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Purposes of Collecting Failure Data To calculate hazard rate (failure rate) of an item.

To make decisions regarding the introduction of a redundant item. To perform trade-off studies (cost-reliability studies). To conduct the items replacement studies. To perform preventive maintenance studies of the item. To conduct effective design reviews. To determine the maintenance needs of a new item. To perform life cycle cost studies. To predict the reliability and the availability of the item. To recommend design changes for improving the items reliability. Tasks of a Reliability Engineer: Performing analysis of a proposed design. nalyzing customer complaints with reliability. !nvestigating field failures. "unning tests on the system# sub-system and parts. $eveloping tests on the system# subsystem and components. %udgeting the tolerable system failure down to the component level. $eveloping a reliability program plan. $etermining reliability of alternative designs. Providing information to designers or management concerning reliability. &onitoring sub-contractors reliability performance. Participating in evaluating re'uests for proposals. $eveloping reliability models and techni'ues. Participating in design reviews. Reliability Engineering Department Responsibilities: (stablishing reliability policy# plan# and procedures. "eliability allocation. "eliability prediction (&!)-*$%+-,-.). /pecification and design reviews with respect to reliability. "eliability growth monitoring. Providing reliability related inputs to design specification and proposals. "eliability demonstration (&!)-/T$-0.-). Training reliability manpower and performing reliability-related research and development work. &onitoring subcontractors# if any# reliability activities. uditing the reliability activities.

1ailure data collection and reporting. 1ailure data analysis. - 2onsulting.

Reliability Cost Categories: 3 P24 2 4 !12 4 (12 Prevention Cost: "edundancy-Parts-*ourly cost and overhead rates for design engineers# reliability engineers# etc5 Appraisal Cost: *ourly cost and overhead rates for evaluation# reliability 'ualification# reliability demonstration# life-testing# etc5 6endor assurance cost for new component 'ualification# inspection# etc5 (tc5 Internal Failure Cost: *ourly cost and overhead rates for troubleshooting and repair# retesting# failure analysis# etc5 - "eplaced parts cost. - /pare parts inventory. - (tc5 External Failure Cost: 2ost to failure or repair. - "eplaced parts cost. - 2ost of failure analysis. - 7arranty administration and reporting cost. - )iability insurance. - (tc5 uality Costs: Post delivery failure costs8 7arranty charges- 2omplain ad9ustment- "eturned material - (tc5 Prevention costs8 :uality planning $esign review - /upplier evaluation - Process control ; Training - ('uipment calibration - (tc5 - 2osts of internal failures8 "epair and rework ; /crap - "einspection - $owntime of facilities because of defects - (tc5 (valuation 2osts8 !ncoming material inspection - !n process inspection - ssembly inspection "eview and recording data - uditing the 'uality system - (tc5 !arkov !et"o# : &arkove method is useful to model systems with dependent failure and repair modes and is based on following assumptions8 The probability of transition from one system state to another in a finite time interval rate (e.g. constant failure rate or repair rate) from one state to another. The probability of more than one transition in time interval state to ne<t state is negligible. ( . The occurrences are independent of each other.

is given by

. t

# where

is the transition

t from one . t . t 0)

1) Po (t + t ) = Po (t )(1 f t )(1 p t ) + Pf (t ) f t+ Pp (t ) p t 2) Pf (t + t ) = Pf (t )(1 f t ) + Po (t )f t 3) Pp (t + t ) = Pp (t )(1 p t ) + Po (t )p t

p
Robot down for preventive

f
Robot Operati ng Robot Failed

maintenance

i denotes the ith sate of the robot: i = O (operating) i = p (preventive maintenance), i = f (failed) Pi(t) is the probability that the robot is in state i at time t. p is the robot preventive maintenance constant rate f is the robot constant failure rate. p is the robot constant repair rate due to preventive maintenance. f is the robot constant repair rate.

1) Po (t + t ) = Po (t )(1 f t )(1 p t ) + Pf (t ) f t + Pp (t ) p t 2) Pf (t + t ) = Pf (t )(1 f t ) + Po (t )f t 3) Pp (t + t ) = Pp (t )(1 p t ) + Po (t )p t

1) Po (t + t ) = Po (t ) ( f + p ) Po (t ) t + Pf (t ) f t + Pp (t ) p t Po (t + t ) Po (t ) = ( f + p ) Po (t ) + Pf (t ) f + Pp (t ) p t 0 t dPo (t ) = ( f + p ) Po (t ) + Pf (t ) f + Pp (t ) p dt lim
rom !) and ")

dPp (t ) dt dPf (t ) dt

+ p Pp (t ) = Po (t )p + f Pf (t ) = Po (t ) f

At ! time ! t = 0 Po (0) = 1 Pp (0) = Pf (0) = 0

Laplace ! transform " p ( s ) = e st p (t ) dt


0

p (t )
e
at

p( s)

dp (t ) dt
inal value #heorem:
lim f (t ) = lim sf ( s )
t s 0

1 s +a sp ( s ) p (0)

rom $) and %alue theorem: sPo ( s ) Po (0) + (f + p ) Po ( s ) = Pp ( s ) p + Pf ( s ) f

sPo ( s ) 1 + (f + p ) Po ( s ) = Pp ( s ) p + Pf ( s ) f
rom !) and ") and %alue theorem: 2) sPp ( s ) Pp (0) + p Pp ( s ) = Po ( s )p

(&)

sPp ( s ) + p Pp ( s ) = Po ( s )p Pp ( s ) = Po ( s )p s + p

(&&)

3) sPf ( s ) Pf (0) + f Pf ( s ) = Po ( s )f sPf ( s ) + f Pf ( s ) = Po ( s )f Pf ( s ) = Po ( s )f s + f


(&&&)

'eplace (&&) and (&&&) in (&), (e have)

sPo ( s ) 1 + ( f + p ) Po ( s ) =
#hen)

Po ( s ) f s + f

p +

Po ( s )p s + p

Po ( s )$ s + ( f + p )

f p
s + f

p f
s + p

# =1

Po ( s ) =

s s + s( f + p + p + f ) + f p + p f + f p
2

( s + f )( s + p ) ( s + f )( s + p )
2

] ]

sPo ( s) =

A = s 2 + s( f + p + p + f ) + f p + p f + f p

[s

+ s( f + p + p + f ) + f p + p f + f p

sPp ( s) = sPf ( s) =

f (s + p )
A p (s + f ) A
s 0

Ass = Po = lim sPo ( s ) =

f p f p + p f + f p

B = f p + p f + f p Pp = Pf =

f p
B p f B

Robot -p Robot .own

o
1) Po (t + t ) = Po (t )(1 t ) + Pf (t ) t 2) Pf (t + t ) = Pf (t )(1 t ) + Po (t )t

1)

Po (t + t ) Po (t ) = Po (t ) + Pf (t ) t Pf (t + t ) Pf (t ) 2) = Pf (t ) + Po (t ) t
2) sPf ( s ) Pf (0) = Pf ( s ) + Po ( s ) sPf ( s ) = Pf ( s ) + Po ( s )

1) sPo ( s ) Po (0) = Po ( s ) + Pf ( s ) sPo ( s ) 1 = Po ( s ) + Pf ( s )

From 2) %
Pf ( s ) =

Po ( s ) (&) s +

'( )*b)tit*ting (&) in 1)%


Po ( s ) s +

sPo ( s ) 1 = Po ( s ) +

+fter )ome ad,*)tment%

sPo ( s ) =

s + s + +

lim sPo ( s ) =
s 0