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Biomechanics and fast bowling

By Adam Kelly

History of fast bowling


Underarm bowling until 1828 (Dellor 2010)

MCC approved Over-arm in 1864 (Dellor 2010) Back foot drag technique (Perves 2001)

Modern day fast bowling actions


Front on Mixed Side on

Phases of the bowling action

Ball release

Back foot contact MCC (1976)

Mid delivery stride

Front foot contact

Modern day fast bowling


early research

Front on

Hip and Shoulder Alignment of 200 + Back foot lands at 0

Mixed
Coaching text recommends not to use this action

Hip and Shoulder alignment 180

Side on

Back foot lands at 270 Longer delivery stride 0.42m

Bartlett et al (1996), Davis and Blanksby (1976), (MCC 1976) and Foster et al (1989)

Understanding the action


Early video analysis Delivery Stride length

75 85% of height of bowler

(Elliott et al 1992)

Front foot contact peak vertical forces


4.7 times body weight 6.4 times body weight

(Elliott and Foster 1984) (Elliott et al 1992)

Front foot contact and knee angles


Elite bowlers flexed 6.6 College bowlers 31.8

(Burden and Bartlett 1989)

Shoulder counter rotation


Mean 28.2 13.2

(Stockill and Bartlett 1992)

Increasing ball release speed



1 or 2 cameras
Extended front knee at contact 164 11
(Portus et al 2004, Loram et al 2005, Wormgoor et al 2010)

Slater et al (2007) highlight that: Angular velocity of bowling arm (P=0.001) Vertical velocity of non bowling arm (P=0.031) Stride length (P=0.018)


Multiple cameras
Shoulder alignment release speed (P= 0.013)
(Wormgoor et al 2010)

Centre of Mass kinematics Proximal Distal energy transfer

(Ferdinands et al 2010) (Robertson 2004, Bartlett 2007)

Injury Prevention

3D Motion analysis systems


Flexes, Lateral bend and rotation simultaneously
(Ferdinands et al 2009)

Significantly range of lateral flexion relative to the pelvis


(Stuelcken et al 2010)

Harness reduced angle of separation (P=0.006)

(Wallis et al 2002)

Counter rotation of 35.4 in shoulders lead to lower back injuries


(Elliott et al 2002,Ranson et al 2008)

Legitimacy of bowling actions



3D Motion analysis systems


A legal action has less than 15 elbow extension when the upper arm is parallel to the ground (ICC 2009) Opto reflective system most accurate Umpires v Vicon mx13
(Elliott and Alderson 2007) (Aginsky 2010)

Elbow extension angular velocity

(Ferdinands and Kersting 2007)

Hyperextension of (19.55) increased speed Short pitch deliveries had more elbow extension (12 6.6)

(Portus et al 2006)

Future directions

Analyses of legitimacy of bowling actions during a match EMG and Muscle recruitment sequences in bowling actions
Noakes and Durandt (2000) heat affecting cerebral cortex and muscle recruitment

Optimum action for top release speeds

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kzdZNXsHHrc&feature=related

References
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INTERNATIONAL CRICKET COUNCIL, 2009, ICC regulations for the review of bowlers with suspected illegal bowling actions, Available: http://static.icccricket.yahoo.net/ugc/documents/DOC_34EE3BB667212C9A0C32EFBFF19E2F2F_1263367785914_117.pdf [accessed 23 October 2010] LORAM.L.C., W.MCKINON, S.WORMGOOR, G.G.ROGERS, I.NORWAK and L.M.HARDEN, 2005, Determinants of ball release speed in schoolboy fast-medium bowlers in cricket, Journal of Sports Medicine & Physical Fitness, 45(4) MARYLEBONE CRICKET CLUB, 1976, The M.C.C. Cricket Coaching Book, London: William Heinemann NOAKES.T.D and J.J.DURANDT, 2000, Physiological requirements of cricket, Journal of Sports Sciences, 18 (12) PERVES.M.A., 2001, A dictionary of cricket , Hyderabad: Sangam books PORTUS.M.R.,C.D.ROSEMOND and D.A.RATH, 2006, Fast Bowling Arm Actions and the Illegal Delivery Law in Men's High Performance Cricket Matches, Sports Biomechanics, 5(2) PORTUS.M.R., B.R.MASON, B.C.ELLIOTT, M.C.PFITZNER and R.P.DONE, 2004, Technique factors related to ball release speed and trunk injuries in high performance cricket fast bowlers, Sports Biomechanics,3 (2) RANSON.C.A., A.F.BURNETT, M.KING, N.PATEL and P.B.OSULLIVAN, 2008, The relationship between bowling action classification and three-dimensional lower trunk motion in fast bowlers in cricket, Journal of Sports Sciences, 26(3) ROBERTSON.D.G.E., G.E.CALDWELL, J.HAMILL, G.KAREM and S.N.WHITTLESEY, 2004, Research methods in biomechanics, Leeds: Human Kinetics SALTER.C.W., P.J.SINCLAIR and M.R.PORTUS, 2007, The associations between fast bowling technique and ball release speed: A pilot study of the within-bowler and between-bowler approaches, Journal of Sports Sciences ,25 (11) STOCKILL.N.P. and R.M.BARTLETT, 1992, A three-dimensional cinematographically analysis of the techniques of International and English county cricket fast bowlers. In RODANO.R., G.FERRIGNO and G.C.SANTAMBROGIO, 1992, Proceedings of the Xth Symposium of the Inter national Society of Biomechanics in Sports.Milan: Edi Ermes. STUELCKEN.M.C., R.E.D.FERDINANDS and P.J.SINCLAIR, 2010, Three-Dimensional Trunk Kinematics and Low Back Pain in Elite Female Fast Bowlers, Journal of Applied Biomechanics, 26 WALLIS.R., B.ELLIOTT and M.KOH, 2002, The effect of a fast bowling harness in cricket: an intervention study, Journal of Sports Sciences, 20(6) WORMGOOR.S., L.HARDEN and W.MCKINON, 2010, Anthropometric, biomechanical, and isokinetic strength predictors of ball release speed in high-performance cricket fast bowlers, Journal of Sports Sciences, 28(9)