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# Thermodynamic Glossary Created by: Alex Offredi, 8/7/13 Property/Term Critical Temperature Symbol Tc Value Units F F 14.

Temperature Pressure Absolute Pressure Gage Pressure Atmospheric Pressure Dew Point Bubble Point Melting Point Boiling Point Freezing Point Kinetic Energy Potential Energy Internal Energy Quality Specific Internal Energy Enthalpy Specific Enthalpy Volume Specific Volume Volumetric Flow Rate Velocity Acceleration Energy Rate Heat Transfer Rate CV Work Rate Mass Flux Mass Flow Rate Elevation Entropy Entropy Production Density Coefficient of Performance Heat Capacity (Constant Pressure)

T P psia psig
Ps TDP TBP TMP TBOILP TFP

## psi psi psi psi F F F F F J J J J J J/kg

m3 m /kg m3/s
3

KE PE U x u H h V V

V a

m/s
m/s2

kg/m2s

s
CP

## kg/s m J/K J/Ks

kg/m3

J/kgK

Heat Capacity (Constant Volume) Isentropic Compressor Efficiency Adiabatic Index (Heat Capacity Ratio) State Point Isometric Process Isomers Isobaric Process Isobars Isothermal Process Isotherms Isenthalpic Procces Isenthalps Isentropic Process Isentropes Polytropic Index Polytropic Process Reversible Process Irreversible Process Mollier Diagram Adiabatic Process Saturated Liquid Line (SLL) Saturated Vapor Line (SVL) Superheated Vapor Region Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics First Law of Thermodynamics Second Law of Thermodynamics Third Law of Thermodynamics Evaporator Condenser Nozzle

CV

n -

J/kgK -

## Diffuser Turbine Throttling Valve

Compressor Pump Heat Exchanger Mixing Chamber Pipes and Ducts Superheat Bernoulli Law of Velocity Irreversibilities

Description/Definition Temperature at and above which vapor of the substance cannot be liquefied, no matter how much pressure is applied.

## The degree or intensity of heat present in a body.

Pressure is the ratio of force per unit area over which that force is distributed, applied in a direction perpendicular to the surface of an object.

Zero-referenced against a perfect vacuum (equal to gauge pressure plus atmospheric pressure). Zero-referenced against ambient air pressure (equal to absolute pressure minus atmospheric pressure).
Force per unit area exerted on a surface by the weight of air above that surface in the atmosphere.

Temperature below which the water vapor in a volume of humid air at a given constant barometric pressure will condense into liquid water at the same rate at which it evaporates When heating a liquid consisting of two or more components, the bubble point is the temperature (at a given pressure) where the first bubble of vapor is formed. Temperature at which a substance changes phase from a solid to a liquid. Temperature at which a substance changes phase from a liquid to a vapor. Temperature at which a substance changes phase from a liquid to a solid. Energy which a body possesses due to its motion. Energy of an object or a system due to the position of the body, or the arrangement of the particles of the system. Sum of all forms of energy intrinsic to a thermodynamic system. (U = KE + PE) For a saturated mixture (part liquid and part vapor), quality is equal to: mass of vapor/(mass of liquid + mass of vap Ratio of the substance's internal energy to its mass at a given point in the system Measure of the total energy of the system (H = U + PV) Ratio of the substance's enthalpy to its mass at a given point in the system (h = u + p V ) Quantity of three-dimensional space enclosed by some closed boundary; the space that a solid, liquid, gas, or plasma occupies/contains. Ratio of the substance's volume to its mass at a given point in the system. It is the reciprocal of density. Volume of fluid which passes through a given surface per unit time. Rate of change of the position of a bosy or substance, equivalent to a specification of its speed and direction of mo Rate of change of the velocity of a body or substance. Energy change within the sytem over time (between two points)

Heat exchanged between system and surroundings, induced by temperature difference (Q in = positive, Q out = ne Total work put into system (negative work) and created by system (positive work). Rate of mass flow per unit area. Mass of a substance which passes through a given surface per unit of time. Used for calculating potenial energy, it is a measure of elevation to a state point from a fixed datum. Measure of disorder or chaos in a system. If entropy production = 0, process is reversible, and if entropy production is > 0, process is irreversible. Mass per unit volume of a substance. Ratio of heat transfer put into the system to the work done by the cycle. Heat Capacity is another way of saying specific heat. dH/dT = dQ/dT = Heat Capacity Constant Pressure.

