M337 2009 paper

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M337 2009 paper

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You are on page 1of 16

2009 SOLUTIONS

Page 1

Question 1

(a)

7 4i 7 4i 2 i 14 4 8i 7i 10 15i

=

=

=

= 2 3i . (A1, Sec. 1, Par. 6)

2+ i

2+ i 2 i

2 2 + 12

5

(b)

2e -i /6 = 2( cos(

= 2

3

2

i 12 =

3 i.

(c)

3 i 6 = 2e i / 6 6 = 2 6 e i = 64 .

(d)

i 2i = exp( 2iLog ( i ) ) .

) (

(A2,Sect. 5, Para. 1)

= log e 1 + i / 2 = i / 2 .

So i 2i = exp( 2i * i / 2 ) = e .

2009 SOLUTIONS

Page 2

Question 2

(a)

(b)(i)

C=A-B

A is a region.

(A3, Sect. 4, Para.6)

B is not a region as it is not open.

C is not a region as it is not connected.

(b)(ii)

A and C are not compact (A3, Sect. 5, Para. 5) as they are neither

closed nor bounded.

B is compact.

2009 SOLUTIONS

Page 3

Question 3

(a)

(a)(i) The standard parametrization for the line segment is (A2, Sect. 2, Para. 3)

( t ) = (1 t ) ( 1) + ti = ( t 1) + it

(t [0, 1])

(a)(ii) Since is a smooth path and (Im z)2 is continuous along the path then (B1,

Sect. 2, Para. 1)

.

1

1

3 1

t

1+ i

2

2

/

2

( Im z ) dz = 0 ( Im ( t ) ) ( t ) dt = 0 t (1 + i ) dt = (1 + i ) 3 = 3

0

(b)

3 exp( z )

is continuous on the line then we can use the Estimation

3 + z5

Theorem (B1, Sect. 4, Para. 3) to obtain an upper estimate for the modulus of the

integral.

As f ( z ) =

The length of is L = i ( 1) =

2.

0

Using the Backwards form of the Triangle Inequality (A1, Sect. 5, Para. 3c) then

3 + z5

3 - z5 =

3 z

Since no part of lies outside the closed disc {z : |z| 1} then on we have |z| 1.

Therefore

3 + z 5 3 15 = 2 .

Therefore M =

3e z

3

for z .

5

3+ z

2

Therefore by the Estimation Theorem an upper estimate for the modulus of the

integral is

3

ML =

2.

2

2009 SOLUTIONS

Page 4

Question 4

Let R = {z: |z| < 1}.

(a)

cos 2 z + sin 2 z

is analytic on R, and C is a closed

( z i) 2

contour in R. So by Cauchys Theorem (B2, Sect. 1, Para. 4)

R is a simply-connected region,

cos 2 z + sin 2 z

dz = 0.

C

( z i) 2

(b)

R is a simply-connected region, C is a simple-closed contour in R,

cos 2 z + sin 2 z

f ( z) =

is analytic on R, and 0 is inside C. So using Cauchys Integral

z i

Formula (B2, Sect. 2, Para. 1) we have

cos 2 z + sin 2 z

dz =

z( z i )

f ( z)

cos 0 + sin 0

dz = 2 if ( 0) = 2 i

= 2 .

z -0

0 i

(c)

R is a simply-connected region, C is a simple-closed contour in R,

f ( z ) = cos 2 z + sin 2 z is analytic on R and and 0 is inside C. So using Cauchys n'th

Derivative Formula (B2, Sect. 3, Para. 1) we have

cos 2 z + sin 2 z

f ( z)

dz =

dz

2

C

C ( z - 0) 2

z

2 i (1)

=

f ( 0 ) = 2 i{ 2 sin 0 + 2 cos 0} = 4 i.

1!

2009 SOLUTIONS

Page 5

Question 5

(a)

f has simple poles at z = 0, z = 3 and z = 1/3.

lim

lim

z2 + 1

( z 0) f ( z ) =

z 0

z 0 ( z 3)( 3 z 1)

0+ 1

1

=

= .

( 0 3)( 0 1) 3

Res ( f ,0 ) =

lim

lim

z2 + 1

( z 3) f ( z ) =

z 3

z 3 z ( 3 z 1)

32 + 1

5

=

=

.

3 ( 9 1) 12

Res ( f ,3) =

lim

lim

z2 + 1

( z 1 / 3) f ( z ) =

z 1/ 3

z 1 / 3 z ( z 3) 3

Res ( f ,1 / 3) =

=

12

3

1 1

3 3

+1

1+ 9

5

=

= .

