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CHAPTER 5: CHEMICAL BOND

1. What is the relation between valence


electrons and the reaction of atoms ? 1. What happen to the electrons of atoms
2. Why atoms of group 18 are inert when the formation of bond occurs?
chemically? 2 .Define ionic bond.
3. What is happening to the valence 3. Named 3 ionic substances and then
electrons of an atom before the reaction? draw electron arrangement diagram to
describe the formation of the substances.

Formation of
Ionic bond
compound

5.2
5.1

CHEMICAL
BOND
5.3
Ionic compound and 5.4
covalent compound.
Covalent bond

1. Compare the properties of ionic and


covalent substances.
1. What happen to the electrons of atoms
2. Give explanation:
when the formation of covalent bond
i) melting point of ionic compound is
occurs?
higher then covalent compound.
2. Define covalent bond.
ii) Ionic compound are able to
3. Named 3 covalent compound and then
conduct electricity in smelting but
draw electron arrangement diagram to
covalent compound are not.
describe the formation of those
3. Why covalent compound always used
compound.
as solvent in industry?.

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T. 5.1

Electron arrangement of helium atom = 2

Helium atom have been achieved the stable


electron arrangement (duplet)
Electron arrangement of neon atom = 2.8

Neon atom have been achieved the stable


electron arrangement (octet)

Atom of noble gas achieved the stable electron arrangement (duplet


or octet). Therefore no need to donate, accept or sharing electron
with other atoms. Thus cannot react with other atoms.

Why inert gases are stable?

FORMATION OF
COMPOUND

Why other atoms of other


elements are unstable?

The Atoms are not achieved the stable electron arrangement (duplet or octet) .
Therefore the atoms should donate, accept or share electron with other atoms
to achieved stable electron arrangement and react to form ionic or covalent
compound.

A.Fill in the blank.

1. Noble gases have stable o……..… or d……….... electron arrangements.

2. Atoms of other elements tend to achieve the stable e…………. arrangement

through the formation of chemical bonds.

3. Chemical bonds are formed when two or more a………… of elements bond

together.

4. Chemical bonds can be formed by the t……………. of electrons or s…………. of

electrons.

5. When atoms join together by transferring of electrons, an i……… bond is formed.

6. A c…………. bond is formed when atoms are join together by sharing electrons.

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7. In chemical reaction,

Neutral donates electron Positive ion


atom (C…..……)

Metal atom

Neutral accepts electron Negative ion


Atom (A……….)

Non-metal atom

8. Examples:

(i) Sodium (Proton number =11)

Electron arrangement : ……………….

+
donates one electron

Sodium atom, Na Sodium ion, Na+

Charge of 11 protons = ………….. Charge of 11 protons = …………….

Charge of 11 electrons = ………...... Charge of 10 electrons = …………….

Total charge = ………….. Total charge = …………….

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(ii) Chloride (Proton number = 17)

Electron arrangement : ……………….

accept one electron

Chlorine atom, Cl Chlorine ion, Cl-

Charge of 17 protons = ………….. Charge of 17 protons = …………….

Charge of 17 electrons = ………...... Charge of 18 electrons = …………….

Total charge = ………….. Total charge = …………….

ee ee
T. 5.2
e e
ee ee e e
e e ee e ee
ee ee
ee
ee ee ee e ee e
e
ee e e
eee e e
ee
eee e ee
e e
Na - e Na+ e
Sodium atom expel one electron to achieve
Cl + e Cl-
stable electron arrangement (octet) to form
Chlorine atom accept one electron to
positively charge of sodium ion.
achieve stable electron arrangement (octet)
to form negative charge of chloride ion.
Occurs when
metal and non- Ion formation
metal reacted. Definition

IONIC BOND
Examples:
The bond that formed due to
MgO ,
electrostatic force between
AlCl3 ,
Formation of positively charge ion and
Li2O
ionic bond negative charge ion.

Na Cl Na+ Cl-
2.8.1 2.8.7 2.8 2.8.8

Sodium atom donate one electron to chlorine atom to achieve stable electron
arrangement to form sodium ion. Chlorine atom accept one electron from sodium
atom to achieve the stable electron arrangement to form chloride ion . Positively
charge sodium ion and negatively chloride ion are attract by strong electrostatic force.

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9. Ionic bonds are formed when atoms of metal elements d…………… electron to

atoms of non-metal elements to achieve the s…………. electron arrangement like

n………. gases.

