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1 SpqoKeiec; ayionoiouv xo eyicAqjia xou nveu|iaxoc; eic; ^dpoc; xou ocouaxoc;. Oi naAvoi nand8eq ejmiaxeuovxav oe jiia e^coyqivq xpdne^a xa K^pSq nou en€q>epe q eicuexaAAeuoq xou av0p(6nou Kai xqc; cpuoqc;. Zq"}iepa, jiexauopq>(60qKav oe enixeipqpaxiec; XWP^ va XPeiaoTE^ v' a^~ Ad^ouv 01 apxec; xou ouoxquaxoc;. enipicooq noAAanAaaid^exai aav KapKivcopa KOI Kaxaaxpe^exai, q ^coq 8iaSi8exai KOI 8qiiioupyeixai. Kd6e eAeuGepfa jiexaxpenexai oxo avxvGexd xqq and xq oxiyjiq nou 6iaxcopi^exai and xo £a>v KOI xqv av6po6nivq ouvei8qoq nou evapjjtoxqv e^dnAcooq xqc;.
41

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jncoc; q Kqnoupucq Texvq evappovi^ei TH, ouyxop8l'ec; Tqc; yqc; KOI TCOV eno^wv, Oa jiia jie'pa va naic^oupe jae TIC; KaTaordoeic; ouveiSqaqc; TOD oojiaToq, aujKpcova pe TIC; noiKiAec; 8uvdjzeic; nou OOKEI ndvw TOD q

TIKO ^avaTiopd, Tqv TauTdxpovq nepicppovnaq TOU dvrpa, Tqq yuvatKaq, TOU nav8iou, TOD nepv^dAAOVTOC;. Oi KOTOIKOI 8o^d<^ouv TOUC; eauTouq Tovq eneiSq KaTdp0cooav va 8qpioupyqoouv, jxe TIJV nayKdapia 9auAdTqTa nou aoKevtai evdvria arq cpuaq, pia iSayevq KOKOT^TC, nou Tqv 8iek8iKOUV nepi|9ava ox; <«puoq» TOUC;.

o pqSAio eivai KaOpeqrajc;: av evac; ^^^^^ KOiTaxrei jieaa o' auTdv, oiyoupa 8ev 6a 8ei Tq popcpq evdc; eu^uouq av6pc5nou. O AiYjevjxnepyK 8ev eKave AdGoq, Kdvovrac; autq Tqv napaTqpqoq e8o KOI 8uo aicovec;. uvqOi^oujie va eKOeid^oupe Tqv opopcpid EKEI £K8qA(6v£Tai KaAuTepa q Tdoq npoc; Tqv Tqq. And Tqv KopaiKq ox; Tiq Kojidpeq, 01 nepioaoTepeq and TIC; napaSeioeviec; nepioxeq -EKEI dnou TO KAijia, q xAwpiSa KOI q navi8a upvouv Tq yAuKiJTqTa Tqg c^coqc;- 8eixvouv Tqv npoTfjiqoq TOUC; ora aijiaTqpd q6q, TO TUpavviKd KaOearcoTa, TOY noAiTiKd KOI GpqoKeu15. (S.i.M.) recbpyioq-XpiaTocpopcx; -1799): repiaavo^CTuyypa(pea<;.'Eypays aaTtptKdt epya, aTtcxpOeynaia Kat emypdniiata. Ta^iSeye atr|v AyyMa ortau yvropioe TOV Souupr KOI TOV Siepv. 42