3) 3 3 27

12

(b)

I shall use the strategy given in C1, Sect. 2, Para. 2.

2

0

cos t

dt =

5 3 cos t

= i

(z + z ) 1

5 3 ( z + z ) iz dz

1

1

2

1

2

z2 + 1

z2 + 1

dz

=

i

C z( z 3)( 3z 1) dz

10 z 3 z 2 3 z

The singularities of f(z) inside the unit circle C are at z = 0 and z = 1/3.

Therefore

2

0

cos t

dt = i * 2 i { Res ( f,0) + Res ( f, 13 )} = 2 ( 13

5 3 cos t

5

12

)= .

6

2009 SOLUTIONS

Page 6

Question 6

(a)

theorem (C2, Sect. 2, Para. 4) can be used.

Using the Triangle Inequality (A1, Sect. 5, Para. 3) when z C1 then

| f(z) g1(z) | = |4z3 -2i | |4z3| + | -2i | = 32 + 2 < 27 = | g1(z) |.

Since C1 is a simple-closed contour in R then by Rouchs theorem f has the same

number of zeros as g1 inside the contour C1. Therefore f has 7 zeros inside C1.

(a)(ii) Let g2(z) = 4z3.

Using the Triangle Inequality when z C2 we have

| f(z) g2(z) | = |z7 - 2i | |z7| + | -2i | = 1 + 2 < 4 = | g2(z) |.

As C2 is a simple-closed contour in R then by Rouchs theorem f has the same

number of zeros as g2 inside the contour C2. Therefore f has 3 zeros inside C2.

(b)

From part(a) f(z) has 7 - 3 = 4 solutions in the set {z: 1 |z| < 2 }. Therefore we

have to find if there are any solutions on C2.

Since |z1 z2 zn| |z1| - |z2| - -|zn|,

(A1, Sect. 5, Para. 3(e))

then on C2

|z7 + 4z3 2i| = |4z3 + z7 2i| |4z3| - |z7| - |2i| = 4 - 1 - 2 > 0.

As f(z) is non-zero on C2 then there are exactly 4 solutions of f(z) = 0 in the set

{z: 1 < |z| < 2 }.

2009 SOLUTIONS

Page 7

Question 7

(a)

q is a steady continuous 2-dimensional velocity function on the region and the

conjugate velocity function q (z) = z + i is analytic on . Therefore q is a model flow

on (Unit D2, Section 1, Para. 14 ).

(b)

'(z) = q (z) = z + i .

(D2, Sect. 2, Para. 1)

Therefore the complex potential function

.

2

z

( z) =

+ iz

2

The stream function (Unit D2, Section 2, Para. 4)

x 2 y 2 + i 2 xy

( x, y ) = Im ( z ) = Im

+ i ( x + iy ) = xy + x

2

So x and y are related by the equation y = (1 / x ) 1 .

The direction of flow at 1 is given by the angle Arg q(1) = Arg 1 i = - /4

(c)

As q is a model flow velocity function on the region and lies in then the

circulation of q along is, using the result given in D2, Sect. 2, Para. 1,

Re (() ()), where and are the start and end points of .

As = 0 and = 2 then the required circulation is

22

Re

+ i 2 0 = 2.

2

2009 SOLUTIONS

Page 8

Question 8

(a)

If is a fixed point of f then f() = 2 +4 + 2 = (D3, Sect. 1, Para 3).

As 2 + 3 + 2 = ( + 1)( + 2) = 0 then f(z) has fixed points at z = -1 and z = -2.

f '(z) = 2z + 4.

As |f '(-1)| = 2 > 1 then -1 is a repelling fixed point (D3, Sect. 1, Para. 5).

As f '(-2) = 0 then -2 is a super-attracting fixed point.

(b)(i)

c=

3

2

+ 12 i

[[ If you have added coordinates on the axes of the diagram of the Mandelbrot set then

you will see that c is not in the Mandelbrot set.]]

Pc ( 0 ) =

3

2

Pc2 ( 0 ) = (

As

3

2

+ 12 i ) + (

2

3

2

+ 12 i ) =

9

4

1

4

32 i

3

2

+ 12 i =

1

2

i.

( 12 i ) + ( 32 + 12 i ) = 14 1 i 32 + 12 i = 94 12 i.

Pc3 ( 0 ) > 2 then c does not lie in the Mandelbrot set (D3, Sect. 4, Para. 5).

