Research on the usage of mobile phone and its impact while driving

arranged in a hierarchy of complexity from simple to complex.

REPORT

MANAGING BUSINESS RESEARCH Submitted To: Sir Asim Athor

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Research on the usage of mobile phone and its impact while driving

SAYED MURAD ALI SHAH ID: 1274 Class: MBA IV CELL No : 0344-3470948

SIGNATURE: ________________

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Research on the usage of mobile phone and its impact while driving

ACKNOWLEDGMENT
First of all thanks to ALLAH Almighty for giving us strength and courage to come up with such tasks Then special thanks to Miss Farah Nawaz for her endless support and help, without which coming up this report would have been next to impossible. She gave us such informative project to enhance our capabilities and thanks for her ideas and concepts that help us to do this project successfully. We had a great experience and we also learned a lot through this research. We are also thankful to our esteem teacher Sir Asim Athor for his great efforts in clearing our concepts regarding research. Then last but not the least we would like to thank our classmates and other friends who were very co-operative with us throughout this report and semester.

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Research on the usage of mobile phone and its impact while driving

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
The number of cell phone subscribers in the country has crossed the 10 million mark for the first time ever, outnumbering those using the 50-year-old fixed telephony service by 100 percent in just ten years. The objective of this report is to summarize existing information on the subject of mobile phone use while driving, in order to provide a concise summary of the issues for the public, researchers, and legislators alike. The report discusses the benefits of mobile phone usage while driving, such as driver safety and time use efficiency, and negative aspects such as its potential for driver distraction resulting in accidents. The report contains information on the demographics of mobile phone use in the Pakistan, focusing on user demographics and frequency of usage while driving. Although once used primarily by high-income business people, user demographics are now much more similar to the demographics of the Pakistan population as a whole. Findings from literature on the subject of mobile phone use and driving performance are highly variable. In general, the literature shows that the effect of mobile phone use on driving is a complex issue with several influencing factors including the type of mobile phone used, the type of conversation undertaken, and the demographics of the user. In general, it was found that mobile phone use does have an adverse affect on driving performance, but the significance of the distraction is difficult to quantify. This report concludes that data collection on a university scale is the first, most important step to accurately evaluating the risk associated with mobile phone use, and therefore assessing the need for any legislative regulations on usage. Several countries have already banned mobile phone use while driving. Alternatively, laws may develop through civil court cases where mobile phone users, manufacturers, service providers, etc. are found liable for automobile accidents. With mobile phone use likely to continue to increase in the future, the safety of driving while using a mobile phone will become a very important safety issue. Therefore, it is important to begin to collect better data on the risks associated with using a mobile phone while driving. In this manner, the need for legislation can be accurately measured, and, if legislation is needed, its extent, role, and effectiveness in saving lives can be better assessed.

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Research on the usage of mobile phone and its impact while driving

TABLE OF CONTENTS
Research Process Introduction Section Introduction Objective and scope Literature Review Problem Statement Theoretical Framework Relationship among the Variables Hypothesis Testing Research Design Details Methods Section Sampling Data Collection Methods Results Feel for the data Graphical analysis Findings Conclusions Recommendations Appendix A Appendix B 6 7 9 10 12 13 14 16 17 18 19

19 20 29 30 31 32 34

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Research on the usage of mobile phone and its impact while driving

RESEARCH PROCESS
Observation
“Observing the increasing trend of accidents in Pakistan”.

Theoretica l Framewor k
Independent Variable: Incoming & Outgoing calls and text messages Dependent Variable: Accidents Moderating Variable: Ignore calls and avoid texting Intervening Variable:

Hypothesi s
Using mobile phone while driving, results in an increase in the accidents. .

Problem definition
“usage of mobile phone and its impact while driving.”

Scientific Design
– Explanatory – Co-relational – Non-Contrived – Individuals – Cross-Sectional

Preliminary Data Gathering
“Literature Survey of usage of mobile phones and its impact while driving”

Data Collection / Analysis
-

Analysis of questionnaire

Deduction
 24% strongly disagree to the fact that mobile phones should be used while driving. Talking on mobile phones deviate the concentration from driving.