43

A Kouyovrac; TO nai8i unpoord OTIC; ayeAd8eq jtVnou POOKOUV a' eva Aei^dSi va pcoTd ue 8KnAqJ;q: «FiaTi TIC; oKOT«vouue acpou npoocpepouv ydAa;» 6uuduai TOV Ziucova TO Zauapevrq, TOV onoio e^dvTWoav 01 xpiariavov ue TIC; OUKO9avriec; TOUC;. STO MeydAq Anoyaoiq 6 SiafSAe'nei ue'oa arqv apxeyovq cpAdya TCOV emSuuicov, TIJ ye'vvqoq uia<; avGpconivqc; auvei8qoq<; not) o8qyei orq «ueydAq 8uvauq». Zuu^cova ue TIJV dnoij/i] TOU, TO atua yiveTai GpenTiKO ydAa evoa q nvoq TOU ^oavToq evcovei aSiaxcopiara TO nvevjta Kai TO onepna. * AvTiAaupavduaore OTI q OKetpq TOU 8ev dpeoe o' OUTOUC; nou OKdpnioav ue KUUUOTO e^ayvvoTiKou aiuaToc; TO uaupo ydAa TOU Oavcrrou, ev OVOUOTI evdq nvevfiaroq, nou vu60et evTovq anocrtpo^q OTOV ouy^eeTai ue Tqv KpuordAAivq Spooid TOV anoAauoewv. q Suoruxia peei auSdpuqTa ueoa OTO Aouni TOU 6eduaToc;, eivai eneiSq nqyd^ei, dnwc; KOI OUTO, and eva ^aoiKo 8iax<opiouo: auTdv nou anoyuuvo5vei TOV Ka9eva and Tqv i8ia TOU Tq (^coq. Eva TOV avTi6eTO Adyo, q euTu^ia nepvd and Tqv emnovq 8va8iKaaia Tqq e^coTepiKeuoqc;. Me 8u16. (Z.T.M.) EXXt]viKd OTO 17. (2.T.M.) EAAt]viKd OTO
44

oKoAia AoyoTexvva

Adyia yia va eKcppacrtei, evw q and anoyoqTeuoq KOI

anoorpocpq uou yia TOV Kuvqyd 8ev ocpeiAeTai TOOO orqv apxeyovq ouunepicpopd TOU, yAoic68eq ueiyua orpaTicoTiKCOv q9cov KOI apnaKTiKou nveuuaToc;, doo o' auTq Tq ^AanTiKq eni9uuia nou TOV o8qyei va avac^qTd Tqv epcoTiKq 8ieyepaq dxi OTO 9auuaoud Kai TO xa^1 TOU ^oovToc; aAAd orqv KaTaorpo^q TOU, KaTaAafiaivco yiaTi o Xeuivyoue'i, orqv npoond9eid TOU va Ka9pecpTiorei OTO veicpd ^Aeua TCOV i^cocov, npoTiuqoe va e^acpavioei TO npdocond TOU ue uia nioroAid. epiKoi xiouuopiorec; OHOKTOUV ueoa orouc; Aapupiv9ouc; TCOV Ae^ecov uia 9ecopqoq nou anoKaAunTEi TO vdqud TOUC; OTO cpcoc; TOU eniKeVTpou Tqq c/oqc; TOUC;. 'Oncoc; o Ta^epvidpiKoc; Adyoc; nou evaq e^8ouqvrdpqq anqu9uve oe uia veapq yuvaixa, u' eva aouvq9ioro ueiyua Tpu^epdTqTac; xai Aayveiaq nou yoqTeuoe TOV SKUTevaip: «Euxouai oAd^a>xa va KOTOIKCO TO ocoua uou KOI TO ocoua uou va ue KaToiKei».
18. (I.T.M.) O a^epvKOvo^ <n>yypa<pea<; 'EpveoT Xentvyoue't (1894-1961) ujrfip^e (pavatiicoc; xi/apdq, Kuvriyo^ KOI TCtuponaxubv. niaTeiieTai OTI avTOKr6vr|O6 OTO K^roap. TOU Aivtdxo, arv; 2 louXiou TOU 1961. 45

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•oidwrhi OIACWO Alii AaoolidliiAao OA 0391 li AOipXds baoi ASQ AO 'loiiomoi^i 30px asopX AoXis o0 aorlopx aoi bsdluwo •bptgdox blii bodp§ bis boiAdaoAou blii lox boi{| blii tiolijonoisysi Aliio 3a3tijolidX otoli0oioa3 li DJOIIO AUI piox bUXous boirl boysi 01 'A(oiprlodli0 AWI tox Acoxuxondo boysi 01 asysAAoAy •baouwd0AO baoi puo 01 soaorhiodu aou siioxj aoi IIODID lii srl liosXo otrlox 13X3 OA isy30 Asy -liA lii 01 'om^ 01 'jgtou 01 oaA ImpAo uixoycKbinsAo
AUI pUO 130UAA3A D0 botl OlUlpAlU(od0AO