P ( 0) =

3

c

+ 12 i .

2

(b)(ii)

c = 1 15 i

c + 1 = - 15 i <

1

4

Hence c belongs to the Mandelbrot set (D3, Sect. 4, Para. 8).

2009 SOLUTIONS

Page 9

Question 9

(a)

(a)(i)

f ( z ) = 2 z + z = f ( x + iy ) = 2( x + iy ) + x 2 + y 2 = u ( x, y ) + iv( x, y ) ,

2

(a)(ii)

f is defined on the region .

u

= 2 + 2x ,

x

u

= 2y ,

y

v

= 0,

x

v

= 2

y

If f is differentiable then the Cauchy-Riemann equations hold (A4, Sect. 2, Para. 1). If

they hold at (a, b) then

u

( a, b ) = 2 + 2a = 2 = v ( a, b ) , and

x

y

v

( a, b ) = 0 = 2b = u ( a, b )

x

y

Therefore the Cauchy-Riemann equations only hold at (0, 0).

u u v v

, , ,

x y x y

1. exist on

2. are continuous at (0, 0).

3. satisfy the Cauchy-Riemann equations at (0, 0)

then, by the Cauchy-Riemann Converse Theorem (A4, Sect. 2, Para. 3), f is

differentiable at 0.

As the Cauchy-Riemann equations only hold at (0, 0) then f is not differentiable on

any region surrounding 0. Therefore f is not analytic at 0. (A4, Sect. 1, Para. 3)

(a)(iii)

f / (0, 0) =

u

( 0,0) + i v ( 0,0) = 2

x

x

2009 SOLUTIONS

Page 10

(b)(i)

g(z) is analytic on the region {0} (Unit A4, Section 3, Para. 4),

3i

and g ( z ) = 4 on {0}.

z

3i

= 3i 0 and g is analytic at i , then g is conformal at z = i.

i4

(Unit A4, Section 4, Para. 6)

As g ( i ) =

i / 2

= i.

(b)(ii) /2 is in the domain of 1 and 1 ( 2 ) = e

0 is in the domain of 2 and 2 ( 0 ) = i . Therefore 1 and 2 meet at the point i.

(b)(iii)

mapped approximately (Unit A4, Section 1, Para. 11) to a small disc centred at

g(i) = -1. The disc is rotated by Arg (g ' (i)) = Arg -3i = -/2, and scaled by a

factor | g ' (i)| = 3.

In the diagram below g(1) is the vertical line.

2009 SOLUTIONS

Page 11

Question 10

(a)

f ( z) =

sin z

.

4

z ( z 3)

The singularities occur when the denominator of f is zero. Therefore there are

singularities at z = 0 and z = 3.

lim

( z 0) f ( z ) = sin 04 = 0 then the singularity at 0 is removable (Unit B4,

z 0

( 3)

Section 3, Para. 1(D)).

As

lim

( z 3) 4 f ( z ) = sin 3 0 then f has a pole of order 4 at 3. (Unit B4, Section

z 3

3

3, Para. 2(B)).

As

( 1) n

1

n= 0 ( 2n + 1) ! z

2n+ 1

1

1

1

1

+

3

5

z 3! z 5! z 7! z 7

(b)(ii)

z 4 sin (1 z ) = z 3

z

1

1

+

+ =

3! 5! z 7! z 3

an z n .

n=

As C is a circle with centre 0 then (Unit B4, Section 4, Para. 2)

1

1 i

sin dz = 2 i a 1 = 2 i =

.

z

5! 60

2009 SOLUTIONS

Page 12

(c)(i)

The Taylor series (Unit B3, Section 3, Para. 5) around 0 for cosh z and

Log(1 + z) are

and

z2 z4

cos z = 1

+

+ ...

2! 4!

z2 z3 z 4

Log(1 + z ) = z

+

+ ...

2

3

4

for z ,

for |z| < 1.

When z = 0 then (cos z - 1) = 0. Therefore we can expand the series about 0 using the

Composition Rule (Unit B3, Section 4, Para. 3) when |cos z - 1| < 1.

2

h(z)

z2 z4 z6

1 z2 z4

1 z2

+ ...

+

... +

+ ... + ...

=

3 2!

2! 4! 6!

2 2! 4!

2

1 1 1

1

z

1

1

+ z 6 +

+ ...

+ z 4

=

2

3

2

4! 2 ( 2!)

6! 2! 4! 3( 2!)

z2

1

1

1

1 1

+ z4

+ z6

+

=

+ ...