 New gadgets should be introduced in the car to prevent accidents.  Most of the people use mobile phone in case of emergency while driving.

Yes

Report Writing

Presentation

Discussion

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Research on the usage of mobile phone and its impact while driving

INTRODUCTION SECTION -1
INTRODUCTION:Mobile phones first appeared in Pakistan during the 1980s, but were expensive and bulky. However, modern mobile phones are small, compact, easy to use and have become an essential part of life for many people. Changes in the technology, from heavy, cumbersome and expensive cellular telephones, to inexpensive, miniature hand held units, smaller than a pack of cigarettes, have had a significant impact on when, where and how we conduct our affairs, both business and personal. Societal pressures for increased efficiency, more leisure time, and an improved sense of safety, have placed wireless communications at the forefront of potential solutions for an increasingly mobile and technologically sophisticated populace. However, there is considerable concern that using a mobile phone while driving creates a significant accident risk, to the user and to other people on the road, because it distracts the driver, impairs their control of the vehicle and reduces their awareness of what is happening on the road around them.

Physical Distraction
When using a hand-held mobile phone, drivers must remove one hand from the steering wheel to hold and operate the phone. They must also take their eyes off the road, atleast momentarily, to pick up and putdown the phone and to dial numbers. While using a handheld phone, the driver must continue to simultaneously operate the vehicle (steer, change gear, use indicators,etc) with only one hand. Although the physical distraction is far greater with hand-held phones, there is still some physical activity with hands-free systems. Even though they do not need to be held during the call, the driver must still divert their eyes from the road to locate the phone and (usually) press atleastone button.

Cognitive Distraction
When mental (cognitive) tasks are performed concurrently, the performance of both tasks is often worse than if they were performed separately, because attention has to be divided, or switched, between the tasks and the tasks must compete for the same cognitive processes. When a driver is using a hand-held or hands-free mobile phone while driving, She or he must devote part of their attention to operating the phone and maintaining the telephone conversation and part to operating the vehicle and responding to the constantly changing road and traffic conditions. The demands of the phone conversation must compete with the demands of driving the vehicle safely. This Review examines the effects that using a mobile phone while driving has on driving performance and on accident risk. It comprises:

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Research on the usage of mobile phone and its impact while driving

1. The amount of concentration, which is needed when, driving, is not high
enough when you’re on a mobile as you are giving a lot of attention to your phone and not the road. This means you can easily miss vital road signs etc and perhaps then be putting lives at risk.

2. If you have one hand to hold the phone, you only have one hand free to
control the steering wheel which controls the car so you are in a much greater risk of losing control of the vehicle and having an accident. You can be putting your life and other's lives at risk.

3. There is a high chance that the police will catch you as it is completely illegal.
There is many police that could just drive past your car and spot you driving, then your can get arrested and could then possibly get a fine of o to prison. Cellular telephone use while driving is not without controversy. Public, legislative, and media concern about the safety of using a cellular telephone while driving has been expressed for some time. In recent years, perhaps because of the growing user population, the frequency with which concern has been voiced has grown considerably. It is the frequency with which these concerns have been raised, from the public, members of Congress and the media, that has prompted the research described in this report. Mobile-phone use while driving is common but controversial. While few jurisdictions have banned motorists from using mobile phones while driving outright, some have banned or restricted drivers from using hand-held mobile phones while exempting phones operated in a hands-free fashion. It is generally agreed that using a hand-held mobile phone while driving is a distraction that brings risk of road traffic accidents. However, some studies have found similarly elevated accident rates among drivers using hands-free phones, suggesting that the distraction of a telephone conversation itself is the main safety problem.