10. I…………. compounds are compound that are formed through ionic bonds.

11. Examples:

(i) Sodium chloride

Sodium Chlorine Sodium chloride

+ _

Na Cl Na+ Cl-

 Electron arrangement of sodium atom is ...................

 Sodium atom has …………. valence electron.

 Sodium atom …………… one electron to form sodium ion, Na+ and achieve a

stable …………… arrangement.

 Electron arrangement of chlorine atom is ...................

 Chlorine atom has …………. valence electron.

 Chlorine atom …………… one electron to form chloride ion, Cl- and achieve the

stable …………electron arrangement.

 The sodium ion, Na+ and chloride ion, Cl- formed are attracted to one another with

strong force to form a solid sodium chloride, NaCl compound. The attractive

………………..force between the ions is called an ionic bond or electrovalent

bond.

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(ii) Magnesium oxide

Proton number of magnesium = 12

Proton number of oxygen = 8

 Draw a diagram to show the bonding formed between elements magnesium and

oxygen.

 Electron arrangement of magnesium atom is ...................

 Magnesium atom has …………. valence electron.

 Magnesium atom …………… two electron to form magnesium ion, Mg2+ and

achieve a stable …………… arrangement.

 Electron arrangement of oxygen atom is ...................

 Oxygen atom has …………. valence electron.

 Oxygen atom …………… two electron to form oxide ion, O2- and achieve the

stable …………electron arrangement.

 The magnesium ion, Mg2+ and oxide ion, O2- formed are attracted to one another

with strong force to form a solid magnesium oxide, MgO compound. The

attractive ………………..force between the ions is called an ionic bond or

electrovalent bond.

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(iii) Magnesium fluoride

Proton number of magnesium = 12

Proton number of fluorine = 9

 Draw a diagram to show the bonding formed between elements magnesium and

fluorine.

 Electron arrangement of magnesium atom is ...................

 Magnesium atom has …………. valence electron.

 Magnesium atom …………… two electron to form magnesium ion, Mg2+ and

achieve a stable …………… arrangement.

 Electron arrangement of fluorine atom is ...................

 Fluorine atom has …………. valence electron.

 Fluorine atom accept ……… electron to form fluoride ion, F- and achieve the

stable …………electron arrangement.

 One magnesium atom donates two electron to …………….. fluorine atoms.

 The magnesium ion, Mg2+ and fluoride ion, F- formed are attracted to one another

with strong force to form a solid magnesium fluoride, MgCl2 compound. The

attractive ………………..force between the ions is called an ionic bond or

electrovalent bond.

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12. Ionic bond is usually formed by atoms from group …..., ……. and ………(metal)

with group ……., ……… and ………(non-metal)

T. 5.3

Bond occurs due to


sharing of electron No. of electron Type of covalent
between atoms. pair. bond
1 Single bond
Occurs when non-metal
and non-metal reacted. 2 Double bond
Definition
3 Triple bond

KOVALENT BOND
Other eg:
N2
NH3
H2O . Formation of bond
CH4
CO2
Eg

Cl Cl Cl-Cl or Cl2
OR
Lewis Structure

2 atoms of chlorine sharing a pair of electron to achieve


stable electron arrangement to form chlorine molecule.
A single covalent bond is formed.

13. Covalent bonds are formed when non-metal atoms …………………. electron to

achieve ………………. electron arrangement.

14. Normally atoms from group ………, ………, ………. and ……… share valence

electrons between them.

15. Types of covalent bonds include …………….. bonds, ………….. bonds or

………… bonds.

16. A single bond is a covalent bond formed when a ………….. of electrons is shared

between two atoms.

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17. Double bonds formed when …………. pairs of electron are shared between two

atoms.

18. Triple bonds formed when …………. pairs of electron are shared between two

atoms.

19. Examples:

20. (i) Hydrogen molecule.

 Hydrogen atom has ……….. valence electron and needs one more electron to

achieve the duplet …………………...

 Two hydrogen atoms contribute ………….. electron each for sharing, forming

a single bond in the hydrogen molecule, H2

 Both hydrogen atoms achieve a stable ………….. arrangement of electron.

Hydrogen atom, H Hydrogen atom, H Hydrogen molecule, H2

 The formation of a covalent bond can be illustrated using the …………

structure.

H + H H H or H–H
(ii) Oxygen molecule

 The electron arrangement of oxygen atom is ……………….

 Oxygen atom has ……….... valence electron and needs …………. electrons

to achieve the ……………. electron arrangement

 Two oxygen atoms share ………….. pairs of electron, forming a double bond

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 Draw a diagram to show the bonding formed in oxygen molecule.