OA puoxo bco boo^idxo 13X3 orlo30 01 aou oiliipxiiA30ao oitl boiorlp30 aoi liaojf bio isAjgodojj 'blico^ blii priooioao0A3 AOI -sdiooiox 'oundxoigo li 'oiliipxuorlAodu •bptgdox blii Ii0p{| 01 puo loisasdouxs aou boir[a0iu3 blii lirloACig lii isocoy0^31^ DA linwio li 3100 toi3 'pucoio aou piao un ao^pd) coApy pyirf 3gY™7 aou piao srlo^idcoXoig OA oysAOAO Aoib o0 AS y

A UTO uov anoKaAoujie KaTdoraoq TOV npay^tlLjidTwv, op6c5vei TIJV Kuvucq Siamorcooi} jiiaq poipaq nou, Ka6' ojioicooq evdc; jieSuojievou ©eou, YTioajie jie eq>i]jiepe<; nepiouoieq KOI aouyxwpqTeq KaKOTuxieq. Evvai npdypaTi yeAoio va napanovieaai yia doa Kdveiq evdvria OTOV eauTd oou. eoTET Oyia va EXEI avdyKij TIJV aax^pia TOU KOOJIOU exei TO Koupdyio va anoyoijTeueTai. FIoAAoi eivai eoreT XWP^ va TO yvwpi^ouv: OUTOenei8i] exouv 5fiao yia TO Oeapa nou

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1 nai8iKoi 90^01 ^xouv TOGO KaAd ^ujicooei TO ipcoju Tq<; Ka0qpepivi|(; niKpiaq jie TO onoio 01 evqAiKeq Tpeepouv Touq q)d§ouq TOU<; onepvovraq TOV nepiyupd Touq jie Tpdjxouq, dyxi] KOI cpdpouq. Kd6e yvwaq 6a dcpeiAe eq>e^i](; va ^epi^o5aei TOV cpofJo nou, peyev6uvovrac; Tq axid TOU Kiv8uvou, TOV napouoid^ei wq anoT^Aeojia KOI TOV epno8i<ei va avTijiETtoni^eTai coq yvcooi} Trjq aiTfaq KOI jie jiia yaAqvia 8iauyeia.

48

v {hpAioOqiceq eivai yejidxeq and oiKxpd anopeivdpia xqq <coqq. H laxopia xqq OKeipqq e'xei (pxiaxxei and Kuvqyexncd xpdnaia. Kai Kdnoioi -yvcooxoi q dyvwaxoi-, jieoa a' dAq auxq xq oicdvq, Kpaxiouvxai dp9ioi yia xiq jieAAovxiKeq yevieq, nou xiq oveipeuxqicav pe Oaujiaojid KOI pe eva xpeAAd nd6oq yia xo £cov.

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aydnq etvai yuvaiKa, naiSi, <<6o, Sevxpo, AouAou8i, Amaojia. Tia va 8ieto8uoou]ae npayjiaxiKd crro jiuoxqpio XWP^ va TO SiaKopeuaoupe, 6a npenei va jinei x^Aoq axqv enoxq xou Piaapou, Kaxd xqv onoia auxoi nou v8ionoiouvxav dAa xa ^aoiAeia xqq yqq xa Kaxeoxpecpav Kaxaoxpecpdjievoi KOI 0118101.

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a fJyouue and xov KAetoxd Koopo xou epnopeujiaxiKou noAixiapou npoxou Kaxappeuoei; Auxq Eivai q uexafioAq nou npoKeixai va npayjiaxonoiqGei. AAAd Aemet aKopa q ouvei8qoq, eKeivq nou eivai q jidvq ixavq va anoxpeij;ei xov naviKd.