Heat Capacity is another way of saying specific heat. dU/dT = dQ/dT = Heat Capactiy Constant Volume. Ratio of ideal (theoretical minimum) work to the actual work done by the compressor For an ideal gas, it is the ratio of the heat capacity at constant pressure to heat capacity at constant volume. A point in the thermodynamic cycle or system. Usually at the inlet or exit of a thermodynamic device. Used to determine processes. A constant specific volume process between two state points ( V = 0). Lines of constant specific volume on a thermodynamic diagram. A constant pressure process between two state points (P = 0). Lines of constant pressure on a thermodynamic diagram. A constant temperature proccess between two state points (T = 0). Lines of constant temperature on a thermodynamic diagram. A constant specific enthalpy process between two state points (h = 0). Lines of constant specific enthalpy on a thermodynamic diagram. A constant entropy process between two state points (s = 0). Lines of constant entropy on a thermodynamic diagram. Any real number; utlized in a polytropic process
A thermodynamic process obeying the relation: PVn = C, where C is a constant.

A process that is internally reversible is considered "ideal" and will not produce entropy. A process that is internally irreversible is considered "real" and will prodice entropy. A Enthalpy vs Entropy vapor dome diagram for a substance A process in which there is no heat transfer (Q = 0). The left line of the vapor dome, representing 100% liquid. The right line of the vapor dome representing 100% vapor. Superheated vapors are to the right of the SVL on the vapor dome diagrams. If system A is in thermal equilibrium with system B, and system B is in thermal equilibrium with system C, then system A is also in thermal equilibrium with system C. In a closed system (NOT Control Volume), the internal energy can be changed by work or heat transfer only ( U = Q In isloated systems, the entropy increases in spontaneous processes ( S>0, in areversible at equilibrium S=Constant, or S=0) it is impossible to convert heat completely into work, or heat cannot spontaneously flow from a body at lower temp to a body at higher temp (without other processes). Every substance has finite positive energy except the entropy of pure perfect crystalline structure, which has 0 entropy at 0 Kelvin. Device used to change the phase of a substance from a liquid to a vapor. Absorbs heat into the system from cold source. Passive device (no work). Device used to change the phase of a substance from a vapor to a liquid. Releases heat out of system into a sink. Passive device (no work). Device designed to control the direction or characteristics of a fluid flow (especially to increase velocity) as it exits (or enters) an enclosed chamber or pipe (Exit Area < Inlet Area). For nozzles: adiabatic, neglect work, potential energy, and kinetic energy (passive device). Device designed to control the direction or characteristics of a fluid flow (especially to decrease velocity) as it exits (or enters) an enclosed chamber or pipe (Exit Area > Inlet Area). For diffusers: adiabatic, neglect work, potential energy, and kinetic energy (passive device). Adiabatic, shaft work, neglect potenial and kinetic energies. Isenthalpic device, adiabatic, neglect work, potential energy, and kinetic energy (passive device).

Increases pressure of vapor to transport, as well as decreasing the vapor's volume (as vapors are known to be compressible). Increases pressure of liquid for transport through pipe/conduit/etc. Assume liquid is incompressible ( V = 0). Device used to easily transfer heat through one medium to another (NEVER adiabatic). Neglect work, potential energy, and kinetic energy. Adiabatic, neglect work, potenial energy, and kinetic engery (passive device). Only neglect kinetic energy (PE, Q, and W are all relevant). The longer the pipe/duct, the higher the exit enthalpy. Measurement of how full the evaporator is of liquid refrigerant. With an increase in velocity, there will be a decrease in pressure. Heat transfer through finite temp difference, unrestrained expansion of gas or liquid to lower pressure, spontaneous chemical reaction, spontaneous mixing of matter at different compositions or states, friction and sliding, electric current flow through resistance, magnetization or polarization through

essure is applied.

nstant volume.

## t transfer only ( U = Q + W).

essible ( V = 0).