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Knauf Seismic Design

Edition 08/2004

Earthquakes can cause huge economic losses. Primarily, however, they also cause personal distress with deaths, injuries, the loss of living space, and the devastation of living conditions. Most of these losses are set off by buildings that are unable to resist earthquake loads. In order to avoid, or at least reduce these damages there are three basic principles related to both cost-effective construction as well as the earthquake safety of buildings [1]:

Knauf Seismic Design

Earthquake Safety with Knauf Systems

1.) In the event of slightly severe earthquakes, buildings must be able to survive without damage. 2.) In the event of moderately severe earthquakes, the damage to the buildings must be negligible. 3.) In the event of severe earthquakes, the buildings must be prevented from collapsing.

Figure 1: Earthquake-damaged building

Above all, the protection of human life must be assured by ensuring the options of survival, escape and rescue in the event of earthquakes of any severity. The appropriate literature [2], [3] and National Standards (DIN 4149, Eurocode 8 - ENV 1998-1 etc.; see pg. 19) provide constructional guidelines for the technical implementation of these basic principles. Going by these mentioned technical guidelines, Knauf Systems present several clear advantages as compared with solid concrete and masonry constructions.
Figure 3: Collapsed soft story Figure 2: Soft story effect

Soft Buildings Advantages: Appropriate for rigid subsoil (higher frequency) due to low natural frequency. Required ductility is easier to achieve. An easier calculation procedure.

Rigid Buildings Advantages: Appropriate for soft subsoil due to high natural frequency. The junctions are less elaborate due to smaller movements. Joints with non-load bearing construction components with fewer problems. Disadvantages: Higher stress when subsoil is rigid. Lower ductility. The calculation procedure is more complex.

Structural Basics 1.) Rigidity of load-bearing structure. A decision in favor of or against soft or rigid structures has to take the conditions of the foundation soil into consideration. Rigid structures should be founded on soft subsoil, and soft structures should be founded on rigid subsoil in order to avoid

Disadvantages: Non-load bearing elements have to be isolated (movements and deformations, load distributions). High stress in junctions due to larger movements.

undesired large stresses caused by the effects of resonance. 2.) Ensure a steady and symmetrical distribution of weight and rigidity in the vertical and horizontal layout taking non-load bearing construction components into consideration, in order to avoid higher torsion-related stress (gure 4). 3.) Avoid top heaviness of the vertical lay-

a)

floor plan

vertical layout

out related to both weight (including nonload bearing components) and rigidity. In a majority of cases, the soft story effect is responsible for the collapse of buildings in the event of an earthquake (gures 2 and 3).

b)

floor plan

vertical layout

4.) Use ductile materials for non-load bearing construction components. Avoid brittle materials that display unfavorable behavioral patterns in the case of a collapse (unannounced collapses, brittle fraction). They could thus lead to undesired load distribution when not installed properly, with higher destruction effects when compared with more ductile materials (gure 5).

Figure 4: a)Unfavourable layouts b) Improvement through structural subdivision

The objective should be to implement these basic rules in the construction of new buildings as well as in the improvement of
Figure 5: Damage caused by collapsing masonry

existing buildings.

Seismic Zones Every country has different seismic zones that refer to nominal horizontal ground accelerations depending on the regional seismic activity (table 2). In table 1 the zones have been allocated to the internationally recognized EMS-98-scale (table 1) in order to ensure the international comparability of national guidelines. With 12 intensity classications this scale species earthquake intensities based on their effects on human beings and buildings. It is a better scale than the well-known Richter scale that provides us with the energy release rate at the epicenter of earthquakes. The effect on buildings, however, depends on the epicenters distance to the earths surface. The values stated in table 2 are the nominal ground accelerations. For calculation purposes, other mathematical factors such as behavioral, soil group, and building classication factors have to be additionally applied as set down in the national standards. Usually, the vertical acceleration is neglected. It can, however, amount to up to 50 % of the ho-

Tabelle 1: European Macroseismic Scale 1998 EMS-98 [5] EMS Denition intensity I II III IV Not felt Description of typical observed effects (abstracted) Not felt.

Scarcely felt Felt only by very few individual people at rest in houses. Weak Largely observed Strong Felt indoors by a few people. People at rest feel a swaying or light trembling. Felt indoors by many people, outdoors by very few. A few people are awakened. Windows, doors and dishes rattle. Felt indoors by most, outdoors by few. Many sleeping people awake. A few are frightened. Buildings tremble throughout. Hanging objects swing considerably. Small objects are shifted. Doors and windows swing open or shut. Many people are frightened and run outdoors. Some objects fall. Many houses suffer slight non-structural damage like hair-line cracks and fall of small pieces of plaster. Most people are frightened and run outdoors. Furniture is shifted and objects fall from shelves in large numbers. Many well built ordinary buildings suffer moderate damage: small cracks in walls, fall of plaster, parts of chimneys fall down; older buildings may show large cracks in walls and failure of ll-in walls. Many people nd it difcult to stand. Many houses have large cracks in walls. A few well built ordinary buildings show serious failure of walls, while weak older structures may collapse. General panic. Many weak constructions collapse. Even well built ordinary buildings show very heavy damage: serious failure of walls and partial structural failure. Many ordinary well built buildings collapse. Most ordinary well built buildings collapse, even some with good earthquake resistant design are destroyed. Almost all buildings are destroyed.