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a GpqoKeuxiKd KOI evxouxoiq npoiKiopevo e eu^uia nveupa, 9a enpene xouAdxioxov va napa8exxef ncoq xa ypanxd, nou oupcpwva p' auxd xa epnveuoxqKe o Tiax^e, o 0ed<;, o AAAdx KOI dAAa (pavxdopaxa xqq enoupdviaq OKeuo6qKqq, 8ev jinopouv va npoepxovxai -8e8ojievwv xwv aiaxpoxqxcov nou ejinepiexouv- napd and KaKonoid dvxa nou anooKonouv oxov eKjaq8eviajid xou av6pwnou KOI xqq yqq.

^va ^ipAio nepi oajxaviojiou, o ouyypacpeaq avaq>epei, pe xqv eipcoveia nou xaipid^ei oxov KUVIKO opSoAoyiojid, xqv eniicAqaq evdq Gaujiaxonoiou nou ^qxouoe and xa £wa va KOVOUV xov dv6pcono nio av0po5nivo. 'Oao q ejinopeujiaxiKq vooxponia 0a uaq ejinoSi^ei va anoKaAu^foujie, coq nqyq xqq anavGpfononoiqoqq jiaq, xqv nayKdajiia EKjiexdAAeuoq xou ^covxoq, 8ev 0a KaxopSwooujie va Kaxavoqaoupe xo avxiaxpo9o oxeSio, nou Paoi^ei xqv av6po)nivdxqxa oxqv euA^nxuvoq xqq navxaxiou napouoaq
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moxa 8ev eivai (patvopeviKd nio anAd and xo va yxi^oujie KaGqjiepwd xqv euxuxia jiaq: apKei va XP1!01!1011010"!16 Tl^ StaSoxiK^q anoAauoeiq oav n^xpivq 8id§aoq oxo noxdpi, yia va nepvdjxe and xq jiia oxqv dAAq. H ouv^xeia anaixei jieyaAuxepq npoooxq, eq>doov np^nei va etpaaxE xauxdxpova q n^xpa, xo noxdjit KOI q
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50

nou o5:qyei otKdua mo unpoord ornv eicAenTuvoi] TCOV anoAauoecov. ITdvTcoq, TO npcoTa Pqpaxa evvai nou KOOTI^OUV. H 9pevm6a Tnq epyaoiac;, ov oAoAuyjioi TCOV KOTCvayKaoucov, q aoupAepq ejijiovij TWV evoxov, op6(ovouv xa mo eniqjo^a ejind8ia xrjq ejinopeuuaTiKqq AoyiKqq orqv nopeia TOU d8oAou ocojiaToq, nou eKOTaovd^exai and TOY npcoivd qAio evco }ieoa o' eva ueydAo nijAvvo jinoA TO KOUTaAdia avaKaxeuei TO yAuKd ^peoKo ayeAa8ivd ydAa pe TIJV eAaq>pd niKpd8a evd<; unepoxou Ka^e, nou nAqpcovETai KOTeuGefav orouq napaycoyouq TOU ouucpcova jie TIJV noAiTiKq Tqq euAoynq Tijxqq nou eSco KI evav aicova Kqpuooe o auyypaq)^aq TOU

a ei'xa AiydTepe<; enupuAdSjeu; anevavri o' auTq TIJV ivfiidviKq oocpia nou TOOO udTaia 9auud<8Tai, av 8ev TIJV e^Aena va ^oAeueTai e8to Kai aitovec; ae uia Kotvcovta dnou ^aoiAeuei TO TpmAd dvei8o(? TCOV Td^ecov, Tqq ui^e'piaq KQI yuvaucaq.

