Brahma and Abraham: Part II - The Inner Life of Abraham Found in the Vedas

In Brahma and Abraham: Part I – The Common Origin of the Divine Covenant, the research uncovered a relationship between Abraham and Brahma (with his wish born sons) from the related Vedic and Hebrew texts. Given that Abraham embraced the foreign name of God Most High, El Elyon, professed by Melchizedek, is not Brahma also to be understood as a legitimate name of the Supreme Creator to the children of Abraham? If so, this lends credence to the ten common threads found between the Vedic hymns (with the Upanishad philosophy) and the Hebrew Pentateuch’s Abraham. Here again are these ten themes:

The former research revealed the inner life of the Hebrew Abraham and Sarah as: Reflected in Vedic hymns and commentaries of Brahmanaspati and Sarasvati. Integrally devoted to priestly rites. Generous toward God pouring out without hesitation to others, especially the poor. Fearless in battle to return stolen boon without reward, trusting alone in God’s own bounty. Since much of this boon was likely livestock, Abraham’s battle with the 4 Kings may be related to the Vedic account of releasing of cows from the Underworld by Brahmanaspati/Brihaspati. Capable of healing impotence (Abraham/Brahmanaspati and King Abimalech) and celebrating a perpetual lineage. Holding his wife, Sarah, in high esteem, obeying God’s command to heed her words, reflective of Sarasvati as the goddess of Speech.


The laughter they shared at the birthing of Isaac (meaning, he laughs) was itself a spiritual hymn celebrating a true wish-born son of God (El Elyon/Brahma?), this lineage was like a line of pearls cleansed by sacred rites and protected by an eternal vow seasoned with a direct visitation with the Divine Triad. As if to highlight the influence the Vedas had on Abraham’s inner life, the Vedic commentaries contain the design of the Hebrew Tent of the Meeting. (See Chart 3 below); by Dan Fefferman at source and rights

The Upanishad’s Brahma Wheel design (Svetasvatara Upanishad 1.4 of 200-400bce) contains the same measurements as the Hebrew Tent of the Meeting (Exodus 26 of 450bce).

The value of this discovery is not so much how the numbers come together, but how the Vedic sages and Hebrews like Abraham came together. Their meeting was likely the result ancient Sumerian and Indian trade relations. All mercantile goods belonged to the city temples and were distributed with seals containing prayers and offerings to the gods. The priests and priestesses likely sent assistants for safe shipment distribution since it belonged to the temple god. As a result an exchange of spiritual culture was inevitable. Here is where Abraham historically compares with the Vedic writers:
Chart 1: Abraham and Vedic (Oral and Written) Timeline

Since the Svetasvatara was a later 3rd to 5th Century bce addition to the Upanishads, it containing the Brahma Wheel Tent of the Meeting measurements confirms a long lasting circle of communication between Vedic and Hebrew sages. As well, though Abraham lived about 4000 years ago, the Hebrew Pentateuch containing the book of Genesis was written closer to 450 bce. Oral traditions of the life of Abraham can be understood historically as follows:
Chart 2: Hebrew Text (Oral and Written) with Abraham Timeline

J or Y (Lord G*d Tradition) represents the ‘Yod’ or first letter of G*d’s name given to Moses at the burning bush (Exodus 3.14). This is the Hebrew name of G*d too sacred to utter and for the purposes of respecting this custom, the term Lord G*d is used in this research. The J Tradition corresponds to the oral tradition from Judah (Israel’s southern region) that wrote portions of Abraham’s life in Genesis 12-25 containing the Hebrew name of Lord G*d. The E (Most High Tradition) represents El-Elyon or Elohim-Elyon (God Most High), the Canaanite name of God used by Melchizedek, the Canaanite priest who blessed the Hebrew Abraham (see Genesis 14.18-20). Most High Tradition will be used in this research to refer to the scholars from this oral tradition who used this ‘foreign’ (Canaanite and Northern Israel) name of God. P (Priestly Tradition) represents scholars whose oral tradition corresponds to portions of the written life of Abraham (Gen12-25) that reflect Hebrew Temple customs and worship. Would the reasoning allow that a Brahma-God Tradition represents the scholars whose Vedic Oral Tradition and Written Text used the foreign Hindu name of God (Brahma) reflected in the spiritual life of Abraham? If so, this Brahma Tradition is similar to the Most High Tradition for the use of a name of the Supreme God foreign to the Hebrews (yet in theory acceptable) and similar to the Priestly Tradition due to the focus of the Brahman priests toward sacrificial customs. To avoid syncretism, the blending of two religions out of fear of losing the respect of both, consider these traditions as having met in history as far back as the father of humanity (Adam/Manu). At some point humanity has to admit that we are all one. Awaking these common traditional elements should only lead to a greater respect for one another and the resurgence of spiritual unity could not come at a more opportune moment in human history as we necessarily come together to overcome the global warming crisis. As well, there is always an oral tradition prior to writing of sacred texts. Though Abraham lived about 100 years before the Vedas were written, the spirit of the Vedas was likely active in earlier oral tradition as confirmed in the 10 common themes of Part I of this research. The Hebrew Oral Tradition of Abraham was evident in J, P and E traditions up to 450 years before the writing of the Pentateuch, but Abraham actually lived over 1500 years before the Pentateuch. Therefore, it would be premature to assert that Abraham’s lived experience reflected in ten common themes found in the Vedas resulted in the outcome of Vedic customs. Rather, Abraham is an essential

living example of Hebrew and Hindu customs common to the 10 themes, which must have influenced the next generation of Vedic scholars and left the aroma of a saint upon their commentaries. For instance, in the Svetasvatara Upanishad, this inner life of the true Brahman (Abraham/Brahmanaspati) must first be understood by defining the relationship between the cause and Brahma (the Supreme Self) and how we define them?
1. The Brahma-students say: Is Brahman the cause (or: What is the cause, what is the Brahman)? Whence are we born? Whereby do we live, and whither do we go? O ye who know Brahman, (tell us) at whose command we abide, whether in pain or in pleasure? Svetasvatara Upanishad 1