Oxygen atom, O Oxygen atom, O Oxygen molecule, O2

 Lewis structure:

O + O O O or O=O
(iii) Nitrogen molecule

 The electron arrangement of nitrogen atom is ……………….

 Nitrogen atom has ……….... valence electron and needs …………. electrons

to achieve the ……………. electron arrangement

 Two oxygen atoms share ………….. pairs of electron, forming a triple bond

 Draw a diagram to show the bonding formed in nitrogen molecule.

Nitrogen atom, N Nitrogen atom, N Nitrogen molecule, N2

 Lewis structure:

N + N N N or N=N

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T. 5.4

IONIC COMPOUND COVALENT COMPOUND


SIMPLE MOLECULE GIANT MOLECULE
1. Consist of ions 1. Consist of simple 1. Consist of giant molecule
2. Solid molecule solid
3. High melting and boiling 2. Liquid and gas 2. High melting and boiling
point low melting and boiling point
4. Not vapourize point 3. Not vapourize
5. Soluble in water 3. Vapourize 4. Non soluble in water and
6. Conductor of electric in 4. Soluble in organic solvent organic solution
smelting and aqueous 5. Insulator of electric 5. Insulator of electric
solution (due to free (No free moving ion,
moving ions) Consist ofoffree
Comparison molecules)
properties

PROPERTIES OF IONIC AND


COVALENT COMPOUND Demonstration
and explanation
to the properties.
Uses

Solvent of food Cleaning process


substance Solvent for chemical
substance

Eg. Eg.
Eg.

21. Comparison between the formation of ionic and covalent bonds.

Characteristic Ionic Bond Covalent Bond


Between metals Between non-metal and
Types of elements (group…………..…..) and non-metals
involved
non-metals(group……….) (group…………….…)
Electron transfer. Sharing electron.
Metal atoms …………… ……………… of

Bond formation electron and non-metal electrons are shared by the


atoms ………………… same or different non-
electron. metal atoms.
Strong …………………… Strong ………………….
Strength of bond
force. Bond
Metal: ……………….. ion
Particles in the compound Neutral ………………….
formed Non-metal:……………ion

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22. The Properties of Ionic and Covalent Compound.

Properties Ionic Compound Covalent Compound


Melting and boiling point Have ……... melting point Have ………….. melting
and ………. boiling pont and boiling point because:
because:  The molecule in
 Positive ions and covalent compound
negative ions are held are held together by
together by strong …………………..
…………….… forces intermolecular
 Large amount of forces.
energy is needed to  …………… heat
overcome the energy is needed to
…………. forces. overcome these
Exist as ……………… at forces.
room temperature. Exist as solids, liquids or
………………
Electrical conductivity Does not conduct
electricity when in
……………. state but can
conduct electricity in
………….. solution or Do not ………………..
…………. state because: electricity in any state
 In solid, ions are because covalent
………… in positions compound consists of
and do not …………. neutral ………………….
freely.
 In aqueous solution or
molten state, ions are
………… to move
Solubility Most ionic compounds are Most covalent compounds
…………….. in water but are ………………… in
are ………………… in water but can …………….
organic solvents. in organic solvents.

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Properties Ionic Compound Covalent Compound
Votality ………… because ions are High ……………. because
held together by strong of the weak ………………
electrostatic forces. forces.

B. Objective questions

1. The table shows the number of protons, electrons and neutrons of atoms Q and R.

Number
Atom
Proton Electron Neutron
Q 11 11 12
R 12 12 12

Which of the following is true about atoms Q and R?

A. R can form a diatomic molecule


B. Q and R have the same chemical properties
C. R reacts with Q to form an ionic compound
D. Q reacts with water to release hydrogen

2. The diagram shows the electron arrangement of a compound formed between


atoms P and Q.

Which of the following statements is true about the compound?

A. It is an ionic compound
B. The compound is formed by covalent bonds
C. The compound has a high boiling point
D. The compound is formed by electron transfer

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3. The diagram shows the electron shells in the substance formed between atoms of
hydrogen and Y.

What is the electron configuration of atom Y?