19. (Z.T.M.) npoKEiTai yia TO auTopioypaqnico 6pyo TOO OXiavSou ovyypacpea Edward D. Dekker (1820-1887), TO ortoio e^Scaoe TO 1860 ne TO Vj/eu8<&vuno Multatuli. 52

E0aivouuE and uneppoAiKq e'yvoia yia O,TI uaq OKOTCOVEI KOI and eAdxurto ev8ia<p£'pov yia TO <«v KOI TIJ Qe\i\oi\ va aKTivo^oAEi navrou. ndpxouv 8uo Tpdnoi va anayopeuoEiq orov EOUTO oov TIJV euTuxux: va uqv nioTEueiq o' auTqv q va nioTEUEiq avrf va Tqv Eni6uu£iq a8idAemTa. Eivai ouvvd 01 8uo dipeiq TOD v8iou voufouaToq. avTiKEiueviKq avdAuoi} TOU KOOUOU IKOVOnoieiTai UE TO va ^VETOI, dncoq AE'UE anAd, EKEI nou aia6dvETai cpayoupa. To Tepdorvo e'AAEiuua av9pconvd(; anoTEAei dAAo6v yia TIJV napaiTnai] KOI yia Tiq av£Ani8eq E^EyepoEiq Tnq. AUTO auu^aiVEi EneiSij iKavonoiouuE TO nveuua £iq pdpoq TOU oouaToq, Ae<; KOI evvai a^iE'naivo va aio6avdua0TE KaAd UEOO OTO K£(pdAi Kat u£oa OTO ooiua. ndpxEi uia |iia eyyeviiq oni\, uia viKnTq Suvaun, ue'xpi oquepa aAAd nou oijuEpa KOTCKTO Tqv unepoxi] Tnq. Tq ouvEi8qTonoi(6 arq uaTaioTqTa TOU naAiou pou uiaouq nou avriKaSioraTav and Tq pe|iaidTqTa OTI doov Ofi'Aouv va ue pAdipouv, xdvouv KceGe 8id6Eoq, avaKaAunTovraq J;aq>vu<a UE'OO rouq KOTI Ka54

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AuTEpo and TO 6dvaTo KOI Tqv nEpiq>pdvqoq nou avauaoouoav.

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o ppioKco aqjia8iaKO nou o Taiiiep, ydq KOI dv0pconoc; Tqc; Kap8idq, ouv8e0qKe dppqKTa. yia TO undAoina xpdVia, He TO XeAVTepAiv,2 ujivqTq Tqc; aydnqq TOU nai8iou, Tqc; yuvaiKac;, TOU dvTpa Kai Tqc; ev unp)(ouv npoand9eva nou lie, eni8ico^6.

a nai)(vi8ia TOU nveupiaToq KaTaorpecpouv TQ naixvi8ia Tqq KapSvdq. 'Oao q c/oq npoxcopd, TOGO q a8uvajiia va npoxcoprjaoujie pac^i Tqq, napo^uvei TIJV KOKoqSeia TCOV Aoyiarcov TOU 0avdTOU. Taipid^ei andAuTa orouq 8Toipo0dvaTouq va eni8oKip.dc^ouv TO piaapd TCOV nai8icov, Tqv uno8ouAcooq Tqq yuvaiKaq, Touq eiinpqajiouq TCOV 8aacov, Tq yevoKTOvia TCOV yoptAAcov, ev ovdpaTi TCOV eAeu0epicov TOU nveujiaToc; nou Adp.net pixvovraq OTO oKOTCt8i TO ocop.a. O Sapcpdp eAeye OTI undpXouv jiepiKoi nou 0a crrpayydAv^av Tq jiqTepa Touq yia va Kdvouv eva eucpuoAoyqjaa. EKetvq Tqv enoXq qTav e^aipeoq, oqjiepa eivai Tq<; p:d8aq, aAAd jivac^ p.d8aq nveupaTiicqc;: 8iKaioAoyoupe TO ndvra, 8ev ayyt^oujie TtnoTa Kai, Kupicoq, eva
20. (S.t.M.) XeXvTEpXiv, Fvojcav Kpianav 0)pivrpix (1770-1843). repp.av6^ A.upiK6^ noir\ir\q Kai ree^oypd^o^. 21. (E.T.M.) NiKoXa-Zen;iaoTi£v Pa; Eaucpop (1741-1794): r&Ujoq (xopaXioTfi<; cruyypacpeai;. 56