Abraham came from the City of Light (Ur) and traveled to land provided by God to produce wealth and offspring in an endless lineage that would bless the entire earth. He chose a very painful sacrifice, perhaps the most painful of all in the walk up the mount of sacrifice toward the offering up of his son. Yet, he received the pleasure of God’s favor over a lesser sacrifice with all the friendship, prosperity and victory in which that favor rests. This foundation of birth in the City of Enlightenment (Ur: lit. Light) predisposes or has raised Abraham into the knowledge of self-sacrifice to the highest degree, a higher degree of infusing with the divine life and an unlimited continuation of sacrifices made on behalf of the poor as a result of the outflowing of this divine life.
2. Should time, or nature (created identity), or necessity, or chance, or the elements be considered as the cause, or he who is called the person (purusha, vigñân-âtmâ)? It cannot be their union either, because that is not self-dependent (an outside unifier with an eternal river of life is needed), and the self (atman) also is powerless, because there is (independent of him) a cause of good and evil (karma fashions the atman – it is not self-existent). Svetasvatara Upanishad 1

Somewhere along the way Abraham understood that he was ‘powerless’ in himself, he understood his vulnerability (perhaps by a 100 years of barrenness or any number of life’s virtue building events).
3. The sages, devoted to meditation and concentration, have seen the power belonging to God himself (Isvara Deva – Lord God), hidden in its own qualities (guna – strands of brightness). He, being one, superintends all those causes, time, self, and the rest (atman on par with, time and cause are all governed by the Brahma). Svetasvatara Upanishad 1

Abraham is one of the sages meditating on the emptiness of his ideal self (atman), once God (Brahma) fills the atman, Abraham is a true Brahman. Therefore, it would be no surprise to see Abraham selflessly learning knew names of an unfathomable God, such as the name of Brahma as Supreme Lord God (Isvara Deva), since Melchizedek named this God, El (El-yown, God Most High), with a foreign tongue which Abraham embraced (Genesis 14.18.), as did the Hebrew nation from that day forth.
4. We meditate on him who (like a wheel) has one felly with three tires, sixteen ends, fifty spokes, with twenty counter-spokes, and six sets of eight; whose one rope is manifold, who proceeds on three different roads, and whose illusion arises from two causes.

5. We meditate on the river whose water consists of the five streams, which is wild and winding with its five springs, whose waves are the five vital breaths, whose fountain head is the mind, the course of the five kinds of perceptions. It has five whirlpools, its rapids are the five pains; it has fifty kinds of suffering, and five branches. Svetasvatara Upanishad 1

Without knowing the meaning of these numbers the sage is thrown into a fit of confusion: 1 wheel, 3 tyres, 16 ends, 100 spokes divided by 2, 20 counter-spokes, 6 by 8s, 1 rope that takes every shape, 3 different roads and 1 illusion with 2 causes. Perhaps the Divine is clearing out the crowd with, ‘Who wants to learn about the Great Mystery that is utterly beyond the understanding of the pure and empty soul (Atman)?’ Anyone slightly full of some level of worldly knowledge is going to walk away. Abraham and the Vedic sages stick around for a walk into the secret treasure house of the Eternal. One such sign is the correlation between the Brahma-wheel numerals (SvetU1.4.) and the design of the Tent of the Meeting Moses made in the desert (Exodus 26 and 36) as shown in Chart 3 above. This crossroads in Hindu and Hebrew history is not a contest, but rather a sacred meeting place. There is a parallel cultural reference among the meeting circle of the Blackfoot Tipi, where the numbers of poles used to make the tent are associated with certain values needed for the family to live a good life (see. http://www.hindu The Tent of the Presence was for a travelling priestly people and this is the imagery given by the Brahma-Wheel itself moving through human history (for two commentaries on the Svetasvatara Wheel see: 2011_02_01_ archive.html). In the Brahma-wheel roves the goose, a symbol of the Self (Atman) differentiated from the Divine (Brahma, God), yet still clinging to the Divine like Abraham’s grandson, Jacob, clutching the divine wrestler awaiting the blessing:
6. In that vast Brahma-wheel, in which all things live and rest, roves the goose, so long as he thinks that the self (in him) is different from the mover (the god, the lord). When he has been blessed by him, then he gains immortality. Svetasvatara Upanishad 1

The goose as the self within the Brahma-wheel is an ancient image found even on the Indus Valley seals. Early Indian coins have the Buddha surrounded by such a Brahma-wheel as well.

