Paper Presented by

POONGOTHAI. S EEE (III Year) NOORUL ISLAM COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING Kumaracoil - 629 180 Kanyakumari District

Email : poongothaielectrix@gmail.com Cell : 9952818761

CONTENTS

 ABSTRACT
 FUEL CELL DESIGN

 FUEL CELL COMPONENTS  USAGE OF FUEL CELLS IN SPACE SHUTTLE  HYDROGEN AS A FUEL
 HYDROGEN ECONOMY

 REFERENCE

ABSTRACT
Fuel cell technology has been receiving more attention recently as a possible alternative to the internal combustion cell designs gas engine as for well our as tank cell This have the preliminary potential of and >500 >400 This makes for study energy W-hr/kg, W-hr/liter, level fuel of cells more indicates that fuel cell systems densities >500W/kg >200 automobile. Improvements in fuel improvements in lightweight highpressure technology fuel cells storage fuel a make can play are silent and reliable. They have no moving parts. They are an example of a renewable energy source. Hydrogen is passed over an electrode (usually nickel or platinum) containing a catalyst , which splits the hydrogen into electrons and protons.

technology worth a look to see if expanded role in space missions. This study looks at the specific weight density and specific volume density systems of as potential an fuel cell to alternative

W/liter.

performance

primary and secondary batteries that have traditionally been used for space missions. A Fuel-cell is an electrochemical energy energy to conversion device. Cell converts chemical directly electrical energy. It works on the same principle as a battery but is continually fed with fuel, usually hydrogen and oxygen. Fuel cells

attractive as high-power density, high-energy density sources for space science probes, planetary rovers and other payloads. The power requirements for these space missions are, in general, much lower than the power levels where fuel cells have been used in the past. Adaptation of fuel cells for space science missions will require "down-sizing" the fuel cell stack.

FUEL CELL DESIGN

In

principle,

a

fuel

cell

used

to

power

an

electric

operates like a battery. Unlike a battery, a fuel cell does not run down or require recharging. It will produce energy in the form of electricity and heat as long as fuel is supplied. The power plants of fuel cell vehicle convert in the one chemical of two energy of hydrogen to mechanical energy(torque) methods: Electrochemical conversion in a fuel cell, or combustion • In combustion, the hydrogen is burned in engines in fundamentally the same method as traditional gasoline cars. • In fuel-cell is conversion, reacted the with hydrogen

traction motor. Chemical reaction Positive proton of hydrogen atom splits from negative electron flow creates electrical current, driving the motor. Exhaust Oxygen and hydrogen combine to form water. Hydrogen fuel is fed into the "anode" of the fuel cell. Oxygen (or air) enters the fuel cell through the cathode. Encouraged by a catalyst, the hydrogen atom splits into a proton and an electron, which take different paths to the cathode. The proton separate passes current through that can the be electrolyte. The electrons create a utilized before they return to the

oxygen to produce water and electricity, the later of which is

cathode, to be reunited with the

hydrogen and oxygen in a molecule of water.

INTERACTIVE FUEL – CELL DIAGRAM

FUEL CELL COMPONENTS
AIR FAN Blows air into the cathodes to supply oxygen for the reaction with hydrogen. REFORMER Separate natural gas into hydrogen gas fuels and carbon atoms that are vented as carbon dioxide. HEATING LOAD Uses heat produce by the fuel cell. GAS CONDITIONING Provides fuel gas pressure reduction, regulation and measures it energy equivalent. HEATING EXCHANGER Captures heat produced at the cathode and transfers and transfers it to heating load. ELECTRICAL LOAD Lights, motors, etc., that requires electrical power. DESULPHURISER

Filters out any sulphur present in the hydrogen. sulphur poisons the catalyst.

ELECTROLYTE Conducts the hydrogen proton from the anode to the cathode.

FUEL-CELLS IN SPACE SHUTTLE

The Space Shuttle Orbiter has three fuel cell power plants onboard all reusable fuel cells of and are the restartable. The in the

consists of a power section, where the chemical reaction occurs, and an accessory section that controls and monitors the power section's performance. The power section, where hydrogen and oxygen are transformed into electrical power, water and heat, consists of 96 cells contained in three substacks. Excess water vapor is

located under the payload bay area forward portion orbiter's midfuselage. The three fuel cells operate as independent electrical power sources, each supplying its own isolated, simultaneously operating 28-volt dc bus. The fuel cell

removed by an internal circulating hydrogen system. Hydrogen and

water vapor from the reaction exits the cell stack, is mixed with replenishing hydrogen from the storage and distribution system, and enters a condenser, where waste heat from the hydrogen and Usage of Hydrogen Hydrogen is made by

water vapor is transferred to the fuel cell coolant system. The resultant temperature decrease

condenses some of the water vapor to water droplets.

oxygen molecules react with the electrons (which have traveled through the external circuit) and protons to form water — in this example, the only waste product, either liquid or vapor. Hydrogen economy Processes establishment considered of economy before require a the

electrolysis using electricity from non polluting sources such as solar, wind ,or hydroelectricity, or from nuclear power. This hydrogen fuel cell promises to have zero pollution. Hydrogen diffuses to the anode catalyst into The where it later and are dissociates electrons. protons protons

hydrogen viable,

they may be

conducted through the membrane to the cathode, but the electrons are forced to travel in an external circuit (supplying power) because the membrane is electrically insulating. On the cathode catalyst,

commercially

and even then, the aforementioned energy costs make a hydrogen economy environmental combustion. of questionable value. Hydrogen

combustion is similar to petroleum

REFERENCE  Start winning today Magazine  Electrical India Magazine  Electronics for You Magazine

 Fuel cells in google  Space shuttle in google

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