A. 2.4 C. 2.8.4
B. 2.8 D. 2.8.8

4. Which of the following pairs of physical properties of sodium chloride is true?

Solubility Electrical conductivity


in water when molten
A. Soluble Conducting
B. Soluble Not conducting
C. Insoluble Conducting
D. Insoluble Not conducting

5. An atom of element X has 4 shells containing electrons.


When element X reacts with chlorine, a compound with formula XCl is formed.
Which of the following is element X?
Given that the atomic number of Na = 11, Si = 14, K = 19, Ca =20

A. Calcium C. Sodium
B. Potassium D. Silicone

6. The figure shows the electron arrangement of an atom of element X

The atom of element X can form a covalent bond with another atom through the

A acceptance of two electrons


B donation of two electrons
C sharing of two pairs of electrons
D elimination of three pairs of electrons

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7. Electron arrangement for P atom is 2.8.3 and R atom has six valence electrons.
Which of the following pairs of formula compound and type of compound is true?

Formula compound Type of compound


A. P2R3 Kovalen
B. P2R3 Ion
C. P3R2 Kovalen
D. P3R2 Ion

8. The Figure shows the information for element X and element Y.

7 16
X and Y
3 8

Which of the following electron arrangement of the compound formed is correct when element X
react with element Y?

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9. The table shows the proton number of elements V, W, X and Y.

Element V W X Y
Proton number 8 3 11 16

Which of the following pairs will form a compound with lowest melting point?

A. X and Y
B. V and Y
C. V and X
D. V and W

10. The table shows elements E, G, J, L and M with their respective proton number.

Element E G J L M
Proton number 6 8 9 11 12

Which of the following pairs of element form a compound that insoluble in water?

A E dan J
B J dan L
C G dan L
D G dan M

C. Structure Questions

1. Figure 1 shows part of the Periodic Table of Elements.

FIGURE 1

(a) Write the electron configuration for the Mg atom.

…………………………………………………………………………………
[1 mark]
(b) (i) Write the chemical equation for the reaction between aluminium and
oxygen gas.

…………………………………………………………………………….
[1 mark]

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(ii) Briefly state the electron transfer in the bond formation between
aluminium and oxygen.

…………………………………………………………………………….
[2 mark]
2. (a) (i) The electron arrangement for argon is 2.8.8.
Why is this element very stable and not reactive?

……………….………………………………………………………...…
[1 mark]
(ii) Name one other element that has the same stability as argon.

……………………………………………………………………………
[1 mark]
(b) Atoms of both sodium and chlorine are unstable.
They react to form an ionic compound which is more stable.
Diagram 1.1 shows a sodium chloride compound, NaCl, that is produced by
the formation of an ionic bond between a sodium ion, Na+, and a chloride
ion, Cl-

DIAGRAM 1.1

(i) How are a sodium ion and a chloride ion formed from their respective
atoms?

Sodium ion: ……………………………………………………………

Chloride ion:……………………………………………………………
[2 marks]
(ii) Name the force that exists between these ions in the compound.

……………………………………………….………………………….
[1 mark]
(iii) The melting point of sodium chloride, NaCl, is 108 oC and its boiling
point is 1 413 oC.
What will happen to the ions in this compound at 900 oC?

…………………………………………………………………………...
[1 mark]
(iv) Give one reason for your answer in 2(b)(iii).

…………………………………………………………………………...
[1 mark]

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(c) Diagram 1.2 shows the proton number and the nucleon number for two
elements, X and Y.
The letters used do not represent the actual symbols of the elements.

DIAGRAM 1.2

Draw a diagram to show the bonding formed between elements X and Y.

[3 marks]

D. Essay Questions

1. Figure 1 shows the chemical symbols which represent three elements, X, Y and Z.

FIGURE 1

(a) (i) Write the electron arrangement of atoms X and Y.


[2 marks]
(ii) State the number of neutrons in an atom of element Z and write the
symbol for an isotope of element Z
[2 marks]
(b) The reaction between atoms of X and Y forms an ionic compound whereas
the reaction between atoms of Y and Z forms a covalent compound.
Based on the above statement, explain how these ionic and covalent
compound are formed.
[8 marks]

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2. (a) Figure 2 shows the electron arrangement of a molecule PQ2.
These letters are not the actual symbols of the elements.

FIGURE 2

Based on Figure 2, write the electron arrangement for atoms of element P and
element Q.
Explain the position of element Q in the Periodic Table of the Elements.
[6 marks]
(b) Table 1 shows the electron arrangement for atoms W, X and Y.
These letters are not the actual symbols of the elements.

Element Electron arrangement


W 2.4
X 2.8.7
Y 2.8.8.2

TABLE 1

Using the information in Table 1, explain how two compounds can be formed
from these elements based on their electron arrangements.
The two compounds should have different bond types
[10 marks]

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