Indus Seal

Indian Coin

The Indus Seals contain a vessel ‘Ka’, for the self, surrounding the goose enclosed by a circle. This ‘Ka’ for the self relates also with ancient Egyptian spirituality, a location of Abraham’s travels. The Vedic meaning of Ka is ‘Who?’ from Rig Veda 10.121. ‘Who is the god we should worship with the oblation?’ It is Prajapati (Lord of Creation, the Golden Embryo) whose name is

synonymous with ‘Ka’. The ‘Ka’ is called Brahman (ChanU4.10.5.) and equated with ‘Kha’ (What? and akasa, meaning space, BU5.1.).
5. 'Breath is Brahman, Ka (pleasure) is Brahman, Kha (ether) is Brahman.' He said: 'I understand that breath is Brahman, but I do not understand Ka or Kha (Ka also means pleasure).' They said: 'What is Ka is Kha, what is Kha is Ka (pleasures of the infinite void, the soul).' They therefore taught him Brahman as breath, and as the ether (in the eternally selfless empty Atman of the heart where meditation by prana or breath attains Brahman). ChanU4.10.5.

The saying ‘Ka is Kha’ identifies the kind of pleasure as being from the space, ether or infinity void. This pleasure in nothing is unattached to worldly desire, and therefore must be an unselfish spiritual pleasure. The ‘Ka is Kha’ then, speaks of a lasting vow between the Divine and the soul where devotion is exchanged selflessly and ceaselessly. The reverse saying ‘Kha is Ka’ identifies the kind of space within the Atman were a spiritual pleasure exists, which could only mean within the heart (see The example of Abraham is one who is so generous with his goods that he bears witness to an infinite void in his heart overflowing only with the Infinite Divine Life. Also, consider ‘Ka is Kha’ as the soul is empty, which is the ultimate prayer of Abraham in his true Atman nature. While the ‘Kha is Ka’ as emptiness is the soul, which is the echo of the divine life in answer to Abraham’s prayer making his true Brahman nature immediately appear. That is, there is no distance or time lapse between Atman and Brahman, since the Ultimate Creator designed the human soul to be empty that the Brahma might find a home. Therefore, the true Atman is content to be empty, for this is the sign of his or her true Brahman nature. And the Brahman does not labor apart from waiting on Brahma for an infilling of the Divine Life. The moon is the perfect celestial sign of this waning and waxing experience of the Atman/Brahman effected by the rays of Brahma. Is this the spiritual upbringing of Abraham? Given that both of his homeland cities, Ur to the south and Haran to the north, contained temples to the moon god, Sin/Nanna, his knowledge of this spirituality is understandable. Therefore, the Brahma-wheel revolves around this Ka revolving Kha imagery also reflected in the motion of celestial phenomena, the Milky Way, the sun, the moon, etc.. Since the empty Atman is filled to become Brahman by the miracle of Brahma, the natural environment of earth and space is considered a stepping stone or miracle we can see that raises us to the Brahma Miracle and Great Mystery we cannot see. Was Abraham’s grandson Jacob captured by the unseen Brahma Miracle in this Brahma-wheel when he wrestled with the Divine Spirit on the crossroads? His hip was dislodged to prove the greatness of the Angelic Wrestler and that the human may offer a sacrifice which is most valued from the animal’s hip (Genesis 32.22-32). Jacob, though wounded, held onto the Divine Life until he had been blessed by him, as in the above verse.
7. But what is praised (in the Upanishads) is the Highest Brahman, and in it there is the triad (good support, atman, Brahma). The Highest Brahman is the safe support, it is imperishable. The Brahma-students, when they have known what is within this (world), are devoted and merged in the Brahman, free from birth. 8. The Lord (îsa) supports all this together, the perishable and the imperishable, the developed and the undeveloped. The (living) self, not being a lord, is bound, because he has to enjoy (the fruits of works); but when he has known the god (deva), he is freed from all fetters… (see 9-12 also) Svetasvatara Upanishad 1

Jacob’s wound requires a support to move about with a limp. Jacob needs assistance, and his assistance comes in his dream of the servants delivering gifts back and forth from heaven and earth (Genesis 28:10-19).
1. Uddâlaka Âruni (Vagasravasa Gautama) said to his son Svetaketu (Nachiketas who was offered by his father to Underworld guardian, Yama, KatU1-3): Learn from me the true nature of sleep (svapna). When a man sleeps here, then, my dear son, he becomes united with the True (Sat, not mere truth, but the True, the highest substance or subject, Brahman), he is gone to his own (Self). Therefore they say, svapiti, he sleeps, because he is gone (apîta) to his own (sva). 2. 'As a bird when tied by a string flies first in every direction, and finding no rest anywhere, settles down at last on the very place where it is fastened, exactly in the same manner, my son, that mind (the gîva, or living Self in the mind, see VI, 3, 2), after flying in every direction, and finding no rest anywhere, settles down on breath (prana as Sat, the True Middle Breath); for indeed, my son, mind is fastened to breath. Chandogya Upanishad 6.8.1-2.