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i anoAaDoelq qTav em TOGO Kaipd orpaTEDjieveq oriq op8eq TOD 0avdTOD HOD 8DOKoAeDovrav v' avaicaADipoDV Tiq pv^eq TODq. SuvqOioav va nepvouv and TO veKpoTojieio yia va eKTijiq'ooDv TOV avoiSjictTiKO aepa. H nveujiaTiKdTqTa eivai ODTO TO VEKpoTojieio dnoD q X^P^ anoAaDOEiq ODveiSqoq KOI 01 XWP^ ODveiSqoq anoAaDoeiq, 8ev KOTacpepvoDv va evco0ODv KOV va iKavonoiq9oDv jieoa aro Kopjii.

01 eni6ujiieq jiaq yevviouvrai and Tq . EAdxioreq yevviouvrai KOTO Tq 8idpKEid Tqq. A noyunvcoji^vo and TO 0pqoKexmKO TOU ^~^Aiy}ia, TO «aarpiKd» q «ai9EpiKd ocojia» TO avTiAajipdvojiai oav uAonoiqjie'vq npo^oAq aviov nou 0EAco va EIJIOI oujicpcova p£ Tqv, doo TO 8uvaTdv mo auyKEKpme'vq, ouvEi'Sqoq TCOV Eni0upicov JIOD. Avaji^fpoAa, yia va yfvco OUTO now eipav, e'xco avdyKq and evav eAKUoriKd KOI naiyvi(68q pdAo dnou npoana0co -oroixqiiaTi^ovraq
OTOV nAoUTO TCOV OUVOTOTqTCOV J10D- Va TODTIOCO Tq

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xcopiojidq and TOV 1810 TOV eauTO paq ewai q nAeov aaq)aAqc; eyyuqoq Tqq napaiTqoqq. Av 8ev fJpioKOUV 8pdjio 01 anocpdaeiq Tqq Kap8idq, ntoq va ^e^uyoDjie and Tqv andGeia evdq nenpcojievou nou apveuav TO o ouyKivqaiaKO ewai o KapKivoq Tqq euaioGqoiaq, pia xa°TlK1l poAuvoq dnou q ^coq, orepqjievq and auveiSqoq, napa^povei, QDTOOKpcoTqpid^ETai KOI naAiv8pojiei orqv KaTdoraoq Tqq eni^ifoaqq nou eivai o KaGqpepivdq Tqq 6dvaToq. H aTojiiKq KOI auAAoyiKq icruopia eivai q Kpauyq jiiaq nAqycoji^vqq euavoOqoiaq nou npoTpenei OTO tpdvo.

T

0eAqoq TOD efvai jie Tq 0e'Aqoq TOD ^qv. S' ODTO TO naixvf8i TOD nenpcojie'voD, o xpovos SmAaoid<ETOI: TO Enepxdjievo nqydc^ei and TO q8q un«PXgv «Xl w<? anD0}iEvo xceoq aAAd coq materia prima orqv 8ia8iKaova Tqq jiETODOicoaqq. Xpeid<eTai va EKAenTDv0ei TO i;cov KOI dxi va gvanapaxQei o 0dvaToq. To «aorpiKd ocojia)) eivai TO npdnAaopa TOD nenpco}ievoD JIOD ev TCO yiyveo0ai, Evdq nenpco}ieVOD HOD oAoKAqpcoveTai and Tqv i8ia TOD Tqv Kivqoq KOI KOTO Kdnoio Tpdno XWP1^ epeva, TODAdxvorov ecpdoov 8ev nd^/co Kd0e anyp.q va TO 0eAco coq TeToio.

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22. (Z.i.M.) ripd)TTi uX,ri f) apxeyovri ouaia. 59

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copic; xqv a^ia xouq nou jiaq emxpenei va xiq Tpayov)8r[aox)iie, 01 voxec; 8ev eivai xinoxa. Ki av aKojia r\] xouq 8idxa^q etvai xo nav, auxq q xeAeuxafa 8ev eivai xinoxa XWP^ Tl<? vdxec;.

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