VI

Slightly damaging Damaging

VII

VIII

Heavily damaging

IX

Destructive

X XI

Very destructive Devastating Completely devastating

rizontal acceleration. In individual cases it might have to be taken into consideration for certain construction components. XII

Knauf Seismic Design

Seismic Zones and Seismic Intensities


Table 2: Seismic zones in selected countries EMS98Scale Appropriate horizontal ground acceleration a [m/s] I II III IV V VI VII VIII IX X XI XII < 0.01 0.01-0.025 0.025-0.05 0.05-0.12 0.12 0.25 0.25 0.50 0.50 1.0 1.0 2.0 2.04.0 4.0 8.0 8.0 16.0 > 16.0 Argentina Austria INPRES-CIRSOC NORM B4015 103 Part I 1991 2002 Zone a0 [m/s] Zone a0 [m/s] Bulgaria Chile China Code for NCH 433 Of 96 GB/T177742 seismic Design 1987 1996 1999 Zone a0 [m/s] Zone a0 [m/s] Zone a0 [m/s] CIS SNiP II-7-81* 2000 Germany DIN 4149-1 1981 Zone a0 [m/s] Zone a0 [m/s]

0.39

0-0.35 0 1 1.96 VI VII VIII IX 0.49 0.98 1.47 2.65 2 3 1.96-2.94 2.94-3.92 0.22-0.44

1 1 2 3 4 0.40-0.98 0.99-1.77 1.78-2.45 2.46-3.43 4 2 3

0.35-0.50 0.50-0.75 0.75-1.00

0 0.45-0.89 1.0 0.90-1.77 2.0 1.78-3.53 4.0 3.54-7.07 7.0814.14 1 2 3 4

0 0.25 0.40 0.65 1.00

>1.00

EMS98Scale

Appropriate Greece horizontal EAK 2000 ground acceleration 2000 a [m/s] Zone a0 [m/s] < 0.01 0.01-0.025 0.025-0.05 0.05-0.12 0.12 0.25 0.25 0.50 0.50 1.0 1.0 2.0 2.0 4.0 4.0 8.0 8.0 16.0 > 16.0

Iran Document No. 2800 2nd ed. 1999 Zone a0 [m/s]

Italy technical government order 2004 Zone a0 [m/s]

Romania P 100-92 1992 Zone a0 [m/s]

Switzerland SIA 261 2003 Zone a0 [m/s]

Turkey ABYYHY 1998 Zone a0 [m/s]

I II III IV V VI VII VIII IX

4 4 1.96

0.49

3 I II III IV 1.18 1.57 2.53 3.53 3 2 1 2.45 2.94 3.43 2

0.5-1.47 1.47-2.45

F E D C B A

0.78 1.18 1.57 1.96 2.45 3.14

1 2 3a 3b

0.6 1.0 1.3 1.6

4 3 2 1

1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0

X XI XII

> 2.45

Types of Collapse and Damage The collapse of buildings can either be global or local. The term local implies that only a part of the load-bearing structure or a single construction component collapses. When a collapse is termed global, the whole structure is considered to have been destroyed. Cracks, plastic displacements etc. are damages which can cause the loss of a buildings usability, as well. Apart from basic under dimensioning, the following types of collapses may occur due to errors in either the conception or execution of buildings: The soft story effect (gures 2 and 3) occurs due to a story with little rigidity (for architectural reasons mostly the ground oor) that attracts stresses from rigid stories and subsequently collapses. It is the weakest part of the structure. Strictly speaking, it is a local collapse, but it can cause a global collapse and lead to the ultimate loss of the building. The short columns effect (gure 7) is caused by undesired load swaps into construction components that are not divided well enough from the load-bearing structure. The reason is the subsequent increase of rigidity through masonry and the following higher seismic load due to the shortening of the swing period. The sudden and unannounced collapse of inll masonry (gures 6 and 8) is extremely dangerous to people in the building. It can even lead to a complete collapse of the whole building (gure 5). The reason is the higher rigidity of inll masonry, as compared with the softer columns, that causes the swapping of loads into the masonry. The brittle material collapses in an explosion-like manner.
Figure 8: Collapsed inll masonry Figure 7: Short columns effect Figure 6: Collapse of inll masonry