That support through the Tonglen meditation of breathing in suffering of the world, realization of emptiness, atman and breathing out goodness, brahman, is guided by the Divine Brahma who alone can fill the middle-breath (see Tonglen wiki). Or, as the Upanishad states, the meditators head will burst open if they breath in and breath out without Divine support. That is, perceiving suffering and pain, while simultaneously understanding the solution, without the power to do anything about it is complete madness. But the Vedic sages teach us that there is a Deva, a God, a Divine Source, an Eternal River and Tree of Life. Abraham has a limp of his own, barrenness with the love of his life, Sarah. His journey consisted on leaving the City of Light (Ur). He left the Atman’s City in a sacrificial journey in order to receive the blessing of Divine Life and a lineage of priestly people; of Brahma and Brahman. A reflection of this Brahma and priestly offering continues:
3. 'Learn from me, my son, what are hunger and thirst. When a man is thus said to be hungry, water is carrying away (digests) what has been eaten by him. Therefore as they speak of a cow-leader (go-nâya), a horse-leader (asva-nâya), a man-leader (purusha-nâya), so they call water (which digests food and causes hunger) food-leader (asa-nâya). Thus (by food digested &c.), my son, know this offshoot (the body) to be brought forth, for this (body) could not be without a root (cause). 4. 'And where could its root be except in food (earth)? And in the same manner, my son, as food (earth) too is an offshoot, seek after its root, viz. water. And as water too is an offshoot, seek after its root, viz. fire. And as fire too is an offshoot, seek after its root, viz. the True. Yes, all these creatures, my son, have their root in the True (Brahma), they dwell in the True, they rest in the True. 5. 'When a man is thus said to be thirsty, fire carries away what has been drunk by him. Therefore as they speak of a cow-leader (go-nâya), of a horse-leader (asva-nâya), of a man-leader (purusha-nâya), so they call fire udanyâ, thirst, i. e. water-leader. Thus (by water digested &c.), my son, know this offshoot (the body) to be brought forth: this (body) could not be without a root (cause). Chandogya Upanishad 6.8.3-5.

The inner life of Abraham surely involved a dialogue with El, the Most High, about the cause of his life. In order to raise his understanding of the empty self toward the Most High, Abraham had to fast and pray. He had to empty himself. Understanding is not necessarily an ‘aha!’ moment, rather it is a lived experience with the ‘aha!’ As above, a dialogue with hunger and thirsty must first occur. This is the first offering of every priest or brahman, first they must stop eating in order to prepare their body and soul for the priestly portion of the offering. Chandogya

continues by discussing the stepping stones from the empty self to the Divine Life. These stepping stones are the portions of creation within the grasp of the empty self (Atman). For the cow-leader, he can offer up the cow; for the horse leader, the horse; for the man-leader or father, he can offer up the man. This is precisely what Abraham does with Sarah’s first-born, when the Most High replaces his son Isaac with a ram. That is why Brahma and Sarasvati restore their son Daksa to life with the head of a ram. Later, Abraham would understand that the mere washing at his wells would be enough to purify his empty self for reception of the Divine life, much like the Hindu washing in the Ganges. The point is these stepping stones of nature merely point us to the root source, (the upsidedown tree) the True (Brahma) Divine Life of the Most High (El).
6. 'And where could its root be except in water? As water is an offshoot, seek after its root, viz. fire. As fire is an offshoot, seek after its root, viz. the True. Yes, all these creatures, O son, have their root in the True, they dwell in the True, they rest in the True. 'And how these three beings (devatâ), fire, water, earth, O son, when they reach man, become each of them tripartite, has been said before (VI, 4, 7). When a man departs from hence, his speech is merged in his mind, his mind in his breath, his breath in heat (fire), heat in the Highest Being (upon dying, he speaks no more, thinks no more, moves no more, then he is cold, therefore these are signs of life from the Creator). 7. 'Now that which is that subtle essence (the root of all), in it all that exists has its self. It is the True (Sat, Brahma). It is the Self, that art thou (Tat tvam asi), O Svetaketu.' Chandogya Upanishad 6.8.6-7.

Tat Tvam asi, that art thou, akin to you are made in the image of God (Genesis 1.26-27). This covenant required total trust in the Divine Brahma, the Creator of humanity and shaper of our purpose and destiny.
13. As the form of fire, while it exists in the under-wood, is not seen, nor is its seed destroyed, but it has to be seized again and again by means of the stick and the under-wood, so it is in both cases, and the Self has to be seized in the body by means of the pra nava (the syllable Om: meditating the middle breath by aligning the empty atman and the full brahman with Eternal Brahma). 14. By making his body the under-wood, and the syllable Om the upper-wood, man, after repeating the drill of meditation, will perceive the bright god, like the spark hidden in the wood. 15. As oil in seeds, as butter in cream, as water in (dry) river-beds (acquired by digging), as fire in wood, so is the Self seized within the self, if man looks for him by truthfulness and penance; 16. (If he looks) for the Self that pervades everything, as butter is contained in milk, and the roots whereof are self-knowledge and penance. That is the Brahman taught by the Upanishad. Svetasvatara Upanishad 1

Brahma loves Abraham by creating surroundings for Abraham to find the empty atman self and the full brahman, molding them together and waiting for the Divine response to the covenant to occur in an exchange of devotion void of fear. This love is evident to the Vedic text drawing out a priesthood lead by the heart of a child:
1. Verily he who knows the babe (subtle inner body of the lingatman disciple) with his place (course outer body), his chamber (head), his post (the vital breathe), and his rope (food binding inner to outer body), he keeps off the seven relatives who hate him (seven senses of attachment to the world). … 3. On this there is this Sloka: 'There is a cup having its mouth below and its bottom above. Manifold glory has been placed into it. On its lip sit the seven Rishis,