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Research on the usage of mobile phone and its impact while driving

OBJECTIVE AND SCOPE:
The objective of this report is to assess the current state of knowledge regarding the impact of cellular telephone use on motor vehicle drivers while driving, and explore the broader safety issues associated with such use. While the primary scope of this report focuses on the potential impact of voice communications on driving, continuing development and availability of cellular technologies with integrated office functionality (e.g., network/Internet access, e-mail, paging, etc.) has also raised questions among some observers about the potential implications of such use on traffic safety. Thus, where relevant, consideration is also given to the possible impact of these technological developments. The approach taken in preparing this report included a review of available literature, targeted data collection and the identification of potential links between driver phone use and specific traffic hazards.

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Research on the usage of mobile phone and its impact while driving

LITERATURE REVIEW Review 1
“Don’t talk & drive warns new code”.
DATE: Friday, Feb 26, 1999 published at 11:39 GMT SOURCE: BBC NEWS/UK

The article is from a news column in BBA News UK. It states that while driving, talking on mobile phone, even a hand free type is prohibited in new driver’s manual, the “HIGHWAY CODE”, plus it can be dangerously distracting while driving. Highway Code is used as benchmarks by the courts; however it is not a legal forced law. Drivers who have accidents while using mobile phones are less likely to get sympathetic hearings from judges. Using mobile phones while driving distracts the driver’s attention from the road which results in accidents. The article also states that there are a number of drivers who have been imprisoned after having such accidents. An incident is quoted in this article that there was a women who was jailed for 12 months after admitting causing death by dangerous driving. She hit the car badly while overtaking as she talked to her boyfriend on her mobile phone. Overall this article briefly tells about the new code for drivers including cautions and advices on courteous and considerable driving.

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Research on the usage of mobile phone and its impact while driving

Review 2
“MOBILE PHONE AND DRIVING” DATE: Monday, 26 May 2003 Published at 12:32 GMT AUTHOR: Freddy Decrose and John Mathews. The article highlights that using mobile while driving can cause serious mishaps. It states that although mobile phones have made communication easier but they have proved to be a lethal weapon combined with driving. A driver is four times more likely to crash his car that uses mobile phone while driving; however this is also a fact that under any crashes, usage of mobile phones is underestimated. Using a mobile phone while driving can cause both cognitive and physical distractions; specifically it impairs a driver’s: reaction time, visual search patterns, ability to maintain speed & position on road and other various things. The article also highlights on the TAC’S new campaign against this regard and The Law under which it was stated that Victoria banned the use of mobile phones in 1988 and using a handheld mobile phone is the third most common on the spot offence

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Research on the usage of mobile phone and its impact while driving

PROBLEM STATEMENT:

“Usage of mobile phone and its impact while driving”

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Research on the usage of mobile phone and its impact while driving

THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK:
Independent Variable VS Dependent Variable

Incoming & Outgoing calls Accidents Text messages

The relationship between the Dependent and Independent variables is positive, as it is clear that if a person attends or makes a call while driving then it could lead to an accident. Similarly, if a person text’s a message or receives a message while driving then again it can lead to an accident.

Independent Variable Incoming & Outgoing calls

Dependent Variable

Accidents

Text messages Ignore calls & avoid texting

Moderating Variable

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Research on the usage of mobile phone and its impact while driving

The relationship between the Moderating Variable and the Dependent Variable can either be positive or negative as it depend from case to case. If a person ignores a call and avoid texting while driving then it has a positive effect on accidents else a negative impact might be seen. Even if a person ignores a call but does not avoid texting, then again it is dangerous as a person can indulge in an accident.

Independent variable
Incoming & Outgoing calls

Intervening Variable

Dependent Variable

Distraction

Accidents

Text Messages

As distraction increases with the increase of time, so accidents also increase with the time. Here, distraction affects on incoming & outgoing calls and text messages and both of them produces a great impact on accidents. So, intervening variable is distraction.

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Research on the usage of mobile phone and its impact while driving

RELATIONSHIP AMONG THE VARIABLES
Independent variable
Incoming & Outgoing calls

Intervening Variable

Dependent Variable

Distraction Text Messages

Accidents

Ignore calls & avoid texting

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Research on the usage of mobile phone and its impact while driving

HYPOTHESIS TESTING
Ho: Null Hypothesis
Usage of mobile phone while driving is the reason in causing accidents.