Knauf Seismic Design

Example according to Eurocode 8 (EN 1998: 1997): (gure 9) 7-story residential building Reinforced skeleton construction Total height: 19 m Ground area 18 x 12 m Reference value of horizontal ground acceleration: 0.4 g Total weight of load-bearing components: 1095 t Total weight of walls (masonry incl. plaster = 200 kg/m interior / 240 kg/m exterior)): 518 t Total weight of walls (interior: Knauf W112, 49 kg/m, exterior: Aquapanel, 42 kg/m) : 109 t Total weight of building:

Less Weight - Less Trouble

Figure 9: Skeletal frame of a 7-story building

with masonry: 1614 t with Knauf systems: 1204 t

Table 3: Load values for cited example Interior Walls Exterior Walls (240 kg/m) Total vertical load for earthquake calculation Total horizontal earthquake load according to EC 8 at a0 = 0.4 g Ratio 17.8 MN Masonry (200 kg/m) Knauf Systems W112 (49 kg/m) Aquapanel (42 kg/m) 13.7 MN

(25 % less weight when Knauf Systems are used instead of masonry)

By calculating the earthquake loads according to Eurocode 8 it can be determined that these loads are decreased by approx. 23 % when using Knauf W112 for

4.0 MN

3.1 MN

interior partitions and Knauf Aquapanel for exterior walls.

100 %

77 %

A more economic dimensioning of the expensive reinforced concrete structure thus becomes possible for both static and earthquake loads. Additionally, earthquake safety is improved due to the better deformation and collapse behavior of drywall constructions in the event of an earthquake.

Advantages Low dead load ( = lower earthquake loads) Sound insulation Drywall materials are a major advantage in remodelling and renovation Fire protection (ceilings, panelling of beams and columns) Flexible for rededications Ductile behavior of deformation and collapse; no unannounced collapse Preservation of enclosing function even after possible collapse

Knauf Seismic Design

Advantages of Knauf Drywall Systems as Compared with Solid Constructions

Figure 10: Knauf suspended ceiling D112

Knauf Seismic Design

Non-load bearing Partitions / Suspended Ceilings (pp. 10 / 12) As construction components, the wellknown Knauf partitions and ceiling systems are earthquake proof by themselves [6]. Additionally, they add a considerable amount of earthquake safety to a building based on the benets mentioned earlier in this brochure. Application is possible both in new buildings as well as for the retrotting or renovation of existing buildings.

Applications

Shear Walls (pg. 14) Knauf drywall partitions can bear horizontal shear forces like wind and earthFigure 11: Knauf partition W112

quake loads if they are adapted to brace load-bearing structures. With that, the advantages of Knauf drywall partitions can be exploited for walls in new buildings and in the case of renovation and retrottings with structural requirements.

Bracing Wall and Ceiling Panels for Steel Framework Buildings (pg. 16) Prefabricated or on-site fabricated wall and ceiling panels can be used for new steel framework buildings. These panels link the advantages of dry construction systems with a highly effective execution process. The Knauf partner company, Danogips, offers the SBS (Steel Building System) which will shortly be adapted for use in
Figure 12: The Danogips SBS (Steel Building System)

earthquake endangered buildings.

The main advantages of Knauf nonload bearing partitions are the reduction of construction weight (see table 3, page 7 and table 4) and the ductile behavior of deformation. The dead load decrease of non-load bearing construction components leads to a massive reduction of loads in the event of an earthquake. The most ideal application of Knauf partitions in connection with earthquake safety is their use as inll walls for skeleton constructions. The brittle and comparatively rigid deformation behavioral patterns of the inll masonry used generally causes load transfer with dangerous, explosion-like and unannounced collapse that can even lead to the total collapse of the whole building. Even when highly deformed, drywall partitions maintain their enclosing function and do not collapse completely. [7] According to the Report of Earthquake Proof Execution of Partitions and Suspended Ceilings by Dr. Rainer Flesch of the Bundesforschungs- und Prfzentrum Arsenal (Federal Research and Test Centre Arsenal) [6], Knauf metal stud partitions

Knauf Seismic Design

Non-load bearing Partitions


Table 4: Weight comparison of inll masonry and Knauf Drywall Systems W111/ W112

Weight Reduction 1 m masonry d = 11.5 cm; Weight per unit area: approx. 145 kg/m 1 m metal stud partition, single layer; Weight per unit area: approx. 25 kg/m 1 m metal stud partition, double layer; Weight per unit area: approx. 50 kg/m

Weight reduction by 65 % to 83 %

Table 5: Stress resultants from lateral horizontal loads System Horizontal acceleration Max. shift [mm] Maximum bending moment [kNm] 0.1 - 0.3 Bending moment capacity [kNm] 2.0

