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# Research Proposal - M. D.

Sheppeard

PROs and Spectra in Categorical Quantum Information 1 Background

One important task for a theoretical physicist is to develop new, user friendly computational tools for real world phenomena that have not previously been amenable to a simple analysis. In the context of particle physics, which is where the motivation for this research partly lies, the discipline has largely failed at this task in recent decades, with the exception of the success of twistor scattering amplitudes and results in heavy ion physics. For example, there is no precise derivation of the charged lepton masses, despite the fact that a simple relation [1] used to predict the tau mass in 1982 is still correct within experimental precision [2]. This Koide relation is expressible in terms of three eigenvalues for a 3 × 3 matrix, in the form of a discrete Fourier series on three points. Moreover, although the same relation may be used to predict neutrino masses and to ﬁnd triplet patterns amongst hadron masses [3], the potential connection to information theory remains unexplored, largely due to the prejudice that particle masses cannot be studied independently of traditional ﬁeld theory techniques. And yet any knowledge gained of such fundamental particle properties must have enormous implications for physics and technology. It is likely that a new description of mass plays an important role in the redeﬁnition of scattering amplitudes which is indicated by recent twistor results. On varying scales one sees atoms, cells, planets and galaxies, and this hierarchy of structures deﬁnes discrete scale changes. We now imagine that classical conservation laws are derived from effective continuous symmetries, which should emerge from a more atomic description of spacetime degrees of freedom. Old style quantum information theory contains too little physics to be up to the task of describing emergent geometries, or scattering amplitudes in ﬁeld theory, but modern techniques use category theory [4], a branch of mathematics that uniﬁes logic, algebra and geometry by representing both propositional statements and equations with diagrams. This research aims to apply the combinatorics of PROs and PROPs (categorical structures associated to diagrams in quantum information theory) to computations beyond ordinary quantum mechanics. Motivation for the proposal comes from known results using a related structure, an operad. In [5], it was shown how the combinatorics of a one dimensional operad (the associahedra) underlies the evaluation of certain scattering amplitudes in quantum ﬁeld theory. Whereas a one dimensional operad is based on ordinary counting numbers, a general operad is based on rooted tree diagrams, where the so called dimension is given by the number of branching levels. Although there is a large literature on categorical quantum ﬁeld theory, it focuses on the traditional Feynman diagram point of view. This alternative higher dimensional combinatorics has not yet been applied to scattering amplitudes in particle physics, even though the known one dimensional results correspond to non trivial observable physical quantities. Work is required to understand how these results may be related to the twistor geometry picture.

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**2 Research Hypothesis and Objectives
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The proposal aims to: 1. abstract the aforementioned application of the discrete Fourier transform to the language of higher dimensional category theory 2. to study combinatorial invariants, related to PROs and PROPs, analogous to the operad combinatorics underlying massless particle scattering amplitudes using categorical polytopes [5] 3. then clarify the role of the discrete Fourier series for quantum numbers using these methods Initially, the research will focus on connecting simple graphical invariants to richer mathematical concepts, such as Grothendieck’s motives, which appear in the cohomology underlying the known scattering amplitudes [5]. It is assumed that observable rest masses behave like other quantum numbers in the sense that they take on a discrete set of values which are amenable to computation. A mass spectrometer may, in principle, separate the three kinds of charged leptons in a mixed beam, in analogy to the determination of spin in a Stern-Gerlach experiment. Spin (or perhaps parity) eigenvalues arise from the Pauli σX circulant matrix

0 1 1 0

.

In contrast, the qutrit circulant (odd cycle) has complex eigenvalues λj = ω j for j ∈ 1, 2, 3 and ω the primitive cubed root of unity. Since the mass eigenvalues must arise from a Hermitian circulant, where we set the diagonal values to 1, they take the form

√ mj ≡ µj = µ(1 + 2rcos(θ + 2πj/3))

for parameters r and θ [3] and √ ﬁxed scale µ. The charged lepton (and neutrino) masses a are ﬁtted with the choice 2r = 2. A 3 × 3 even circulant is always symmetric. Positive integral symmetric matrices may represent path counts on a categorical graph with three input strings and three outputs. This may deﬁne a bialgebra morphism, where the diagrams are associated to a bialgebra PRO, but we are not initially concerned with any particular choice of algebra object. In category theory we can count things more general than sets, and obtain general positive rational numbers as cardinalities. Such symmetric matrices also provide an interesting expression for the hyperdeterminant measure of entanglement for three (real) qubits [6], well known to be related to quantum black hole entropy [7]. It would perhaps not be surprising to ﬁnd that mass operators in quantum information theory have some connection to entanglement resources. An example of such a morphism is given by the (directed) graph

oOO ooo OO OOO oo Ooo

1 1 0 1 2 1 0 1 1

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The difﬁculty is to understand the role of general complex numbers. From the viewpoint of alternative quantum logics, which one expects to be important, a limited number of experimental outcomes should imply a limited range of truth values. In the categorical constructions being considered (in particular, Chu matrices) Hilbert spaces are ugly, because they require matrices to be indexed by complex numbers. On the other hand, the 3 × 3 entanglement matrices are genuinely indexed by a three element particle set. As functions on a discrete torus of nine points, the Fourier series are also indexed by a ﬁnite set of three positions. It may be instructive to consider the 3 × 3 operators as small pieces of the complex indexed operators. This selection of three points on the Riemann sphere is analogous to the three input strings of a one dimensional diagram. However, note that surface diagrams are more likely to be interpreted here in terms of twistor geometry and entanglement measures, than in a traditional string theory setting. It is known that the moduli of Riemann surfaces with points are described by a tiling with operad polytopes, but the extension to higher dimensional combinatorics remains largely unexplored. It is also known that classical information ﬂow in categorical diagrams is based on PROs, or operads. This project will investigate information theoretic interpretations for the ﬁeld theory computations. To reiterate, the overall aims of this project are: 1. to start the development of combinatorial (PRO) descriptions of scattering amplitudes in a new approach to particle physics 2. to obtain an improved understanding of related matrix observables, which may clarify particle mass relations, using categorical methods Quantum computation is a fast growing ﬁeld, with tentacles across many disciplines, but few people in this ﬁeld have thought hard about the nature of quantum gravity, or alternative formulations of the standard model. This proposal is extremely novel, because it hypothesises that, although ideas in string theory are relevant, they are not fundamental, and this criticism applies also to the standard model. It is timely, in particular, because: 1. any project with the potential to improve analyses of LHC events before the experiments are carried out, deserves funding now 2. although many work on more mainstream approaches to particle physics, I am aware of no professional who works in this area 3. there is a need for new books on, and a better public awareness of, categorical physics

References

[1] Y Koide. Nuovo Cimento A, 70:411, 1982. . [2] C. Amsler et al. The review of particle physics. Physics Letters B, 667:1, 2008. [3] C. A. Brannen. http://www.brannenworks.com/koidehadrons.pdf. 3

[4] S. Mac Lane I. Moerdijk. Sheaves in Geometry and Logic. Springer, 1992. [5] M.D. Sheppeard. Gluon phenomenology and a linear topos. Ph D thesis, University of Canterbury, 2007. [6] Olga Holtz and Bernd Sturmfels. Hyperdeterminantal relations among symmetric principal minors. Journal of Algebra, 316(2):634–648, 2007. [7] M. J. Duff H. Ebrahim W. Rubens L. Borsten, D. Dahanayake. Black holes, qubits and octonions. Phys. Rep., 471:113–219, 2009. http://arxiv.org/abs/0809.4685.

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