The tongue as the eighth communicates with Brahman.' Brhadaranyaka Upanishad 2.2.1-3. (See Atharva Veda 10.8.9-28 in Supplement)

The sacrifice ordained by the seven Rishis and the priestly Brahma as reflected in Ursa Major (the Big Dipper) is accessible to their disciple who merely reflects within himself (the babe). His breathing meditation is as valid as the sacrificial post and rope holding the horse or bull offering fed to the deity. The Big Dipper is pouring down for two reasons: to specify the season telling that the meditation is to be repeated and to clarify that the gift of endless glory within is poured down from above. The Buddha found his breathing meditation confirmed in the Atharva Veda and Upanishads practiced by any disciple to become a Brahman. Yet, the heavenly glory is intertwined with the rope (uniting mind to body) of eternal food provided in the breathing sacrifice. The meditation sacrifice has a unifying effect, fastening occurs between priest and farmer, spirit and body, perhaps religion and culture, etc.. Is Abraham’s quickness to bless the three heavenly beings with such offering of food a testimony that he also fashioned on his heart this heavenly meditation with a childlike devotion? The cup with its mouth below and bottom above is contrasted with the World-Tree of life:
1. 'There is that ancient tree (fig tree dropping branches growing roots making a forest), whose roots grow upward and whose branches grow downward; that (BG 15.1-3) indeed is called the Bright, that is called Brahman, that alone is called the Immortal. All worlds are contained in it, and no one goes beyond. This is that.' 5. 'As in a mirror, so (Brahman may be seen clearly) here in this 'body; as in a dream, in the world of the Fathers; as in the water, he is seen about in the world of the Gandharvas; as in light and shade, in the world of Brahmâ.'… (see 13-19 also) Katha Upanishad 6.1-19.

This single fig tree producing a forest and overturned cup of heaven represents the miraculous attainment of the divine presence of Brahma in the empty vessel of the self (atman). Past, present and future consist of an eternal timeline where this Brahma is present. The atman is required to enter the current moment or breath and become nothing or empty to receive the Space of Brahma. Brahma is named the ether or space to express the eternal vastness of the divine and at the same time the minuteness, the ‘dwarfness’ or ease at which the Brahma can enter the empty self or atman, yet at the same time fill the atman with a deluge of cleansing water, a permanent river of life.
1. In the imperishable and infinite Highest Brahman, wherein the two, knowledge and ignorance, are hidden, the one, ignorance, perishes, the other, knowledge, is immortal; but he who controls both, knowledge and ignorance, is another…. (see 2-5 also) 6 . Brahma (Hiranyagarbha) knows this, which is hidden in the Upanishads, which are hidden in the Vedas, as the Brahma-germ. The ancient gods and poets who knew it, they became it and were immortal. 7 (Tat, That, is described as the Eternal Brahman, while Tvam, Thou/You is the living soul). But he who is endowed with qualities, and performs works that are to bear fruit, and enjoys the reward of whatever he has done, migrates through his own works, the lord of life, assuming all forms, led by the three Gu nas, and following the three paths (vice, virtue and knowledge). 8 That lower one also, not larger than a thumb, but brilliant like the sun, who is endowed with personality and thoughts, with the quality of mind and the quality of body, is seen small even like the point of a goad.

9. That living soul is to be known as part of the hundredth part of the point of a hair, divided a hundred times, and yet it is to be infinite…. (see also 10-14) Svetasvatara Upanishad 5.1-14.

That is, the one whose sacrificial meditation of breathing in/breathing out; of the Soma sacrifice; of Yoga; etc. is sincere, they become truly self-empty and Brahman full in a profound miraculous way, much like a fig tree or eternally pouring vessel and their destiny is secure in love not fear. Therefore, this fear of one’s destiny can be transformed by way of this eternally breathing sacrifice with a healthy love of the self, or the atman. Consider the following quotations:
Verily, the priesthood (Brahman) is not dear, for love of the priesthood; but for love of the Self (Atman), the priesthood is dear. Brhadaranyaka Upanishad 2.4.5.; 4.5.6. Whoever looks for the priesthood (Brahman) outside of the Self, is lost to the priesthood…. Whoever looks for the Devas outside of the Self, is lost to the Devas. Whoever looks for the Vedas outside of the Self, is lost to the Vedas. Whoever looks for the creatures outside of the Self, is lost to the creatures. Whoever looks for anything outside of the Self, is lost to anything. This priesthood (Brahman) … these Devas, these Vedas, all these beings, this everything, all is that Self (Atman). Brhadaranyaka Upanishad 4.5.7. This indeed is the great, the unborn Self (Atman), the strong (Annada: strength of food of the gods dwelling in all beings), the giver of wealth. He who knows this obtains wealth. This great, unborn Self, undecaying, undying, immortal, fearless, is indeed Brahman. Fearless is Brahman, and he who knows this becomes verily the fearless Brahman. Brhadaranyaka Upanishad 4.4.24-25.