HA: Alternative Hypothesis
Using mobile phone while driving does not has a direct effect in causing accidents.

Statistical Test
As the sample size is greater then 30 therefore Z-test will be used.

Level of Significance
Using 95% confidence interval we have: α = 5% = 0.05 α/2 = 2.5% = .025 Z α/2 = ± 1.967

Computation:

Z = (xbar – μ) / (σ/√n)
=-1.68

Decision
As per the calculated value is less then the critical value, therefore we will accept the null hypothesis.

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Research on the usage of mobile phone and its impact while driving

RESEARCH DESIGN DETAILS
Purpose of Study
The purpose of our study is exploratory in nature due to the fact that we did not posses much information and no research work had been done in the past. This research project was to ascertain the importance of incoming & outgoing calls and text messages that are necessary in concluding that how many accidents or how often accidents takes place.

Type of Investigation
We wish to find the important variables associated with the problem not to find the cause of the problem. Therefore, our study is completely co-relational in nature, as we only have to find the contributing factors.

Study Setting
This is a non-contrived study as our survey took place in a natural environment. The setting was neither controlled nor any artificial settings created.

Unit of Analysis
Because the researchers were interested in ascertaining the degree that how important is the usage of mobile phone while driving in causing accidents, the unit of analysis for this purpose were the individuals. Data would be collected from them (students of Bahria) and would be treated as the data source.

Time Horizon
The data for this research were collected over a period of one week. Because no previous research had been done by the team on this topic or on any subsequent extension of the research contemplated, the study is one-shot or cross-sectional in nature.

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Research on the usage of mobile phone and its impact while driving

METHOD SECTION: -- 2
Sample
The population of the study comprises the students of Bahria University located in Karachi. Formal questionnaires where dispatched to these students personally administered by the group members. The questionnaire comprised of 16 questions. The questionnaires took the basic information of the causes, and then came to their impacts of mobile phones while driving. The questionnaires were forwarded to approximately 125 students out of whom only 110 students filled out the questionnaires.

Data-Collection Methods
The questionnaires were sent physically to the respondents and were personally administered by the group members. The questionnaire took on an average of about 15 to 20 minutes to be completed. Our research team assured the respondents that their responses would be kept confidential and will not be used in any manner that is deviant to the research.

Sources of Data

Secondary Data: - Most of the secondary data is collected from internet
through websites and magazines

Primary Data: - Primary data is collected through questionnaires
distributed to the people.

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Research on the usage of mobile phone and its impact while driving

RESULTS SECTION - 3
Feel for the Data
The results that we have been able to extract from the information have been as follows. It shows the number of responses that have been achieved through each option in every single question.

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Research on the usage of mobile phone and its impact while driving

Graphical Analysis
1. Mobile phone may be used while driving?
MALE
17% 23%

17% 24% STRONGLY AGREE NEUTRAL STRONGLY DISAGREE AGREE DISAGREE

19%

FEMALE
17% 23%

17% 24%
STRONGLY AGREE NEUTRAL STRONGLY DISAGREE AGREE DISAGREE

19%

ANALYSIS: Both the sexes had the same views on this question. 24% strongly disagree to the fact that mobile phones should be used while driving. 17% of them strongly agree with the question asked. 23% had neutral thoughts while 19% disagreed with the question.

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Research on the usage of mobile phone and its impact while driving

2. Do you use mobile phone while driving?
MALE

53%

47%

Yes

No

FEMALE

34% 66%

Yes

No

ANALYSIS: The above question posed to see use of mobile phone. Form the total sample size of male 53% of them use mobile phone while driving and 47% do not use mobile phone while driving. On the other hand, in the total sample size female 34% of them use mobile phone while driving and 66% of them are not use mobile phone while driving.

