1. What is a database? What is DBMS? A.

A database is a collection of information that is organized so that it can easily be accessed, managed, and updated. In one view, databases can be classified according to types of content: bibliographic, full-text, numeric, and images.

In computing, databases are sometimes classified according to their organizational approaches. The most prevalent approach is the relational database, a tabular database in which data is defined so that it can be reorganized and accessed in a number of different ways. A distributed database is one that can be dispersed or replicated among different points in a network. An object-oriented programming database is one that is congruent with the data defined in object classes and subclasses. Database Management System, in short a DBMS is a database program. Technically speaking, it is a software system that uses a standard method of cataloguing, retrieving, and running queries on data. The DBMS manages incoming data, organizes it, and provides ways for the data to be modified or extracted by users or other programs. Some DBMS examples include MySQL, PostgreSQL, Microsoft Access, SQL Server, FileMaker, Oracle, RDBMS, dBASE, Clipper, and FoxPro. Since there are so many database management systems available, it is important for there to be a way for them to communicate with each other. For this reason, most database software comes with an Open Database Connectivity (ODBC) driver that allows the database to integrate with other databases. For example, common SQL statements such as SELECT and INSERT are translated from a program's proprietary syntax into a syntax other databases can understand.

2. Why would you choose a database system instead of simply storing the data in Operating system files? A. The advantages of using a database system and that is simply storing data and operating system files is because in the event of a power outage were some other disaster all of the databases information could be lost and you will never get it back again. It is always good to have a backup file.
A database is an integrated collection of data, usually so large that it has to be stored on secondary storage devices such as disks or tapes. This data can be maintained as a collection of operating system files, or stored in a DBMS (database management system). The advantages of using a DBMS are:      Data independence and efficient access. Reduced application development time. Data integrity and security. Data administration. Concurrent access and crash recovery.

c. Alternatively. Data Definition Language (DDL) a. b. Acts as a very specialized language. d. since they simply see a relation as a set of tuples. Provides the facility for the retrieval of the information that has been stored. Data Manipulation Language (DML) a. A database system provides two different types of languages: One to specify the database schema and other to express database queries and updates. Helps in the specification of the database schema. . Consider the Students relation. What are the different types of languages supported in database? A. while physical data independence insulates users from changes in the physical storage of the data. h. e. Generally used by the various computer professionals. Helps in the development of the applications. c. except in terms of improved performance.3. This is what is meant by physical data independence. These storage alternatives are not visible to users. Also helps in deleting some particular information. Helps in manipulating the data in the database. 2. Defines each of the data element at it appears in the database. We could choose to store Students tuples in a heap file. The result of the compilation of the Data Definition Language statements is a set of the tables. These commands help in the extraction of the data from the database. e. Mainly used by the end users and the programmers. Acts as the formal language. Helps in the insertion of the new information. i. or to store it as a file sorted by gpa. j. we could choose to store it with an index on the gpa field. g. f. k. Logical data independence means that users are shielded from changes in the logical structure of the data. with a clustered index on the sname field. 4.or to create indexes on both fields. What is the difference between Logical Independence and Physical Independence? A. Satisfies the information requests. Consists of some commands. d. b. Modifies the stored information. 1.

Data model: A data model is the collection of conceptual tools for describing data. It is the responsibility of the database designers to communicate with all prospective users to understand their requirements and come up with a design that meets these requirements. The entity relationship model: The entity relationship data model is based on a perception of a real world that consists of a collection of basic objects. called entities and of relationships among these objects. There are a number of different data models. Each table contains records of a particular type and defines a fixed number of fields or attributes. Database designers – identify data to be stored in the database and choosing appropriate structures to represent and store the data. and acquiring software and hardware resources as needed. The extensible mark up language is widely used to represent semi structured data. Object base data model: The object oriented data model is another data model that has seen increasing attention. The object oriented model can be seen as extending to E-R model with notations of encapsulation.5. for coordinating and monitoring its use. The columns of the table correspond to the attributes of the record type. The object relational data model combines features of the object oriented data model and relational data model. The data models can be classified in four different categories:   Relational model: The relational model uses a collection of tables to represent both data and the relationships among those data. Semi structured data model: The semi structured data model permits the specification of data where individual data items of the same type may have different sets of attributes. Database designers interact with all . methods and object identity. data semantics and consistency constrains. The relational model is an example of a record based model and so named because the database is structured in fixed format records of several types. This is in contrast to the data models mentioned earlier where every data item of a particular type must have the same set of attributes. Each table has multiple columns and each column has a unique name.   6. Database administrators – DBA is responsible for authorizing access to the database. logical and view level. data relationships. A data model provides a way to describe the design of a database at the physical. What is meant by data modelling? A. Who are the different types of users accessing the database and in what way? A. Most of these functions are done before the database is implemented and populated with the data. An entity is a “thing” or “object” in the real world that is distinguishable from other objects.

These canned transactions have been carefully programmed and tested. . then test and debug the programs. System Analysts and Programmers   Determine the end user requirements (especially naïve and parametric end users) and develop specifications for canned transactions that meet the requirements. may need different information each time. Application programmers implement the specifications as programs. Use query language to specify requests. scientists. End Users     Casual End Users – occasionally access. Examples? Sophisticated end users – engineers. Stand alone users – maintain personal databases using ready made packages. Naïve or parametric end users – main job is to query and update the database using standard queries and updates. analysts who implement applications to meet their requirements.potential users and develop views of the database that meet the data and processing requirements of these groups. The final database must support the requirements of all user groups.

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