The Atman, then, is the model or mold of the greatest self a person can become. This person is not fearful, but eternally loving, self-giving, empty, as a vessel (with the Seven Rsis and Brahman around the edge), ready to enter the breathing sacrifice to give all and receive all. This empty vessel of the heart is likened to space in the Upanishads:
He who is called space (âkâsa – Brahma as eternally vast or great and infinitely small or attainable within the heart) is the revealer of all forms and names. That within which these forms and names are contained is the Brahman, the Immortal, the Self (Atman). I come to the hall of Pragâpati, to the house; I am the glorious among Brahmans, glorious among princes, glorious among men. I obtained that glory, I am glorious among the glorious. May I never go to the white, toothless, yet devouring, white abode; may I never go to it. Chandogya Upanishad 8.14.

Once the all (the Brahma) of the Universal Self is received, the Atman is full and can be called a true and fearless Brahman.
6…But as to the man who does not desire, who, not desiring, freed from desires, is satisfied in his desires, or desires the Self (Atman) only, his vital spirits do not depart elsewhere,--being Brahman, he goes to Brahman…. 8 1. 'On this there are these verses: 'The small, old path stretching far away (leading across the barren land) has been found by me. On it sages who know Brahman move on to the Svarga-loka (heaven), and thence higher on, as entirely free. 9. 'On that path they say that there is white, or blue, or yellow, or green, or red; that path was found by Brahman, and on it goes whoever knows Brahman, and who has done good, and obtained splendour….

13. 'Whoever has found and understood the Self (Atman) that has entered into this patched-together hidingplace (empty vessel of the body designed by Brahma), he indeed is the creator, for he is the maker of everything, his is the world, and he is the world itself.… 15. 'If a man clearly beholds this Self as God, and as the lord of all that is and will be, then he is no more afraid…. (see 17-22 also) Brhadaranyaka Upanishad 4.4.9-22.

This sacrifice of the self, or emptying of self has the purpose of identifying this Atman vessel within the heart and soul.
7. When he thus elevates the child both before and after his birth, he really elevates his own self, 8. For the continuation of these worlds (men). For thus are these worlds continued. 9. This is his second birth. (3) 10. He (the son), being his self, is then placed in his stead for (the performance of) all good works. 11. But his other self (the father), having done all he has to do, and having reached the full measure of his life, departs. 12. And departing from hence he is born again. That is his third birth. 13. And this has been declared by a Rishi (Rv. IV, 27, 1): (4) Aiteraya Upanishad 2.5.1.

And this purpose of filling with the Brahman is intended to lead the recipient to an eternal bliss with the Brahma at death:
3. He (at the time of death), having reached the path of the gods, comes to the world of Agni (fire), to the world of Vâyu (air), … to the world of Brahman (Hiranyagarbha). In that world there is the lake Âra (ocean of ari, opposites – Churning of the Ocean), the moments (or watchmen) called Yeshtiha (sacrificial moments where the oblation is killed or the Brahman is desired by meditation), the river Vigarâ (ageless, a mountain, not swallowing), the tree Ilya (of refreshment), the city Sâlagya (Sal tree of bow string), the palace Aparâgita (unconquerable), the door-keepers Indra and Pragâpati, the hall of Brahman, called Vibhu (built by vibhu, extensive), the throne Vikakshanâ (shining buddhi, perception), the couch Amitaugas (endless splendour), and the beloved Mânasî (mind) and her image Kâkshushî (eye), who, as if taking flowers, are weaving the worlds, and the Apsaras, the Ambâs (sruti, sacred scriptures), and Ambâyavîs (buddhi, understanding), and the rivers Ambayâs (leading to the knowledge of Brahman). To this world he who knows this (who knows the Paryaṅka -vidyâ) approaches. Brahman says to him: 'Run towards him (servants) with such worship as is due to myself. He has reached the river Vi garâ (age-less), he will never age. 4b.They adorn him with an adornment worthy of Brahman, and when thus adorned with the adornment of Brahman, the knower of Brahman moves towards Brahman (neut.) He comes to the lake Âra, and he crosses it by the mind, while those who come to it without knowing the truth, are drowned. He comes to the moments called Yeshtiha, they flee from him. He comes to the river Vigarâ, and crosses it by the mind alone, and there shakes off his good and evil deeds. … Being freed from good and freed from evil (produced at the Churning of the Ocean) he, the knower of Brahman (neut.), moves towards Brahman. 5. He approaches the tree Ilya, and the odour of Brahman reaches him. He approaches the city Sâlagya, and the flavour of Brahman reaches him. He approaches the palace Aparâ gita, and the splendour of Brahman reaches him. He approaches the door-keepers Indra and Pragâpati, and they run away from him. He approaches the hall Vibhu, and the glory of Brahman reaches him (he thinks, I am Brahman). …. Then Brahman says to him: 'Who art thou?' and he shall answer: 6. 'I am (like) a season, and the child of the seasons, sprung from the womb of endless space, from the light (from the luminous Brahman). The light, the origin of the year, which is the past, which is the present, which is all living things, and all elements, is the Self 3. Thou art the Self. … Brahman says to him: 'Who am I?' He shall answer: 'That which is, the true' (Sat-tyam).