3. In what situation would you prefer to use mobile phone while driving? 21

Research on the usage of mobile phone and its impact while driving

MALE

61%

ov 4% 13% 10%

12%

In case of emergency Listening music

Contacting friend/family All of the above

Checking messages

FEMALE
72%

ov 6% 13% 3% 6%

In case of emergency Listening music

Contacting friend/family All of the above

Checking messages

ANALYSIS: Most of the sample population uses mobile phones in case of emergency while they are on the road. 72% females and 61% males use it in case of emergency. 6% of the female population and 12% of the male population use mobile phone to contact a friend or family while driving. 6% of females and 4% males check their messages while driving and 3% females and 10% males listen to music on their mobile phones when they are on the move.

4. What type of cell phone you prefer to use while driving?

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Research on the usage of mobile phone and its impact while driving

MALE

26%

23% 3%

48%

Hand-held,no microphone Hands free phone system/phone mounted in car

Hand-held,with microphone Other

FEMALE

31%

60%

6%

3%

Hand-held,no microphone Hands free phone system/phone mounted in car

Hand-held,with microphone Other

ANALYSIS: This question shows that different types of cell phones used by, while driving. Majority of the male population i.e. 48% used hands free phone system/phone mounted in the car. 26% used hand-held, with microphone, 23% used hand-held, no microphone and only 3% have some other resources. From the female side majority of them used hands free phone system/phone mounted in car, 31% used hand held, with microphone, 6% used hand-held with no microphone and only 3% used some other resources.

5. Have you ever experienced an accident while using cell phone?

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Research on the usage of mobile phone and its impact while driving

MALE

78%

22%

Yes

No

FEMALE
87%

13%

Yes

No

ANALYSIS: The above question related with an experience of accident while driving. From the male side 22% have experienced an accident while 78% have not any experienced of an accident when they were on the mobile phone while driving. From the female side 13% have an accident while 87% have not when they were on the mobile phone while driving.

6. If yes then what were you doing at the time of accident?

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Research on the usage of mobile phone and its impact while driving

MALE
12% 41%

41% 6% Talking/listening on the cell phone Answ ering the cell phone Dialing the cell phone Othe r

FEMALE
75%

0% 25% Talking/listening on the ce ll phone Answ ering the cell phone Dialing the cell phone Other

0%

ANALYSIS: The question posed to see the reason of accident while driving.75% of the female population and 17% males had an accident when they were dialing number on their mobile phone. 41% males had an accident when they were talking or listening on the cell phone and 41% while they were answering the call.

7. In your opinion, how important was the cell phone in causing the accidents?

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Research on the usage of mobile phone and its impact while driving

MALE

45%

35%

10%

10%

Very important

Some what important

Not at all important

Uncertain

FEMALE

45%

35%

10%

10%

Very important

Some what important

Not at all important

Uncertain

ANALYSIS: Both the males and the females had similar answers to this question. 45% thought that the cell phone was very important in causing the accident. 35% said that it was somewhat important. 10% stated that it was not at all important while 10% were uncertain of the situation.

8. Talking on mobile phones deviate the concentration from driving? 26

Research on the usage of mobile phone and its impact while driving

MALE

39% 37%

5%

4%

15%

STRONGLY AGREE

AGREE

NEUTRAL

DISAGREE

STRONGLY DISAGREE

FEMALE
44%

28% 6% 6% 16%

STRONGLY AGREE

AGREE

NEUTRAL

DISAGREE

STRONGLY DISAGREE

ANALYSIS: Talking on the cell phone deviates the concentration from driving. 28% females and 37% males strongly agree with the statement. 44% females and 39% males agree. 16% females and 15% males have neutral thoughts over this statement. 6% of females and 4% males disagree with the statement and 6% females and 5% males strongly disagree.

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Research on the usage of mobile phone and its impact while driving

9. Do you believe that new gadgets should be invented/introduced in car to prevent accidents while driving?

MALE
81%

19%

Yes

No

FEMALE:
87%

13% Yes No

ANALYSIS: The above question shows that new gadgets be introduced in car for preventing accidents. 81% Male and 87% Female do believe that new gadgets should be introduced in car to prevent accidents while driving while19% Male and13% Female do not believe that new gadgets should be introduced in the car.