2

24 8

720 48 24

z2 z4 z6

=

( 1 + 15 30) + ...

+

2 12 720

z2 z4 z6

=

...

2 12 45

(c)(ii)

h ( z ) =

sin z

= tan z.

cos z

Therefore using the Differentiation Rule (Unit B3, Section 2, Para. 9) we have

tan z =

d z2 z4 z6

z3 2z5

+

+

+ = z +

+

+ ...

dz 2 12 45

3 15

2009 SOLUTIONS

Page 13

Question 11

(a)

f ( z) =

cot z

16( z i 4 )( z +

cot ( i 4 ) cot ( i 4 )

Res( f , i 4 ) =

=

, and

16( i 4 + i 4 )

8i

cot ( i 4) cot ( i 4 )

Res( f , i 4 ) =

=

.

16( i 4 i 4 )

8i

Since sin(iz) = i sinh z and cos(iz) = cosh z then cot(iz) = - i coth(z).

(Unit A2, Section 4, Para. 7).

coth ( 4 )

and

8

coth ( 4 )

coth ( 4 )

Res( f , i 4 ) =

=

. (Unit A2, Section 4, Para. 6)

8

8

Therefore Res ( f , i 4 ) =

cos z

and h(z) = sin z.

16 z 2 + 1

Therefore by the g/h rule (Unit C1, Section 1, Para. 2)

g ( 0) *1 1

Res( f,0) =

=

* = 1.

h ( 0 )

1

[You could also use Unit C1, Section 4, Para 1 last line]

2009 SOLUTIONS

Page 14

(b)

The method given in Unit C1, Section 4, Para. 1 will be used.

f(z) = cot z * (z) where (z) = 1/(16z2 + 1).

is an even function which is analytic on except for simple poles at the nonintegral points z = i/4.

Let SN be the square contour with vertices at (N + )(1 i).

On SN we have |z| N + so, using the backwards form of the Triangle Inequality

(Unit A1, Section 5, Para. 2),

|16z2 + 1| | |16z2| - 1 | 16(N + )2 1 16N2.

On SN we also have cot z 2 (Unit C1, Section 4, Para. 2) so on SN

.

( 2)

f ( z)

16 N 2

The length of the contour SN is 4(2N + 1).

As f is continuous on the contour SN then by the Estimation Theorem (Unit B1,

Section 4, Para. 3) we have

Hence

SN

(2 +

f ( z ) dz

4( 2 N + 1) =

2

16 N

2N

lim

N

f ( z ) dz =

SN

1

N

0.

1

1

n= 1 16n 2 + 1 = 2 ( Res( f ,0) + Res( f , i / 4) + Res( f , i / 4) )

1 coth ( / 4 ) coth ( / 4 )

1

= 1

= + coth .

2

8

8

2 8

4

(c)

n=

1

1

+

1

+

2

2

n = 16n + 1

n = 1 16 n + 1

= 1 + 2

= coth .

2

4

4

n = 1 16 n + 1

1

=

2

16n + 1

2009 SOLUTIONS

Page 15

Question 12

(a)

Using the formula for a transformation mapping points to the standard triple (D1,

Sect. 2, Para. 11) then the Mbius transformation f1 which maps 1, -i , and - 1 to the

standard triple of points 0, 1, and respectively is

f1 ( z ) =

( z 1) ( i + 1) = ( z 1) ( i + 1)( i 1) =

( z + 1) ( i 1) ( z + 1) ( i 1)( i 1)

iz i

z+ 1

(b)(i)

extended lines originating at the origin. As the angle between the boundaries meeting

at 1 is /2 and the mapping f1 is conformal then the angle between the extended

lines at the origin is also /2.

Since f1 maps 0 to -i then the straight boundary is mapped to the negative imaginaryaxis. As the other boundary is reached by an anti-clockwise rotation of /2 the other

boundary is the positive real axis.

Therefore the image of R under f1 is

2009 SOLUTIONS

Page 16

(b)(iii) A conformal mapping from f(R) onto T is the power function w = g(z) = z2.

Since the combination of conformal mapping is also conformal then a conformal

mapping from R to S is

iz i iz i

f ( z ) = ( g f1 )( z ) = g

=

z + 1 z + 1

(b)(iv)

Since f -1 = (g o f1) 1 = (f1 1 o g -1 ) then using Unit D1, Section 2, Para. 6 we have

f 1 ( z ) = f1 1

( z) =

z 1/ 2 + i

z1/ 2 + i

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