Brahman asks: 'What is the true?' He says to him: 'What is different from the gods and from the senses (prâna) that is Sat, but the gods and the senses are Tyam. Therefore by that name Sattya (true) is called all this whatever there is. All this thou art.' 7. This is also declared by a verse: 'This great Rishi, whose belly is the Yagus, the head the Sâman, the form the Rik, is to be known as being imperishable, as being Brahman.' Brahman says to him: 'How dost thou obtain my male names?' He should answer: 'By breath (prâ nah).' Brahman asks: 'How my female names?' He should answer: 'By speech (vâ k).' Brahman asks: 'How my neuter names?' He should answer: 'By mind (manas).'… Brahman says to him: 'Water indeed is this my world 1, the whole Brahman world, and it is thine.' Whatever victory, whatever might belongs to Brahman, that victory and that might he obtains who knows this, yea, who knows this. Kausitaki Upanishad 1.3-7.

The Brahman used the Soma by taking the stock of the vine which was in the shape of a man and pressing it to find the intoxicating substance within. In the Vedas this Soma becomes the central offering, making up no fewer than 114 hymns.
The Hymn of the Soma - Pressed Man-shaped Reed – in place of Isaac… 1. WISELY have I enjoyed the savoury viand, religious-thoughted, best to find out treasure, The food to which all Deities and mortals, calling it meath, gather themselves together. 2 Tlou shalt be Aditi as thou hast entered within, appeaser of celestial anger. Indu, enjoying Indra's friendship, bring us—as a swift steed the car—forward to riches. 3 We have drunk Soma and become immortal; we have attained the light, the Gods discovered. Now what may foeman's malice do to harm us? What, O Immortal, mortal man's deception? 4 Absorbed into the heart, be sweet, O Indu, as a kind father to his son, O Soma, As a wise Friend to friend: do thou, wide-ruler, O Soma, lengthen out our days for living …. (see also 5-15) Rig Veda 8.48

Soma in place of the bloody offering of horse, bull, ram and goat makes sense if the sacrificial meditation is to lean away from fear of death by appeasing heaven toward love of life infused from above. Even in a funerary prayer hope resounds from the Soma as it increases and decreases:
12. 'The altar, O Gautama, is man; the fuel the opened mouth, the smoke the breath, the light the tongue, the coals the eye, the sparks the ear. On that altar the Devas offer food. From that oblation rises seed. 13. 'The altar, O Gautama, is woman. On that altar the Devas offer seed. From that oblation rises man. He lives so long as he lives, and then when he dies, 14. 'They take him to the fire (the funeral pile), and then the altar-fire is indeed fire, the fuel fuel, the smoke smoke, the light light, the coals coals, the sparks sparks. In that very altar-fire the Devas offer man, and from that oblation man rises, brilliant in colour. 15. 'Those who thus know this (even Grihasthas), and those who in the forest with faith worship the True (Brahman Hiranyagarbha), go to light (arkis), from … the world of the Devas to the sun, from the sun to the place of lightning. When they have thus reached the place of lightning a spirit (from the Brahma world) comes near them, and leads them to the worlds of the Brahman. In these worlds of Brahman they dwell exalted for ages. There is no returning for them. 16. 'But they who conquer the worlds (future states) by means of sacrifice, charity, and austerity, go to smoke, from smoke to … the world of the fathers, from the world of the fathers to the moon. Having reached the moon, they become food, and then the Devas feed on them there, as sacrificers feed on Soma, as it increases and decreases. But when this (the result of their good works on earth) ceases, they return again to that ether, from ether to the air, from the air to rain, from rain to the earth. And when they have reached the earth, they become food, they are offered again in the altar-fire, which is man, and thence are born in the fire of woman. Thus they rise up towards the worlds, and go the same round as before.

'Those, however, who know neither of these two paths, become worms, birds,, and creeping things.' Brhadaranyaka Upanishad 6.2.15-16.

The mediation of Soma intoxicates the recipient letting them know there is something unusual, even heavenly infusing them. Therefore, the Soma sacrifice must be repeated as a reminder. However, the mountain plant was not always accessible and other forms of meditation, like Yoga and breathing out to empty the Atman and breathing in Brahma became more common. In the prayer above there is hope for those whose meditation of emptying the Atman to fill it with Brahma seems incomplete. Even at death they can try to empty themselves again, or missing the paths of Brahman altogether can hope in the witness of worms, birds and creeping things to remind them of the way to go. In other words, every call of life can become an offering pleasing to the gods and a way of exchanging nourishment between heaven and earth. The names chanted in the Rig Veda 10.68. (see above) stand for, Bhaga is the god of wealth who distributes goods and destiny to the people providing nourishment and a sense of belonging through the sacrifice; Aryaman is the god who controls to dharma of the sun, the Milky Way and time itself, providing seasonal and festival timing to the sacrifice; Vala is the personified stone enclosure holding the sacred Cattle with their secret name for the nourishing sacrifice between heaven and earth, providing a barrier to contain the sacrifice in sacred enclosure until its benefits can be released; Brihaspati is the will born son of Brahma, providing a High Priest of the heavenly sacrifice. As mentioned above, the cattle are important because they freely give milk while eating only grass. Unlike horses and sheep, they do not eat the grass to the roots. Therefore, the grass and milk also become an offering and sign of generosity. The farmer digging to plant his barley is himself the High Priest releasing the cows from the Underworld with a cleansing deluge in harmony with the Vedic Soma, Angi, Indra and Brhaspati. With the generous cattle, the gift bearing Bhaga, the sky-watching Aryaman, the secret hiding Vala and the Champion of the Underworld, Brihaspati, all the characters are present for the seasonal distribution of the portions of nourishing sacrifice. The Upanishads state:
And when they say, 'Sacrifice to this or sacrifice to that god,' each god is but his manifestation, for he is all gods. Now, whatever there is moist, that he created from seed; this is Soma. So far verily is this universe either food or eater. Soma indeed is food, Agni eater. This is the highest creation of Brahman, when he created the gods from his better part, and when he, who was (then) mortal, created the immortals. Therefore it was the highest creation. And he who knows this, lives in this his highest creation. Brhadaranyaka Upanishad 1.4.5-6.