FINDINGS
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Research on the usage of mobile phone and its impact while driving

 24% strongly disagree to the fact that mobile phones should be used while driving.  53% Male and 34% Female do use mobile phones while driving.  72% females and 61% males use the mobile phone in case of emergency while driving.  Most of the people usually prefer to use hands free phone system/phone mounted in car.  82% Male got indulge in an accident due to answering and listening on the cell phone.  45% of the sample size says that the mobile phone use was of great importance in causing the accident.  39% Male and 44% Female do agree with the fact that talking on mobile phones deviate the concentration from driving.  49% Male and 44% Female never pull the car off the road in order to use the cell phone.  Majority of the sample size do believe that new gadgets should be introduced in the car to prevent accidents.

CONCLUSION
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Research on the usage of mobile phone and its impact while driving

The growth in the use of mobile phones has been phenomenal, and extremely rapid. Mobile phones provide a wide range of important social and work benefits, and, in some circumstances, are an important safety feature, allowing users to summon help or report accidents. However, using a mobile phone while driving creates a significant accident risk. Many studies, using a variety of research techniques including simulated driving tasks, advanced driving simulators, real driving on off-road circuits and driving on real roads, provide evidence that using a mobile phone while driving impairs driving performance in many ways.

Lateral Position
The majority of research indicates that driver’s maintenance of a constant appropriate lane position is impaired when using a mobile phone.

Maintenance of Speed
The majority of research indicates that drivers find it more difficult to maintain an appropriate and predictable speed while using a mobile phone which sometimes leads to reducing their speed and sometimes to increasing it.

Reaction Times
The evidence indicates that drivers take longer to detect and respond to changes, such as a vehicle in front decelerating, which leads to slower braking times.

Following Distances
When using a mobile phone, drivers are more likely to reduce their following distance from the vehicle in front. When this effect is coupled with slower reaction times, the risk of a collision is even greater.

Gap Mental Workload
Most of the studies show that using a mobile phone while driving increases driver’s mental workload, often resulting in higher stress and frustration levels. There is evidence that drivers have to switch their attention between driving and using the phone, sometimes giving more attention to the phone call than to the road situation.

Accident Risk
Although few studies have been conducted to assess the increase in accident risk caused by using a mobile phone when driving, those that have confirm that the impairment created by using a mobile phone does result in an increased likelihood of being involved in an accident.

RECOMMENDATION

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Research on the usage of mobile phone and its impact while driving

The effect of legislation in other countries to prohibit or restrict the use of mobile phones whilst driving should be analyzed. A wide-ranging survey of Police Officers, of all ranks, should be conducted to assess their experience and views about the extent of their existing powers to deal with drivers who use a mobile phone while driving. Government (both Central and Local) and other agencies should continue to conduct education and publicity campaigns to raise awareness of the dangers of using a mobile phone, whether hand-held or hands-free, while driving. The lack of accident data is preventing an accurate assessment of the number of people killed or injured in accidents involving the use of a mobile phone by a driver. Therefore, methods to record whether drivers involved in accidents had a mobile phone with them, and whether it was being used at the time or shortly preceding the accident, should be developed and implemented.

Appendix A:

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Research on the usage of mobile phone and its impact while driving This questionnaire is a part of a research project being carried out by students of Kasbit University, (Karachi Campus), Bachelors of Business Administration as a partial fulfillment of course, Research Methods & Techniques.

Name: ______________________________

Age:

□ 15---18

□ 18---21 □ 24 or more

□ 21---24
Gender:

□ Male

□ Female

1. Mobile phones may be used while driving?

□ Strongly-Agree □ Agree □ Neutral □ Disagree □ Strongly-Disagree
2. Do you use mobile phone while driving?

□ Yes

□ No

3. In what situation would you prefer to use mobile phones while driving?

□ In case of emergency □ Checking messages □ All of the above

□ Contacting friends /family □ Listening music

4. What type of cell phone you prefer to use while driving?

□ Hand-held, no microphone □ Hand-held, with microphone □ Hands free phone system / phone mounted in car □ Other
5. Have you ever experienced an accident while using cell phone?

