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Proverbs 22:6 Subject: Conditioning GET MORE INFO ON: Sometimes working from the last step to the

first is a better form of conditioning. Payoff has to be selective, or else conditioning can have the opposite of the desired effect. What is Conditioning? Classical - conditioning in which the experimenter produces a subject's response whenever desired by presenting an unconditional stimulus to form a new association between the conditioned stimulus and the conditioned response (Forming associations) Higher Order Conditioning Process by which a series of conditioned stimuli serves as a substitute for other originally conditioned stimuli (this follows classical conditioning. Basically, it is extending the association to another source. It requires generalization.) You can be conditioned without someone conditioning you. An unconditioned stimulus can produce an unconditioned response. (Example: Fear of spiders. No one taught you to fear them) Classical conditioning requires a conditioned stimulus that produces a conditioned response. (Little Albert) Aversive conditioning causes a response of fear and can result in phobias. Avoidance conditioning is when an individual trains themselves to avoid situations where they become afraid. It can be overcome if the individual arranges to face their fear in a danger free environment. They can actually be counter conditioned if a pleasant experience follows the event. This is an example of extinguishing a conditioned response. (Roller coasters are a good example) Operant conditioning focuses of consequence, classical focuses on preceding stimulus. What are some examples of conditioning? Superstitions tend to be conditioned. They are a belief that a relationship exists between an event and following consequence when there is no real correlation. Helplessness can be conditioned. Like elephants: they are tied to stakes as babies that they cant escape from, and that develops a mindset of helplessness. Even though a full grown elephant can easily escape from the stake it is tied to, it is convinced that because it couldnt as a baby, it cant now.

Why does it work? We condition ourselves to do what gives us pleasure and to avoid what causes us pain. What are some experiments that have been done on conditioning? Pavlov with his dog. He sounded tone before feeding dog, and dog began to salivate at the tone before even seeing food. It took time, but it worked and is a classic example of classical conditioning. Little Albert (Watsons investigations helpful column) How is someone conditioned? Small things reinforces in a growth pattern can entirely change behavior The reinforcements/rewards can be described as 1. Fixed ration (best) {For doing this so many times, I receive this} 2. Variable ratio {Theres a chance that if I do this, after a few times Ill be rewarded} 3. Fixed interval {If I do this in the time frame given, I get this} (issue being that the subject will wait until the end of the interval to perform) 4.) variable interval {If I do this, at some point Ill be rewarded} Conditioned response rates increase when followed by 1.) A positive reinforcing stimulus, 2.) Escape from an aversive stimulus, or 3.) Avoidance of an aversive stimulus. If you wish to have a behavior stopped, using the opposites of these rewards can increase response rates. The opposites are defined as 1.) Providing an aversive stimulus, (punishment) and 2.) Absence of reinforcement (extinction time out) A great positive reinforcing stimulus is praise. What are the uses of conditioning? Commercials take advantage of conditioning. You can condition yourself to quit old habits. This is similar to operant conditioning, which is when you learn through trial and error how to get a desired effect and then you prefer that method. This is more dependent on you than on the experimenter, who can only strengthen the preference through means of an intensified reward. Spanking is a form of conditioning. Reprimand associated with spanking can hold the same association, causing reprimand to eventually serve as well as spanking.