha2io" &Ga#s et a#. It may inc#$!e actions s$ch as "ecyc#in%( 3aste mana%ement( po##$tion an! "a!iation:cont"o#( #an! $se p#annin%( an! habitat an! 3i#!#i e p"ese"2ation &Cha3#a( . The"e is a 2ast "an%e o 3hat mi%ht be consi!e"e! p"o:en2i"onmenta# beha2io".A* Hi"sch an! 'o#!e"man &)**1+ posit that in!i2i!$a#s possessin% hi%h #e2e#s o empathy a"e mo"e #i<e#y to !isp#ay inc"ease! p"o:en2i"onmenta# action. The"e a"e a#so othe" en2i"onmenta##y si%ni icant beha2io"s #i<e in #$encin% the actions o o"%ani5ations to 3hich one be#on%s &Ste"n+. An e7amp#e o en2i"onmenta# citi5enship mi%ht be petitionin% a%ainst en2i"onmenta# iss$es.

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