□ Yes

□ No

6. If yes then what were you doing at the time of accident?

□ Talking/listening on the cell phone

□ Dialing the cell phone
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Research on the usage of mobile phone and its impact while driving

□ Answering the cell phone

□ Other

7. In your opinion, how important was the cell phone in causing the accidents?

□ Very important □ Not at all important

□ Some what important □ Uncertain

8. Talking on mobile phones deviates the concentration from driving.

□ Strongly-agree □ Agree □ Neutral □ Disagree □ Strongly-disagree
9. Do you believe that new gadgets should be invented/introduced in car to prevent accidents while driving?

□ Yes

□ No

Appendix B: Article # 1
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Research on the usage of mobile phone and its impact while driving

Friday, February 26, 1999 Published at 11:39 GMT UK Don't talk and drive warns new code Using a mobile can be 'dangerously distracting' Driving while talking on a mobile phone is now specifically prohibited in the updated edition of the drivers' manual, the Highway Code. The new version warns that talking on a phone, even a hands-free type, can be dangerously distracting while driving. Although the Highway Code is not a legal document and its recommendations do not have the force of law, they are used as benchmarks by the courts. Drivers who have accidents while using a mobile telephone are now even less likely to get sympathetic hearings from judges or magistrates. The road users' guide's new Section 127 warns: "Never use a hand-held mobile phone or microphone while driving." But even using hands-free systems is "likely to distract your attention from the road", it says. Police forces currently have to decide if phone use constitutes an offence. A number of drivers have been imprisoned after having accidents while they were talking on mobile phones. Earlier this month a woman was jailed for 12 months after admitting causing death by dangerous driving. She hit another car while overtaking at 70mph as she talked to her boyfriend on a mobile telephone. The latest edition of Britain's best-selling book also covers new rules about driving under the influence of drugs and medicines. It cautions motorists against driving while tired. For the first time, it also tackles road rage by including advice on courteous and considerate driving. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/286677.stm

ARTICLE 2
‘MOBILE ‘WORSE THAN DRINK-DRIVING’ Talking on a mobile phone while driving is more dangerous than being over the legal alcohol limit, according to research.

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Research on the usage of mobile phone and its impact while driving

Tests by scientists at the Transport Research Laboratory said drivers on mobiles had slower reaction times and stopping times than those under the influence of alcohol. And it said hands-free kits were almost as dangerous as hand-held phones. Using a hand-held mobile while driving is illegal in more than 30 countries, but in the UK drivers are usually prosecuted for dangerous or careless driving. Roger Vincent of the Royal Society for the Prevention of Accidents called for a specific offence of using a mobile while driving for the UK - even with a hands-free kit. "The problem is you actually get sucked into the telephone conversation, and the conversation starts to take precedence over the driving task," he told BBC News. "The person on the end of the phone doesn't know the driving conditions around you. If someone's in the car talking to you they can stop talking if a dangerous situation arises. "People just don't seem to understand how distracting these telephone conversations are." The research said reaction times were, on average, 30% slower when talking on a mobile than when just over the legal limit, and nearly 50% slower than when driving normally. Drivers were also less able to maintain a constant speed and found it more difficult to keep a safe distance from the car in front. In the tests at 70 miles per hour, the braking distance was 102ft (31m), which increased to 115ft (35m) with alcohol; 128ft (39m) with a hands-free phone and 148ft (45m) with a hand-held mobile. The study, which was sponsored by insurer Direct Line, involved a panel of 20 volunteers using a driving simulator. Janet Anderson, MP for Rosendale and Darwen, is currently trying to push a bill through which would ban the use of hand-held mobile phones while driving. The second reading is expected to take place on 12 April. Welcoming the report's findings, Ms Anderson said: "We must all recognise that driving and using mobile phones can kill. It takes less than a split second for a lapse in concentration to result in an accident. "It must therefore be made crystal clear to drivers who insist on behaving in this way that they endanger the safety of the public generally, and their own safety too. " http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/1885775.stm

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