Those who look for witnesses to the nourishment of the Soma sacrifice call on Sarasvati:
Whoever reads the essence stored by saints, the Pavamani hymns, Sarasvatī draws forth for him water and butter, milk and meath (Soma). Rig Veda 9.67.32.

Like those in Brahma’s world look to Sarasvati for nourishment towards enlightenment of speech, those in Abraham’s circles look to Sarah. Together they eagerly entered a sacrificial

covenant with God going so far as to offer the son, in order to also immortalize his lineage. The angel came and pointed to the Ram caught in the bush. Like Brahma’s son, Daksha, and the Dakshina gift given to the Brahma of the Soma Sacrifice, Abraham was given the gift of his son at the mountain when the ram was caught in the branch. Like the farmer in Krishna’s day, the offering of self can be anything from the heart. Like the first ancestor, Adam, a single breath was enough to nourish the man into life and as the Buddha has taught, a breath is all that is needed as an offering to solidify our pathway to enlightenment. With newborn Ishmael, his very ankle rubbing the sand was enough to unleash an eternal spring from the desert that saved the life of Hagar and her son. This essential influence of the women in Abraham’s life will be further explored in Part III of this research.

Supplement 1: More Rig Veda and Atharva Veda Hymns Associated with Brahma, Brahmanaspati (Brihaspati) and Sarasvati (Vak)
Rig Veda 7.95-96. Hymns of Praise to the River Sarasvati, RV10.67-68 Hymns of Brahma rescuing the cows from the underworld. (Dakshina – Churning of Ocean) Atharva Veda 20.16. Hymn of Brihaspati Rescuing the Cows from the Underworld AV20.91. Brihaspati Rescuing the Cows from the Underworld RV10.72. Daksa’s Child RV10.15. The Fathers RV8.31. The Hymn of the Disciple of Brahma RV10.166 Dream-charm for Redemption … (see also 1-3) 4 When, Indra, Brahmaṇaspati, our deeds are wrongful and unjust, May provident Aṅgirasa prevent our foes from troubling, us. 5 We have prevailed this day and won: we are made free from sin and guilt. Ill thoughts, that visit us awake or sleeping, seize the man we hate, yea, seize the man who hateth us. RV9.67 Soma and others RV8.89. Indra-Vak (goddess of speech) RV10.125 Vak Sama Veda 7.4.1. The Explanation of the Soma Sacrifice SV2.2.9. He who practices witchcraft should offer to Agni and Visnu on eleven potsherds; Sarasvati should have a portion of the butter, and to Brhaspati an oblation (be offered) SV5.6.2. He draws cups of water; the cups are the royal consecration; the fire is the consecration; the royal consecration is the consecration of Varuna; (the fire) to be piled is Agni's consecration SV7.4.18.a-f … (See also a-e) f They call the altar-ground the furthest end of the earth. They call the sacrifice the navel of the world. They call Soma the seed of the strong horse. (They call) the Brahman the highest realm of speech. Atharva Veda 5.17. The abduction and restoration of a Brahman’s wife (Like Abraham’s Sarah from the Pharoah and Abimalech) AV11.1. An accompaniment to the preparation and presentation of a Brahmaudana AV11.5. A glorification of the Brahmachgri or religious student Atharva Veda 10.8.9-28 More on Brahma and the Seven Rishis 9 The bowl with mouth inclined and bottom upward holds stored within it every form of glory. Thereon together sit the Seven Rishis who have become this mighty One's protectors 10The Verse employed at opening and conclusion, the Verse employed in each and every portion; That by which sacrifice proceedeth onward. I ask thee which is that of all the Verses.

11That which hath power of motion, that which flies, or stands, which breathes or breathes not, which, existing, shuts the eye Wearing all forms that entity upholds the earth, and in its close consistence still is only one.… 14c. Holding aloft the water as a water-bearer in her jar. (see also 15-28) Maitri Upanishad 6.1, 9. The Breath and the Sun rise in the heart of the selfless meditator. Maitri Upanishad 7. (see all) See also, Genesis 24, Eldest Servant of Abraham finds Isaac a wife. This chapter has much repetition and so resembles a hymn, likely used in various forms by this aging servant (Eleasor) in the spiritual upbringing of Abraham. See also, the tablets of Ur from Abraham’s era, researched in Part III coming soon.

References: Ballou, R. O. (Ed.), 1972. The Viking Portable Library World Bible. New York: The Viking Press. &source=bl&ots=zknXTrCTHD&sig=Iy9yTVZk2b4HRZtQ27Es2DVj9go&hl=en&sa=X&ei=0 KkmUsT5GomRiQKTqIGwAw&ved=0CFIQ6AEwBw#v=onepage&q=daksina%204.1.4.&f=fa lse

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