W111 d = 100 mm W112 d = 125 mm

2.5 - 14 0.5 g (4.9 m/s) 11.6 - 25

0.3 - 0.6

2.6

2.5 m h 3.5 m

can effectively resist and absorb lateral loads caused by earthquake acceleration and their own weight. Table 5 shows calculated stress resultants for a lateral horizontal acceleration of 0.5 g on Knauf partitions W111 and W112.
2.5 m l 15.0 m

U ; V

Figure 13: Lateral horizontal loading

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Table 6: Maximum Resistible Horizontal Acceleration Knauf gypsum board partition system Size of stud / thickness of wall [mm] / [mm] 50 / 75 75 / 100 100 / 125 50 / 100 75 / 125 100 / 150 Maximum wall height [m] 3.0 4.5 5.0 4.0 5.5 6.0 Bending moment capacity [kNm] 1.5 2.0 2.5 2.0 2.6 3.2 Maximum resistible horizontal acceleration 5.4 g

Values for the maximum acceptable horizontal acceleration based on load capacities according to [8] are stated in table 6. However, going by the following assump-

W111 single layer (1x12.5 mm) 25 kg/m W112 double layer (2x12.5 mm) 50 kg/m

tion horizontal in-plane loads caused by


3.1 g

story shift cannot be borne by these parti 3.2 g

tions [6] (gure 14).


2.0 g 1.4 g 1.4 g

With an assumed story shift of 1 % to 1.5 %, a maximum height of wall of 3.5 m, and the resulting story shift of l = 3.5 to 5.3 cm,

the resulting stresses cannot be absorbed by the partition without cracks developing. The enclosing function would still be retained, but a big enough joint is necessary
h 3.5 m

in order to absorb the deformation of the structure. A viable solution according to the example cited above is shown in gure 15.

2.5 m l 15.0 m

Figure 14: Horizontal in-plane load

In individual cases the necessary size of the joint has to be determined exactly th-

30 mm V'x

rough a calculation of the expected deformation.

U Runner (d = 1.0 mm) spacing of dowels = 0.5 m

Figure 15: Detail of deformation joint

Figure 16: Statical separation of non-load bearing partitions

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Knauf suspended ceilings keep the dead load of non-load bearing construction components low and full the enhanced building requirements of sound insulation, re pro-

Knauf Seismic Design

Suspended Ceilings
Table 7: Load values in ceiling studs with vertical acceleration of 0.5 g Suspended ceiling Maximum bending moment [kNm] Suspension soft rigid 0.02 0.20 7 x 15 0.005 10 x 10 3x5 7 x 15 10 x 10 0.35 0.015 48 8.0 0.15 0.05 25 44 50 7.4 7.5 0.222 0.222 27 3.0 0.186 0.186 Maximum shift [mm] Suspension soft rigid 22.3 Breaking moment of channels [kNm] Suspension soft rigid Gypsum board layer single (1 x 12.5 mm) 12.5 kg/m layout [m] 3x5

tection and thermal insulation. Furthermore, Knauf suspended ceiling systems create additional space for service or sanitary installations. The behavior of suspended ceilings in the event of an earthquake also has been an object of investigation in the report mentioned earlier [6]. Different variations were analyzed in order to detect any links between behavior under dynamic loads, the rigidity of the suspension, and the layout (table 7, gure 17). The rigidity of the suspension is inuenced by the number, the alignment and the rigidity of the suspenders. (gure 17, table 8).

double (2 x 12.5 mm) 25 kg/m

V'z (0.5 g)

"soft" suspension
suspenders at every 2nd crossing

is better than a soft suspension when dynamic loads are applied.

ection and the bending moment are signicantly lower with rigid suspensions as compared with soft suspensions. The bending moment capacity is reached or partially overstepped with a soft suspension. Another remarkable characteristic is that the layout does not have a signicant inuence on the deection. Single layer board application is preferable due to the lower weight. However, this is not always possible as re safety requirements might have to be taken into consideration.

1.25 m

Due to the effects of resonance, both de-

suspended CD channel

0.50 m

"rigid" suspension
suspenders at each crossing

suspended CD channel 1.25 m

0.50 m

Figure 17: Constructional set-up for rigid or soft suspensions

12

CD channel

1.25 m

CD channel

The results show that a rigid suspension


1.25 m

Table 8: Knauf Suspenders 0.25 kN Anchor Fix 0.4 kN Nonius Hanger 0,4 kN Knauf Universal Bracket

The following constructional demands have to be taken into consideration for application: Place suspenders as close as possible to the cross-alignment points of the

104

200

270

channels. The connectors have to be screwed to-

Rigidity [kN/m]

gether with channels and suspenders.


12.5 mm

The suspension height should be as short as possible. The weight should be as low as pos-

10 mm

12.5 mm

sible to reduce earthquake loads. One layer is better than two layers. The lateral connection should slide horizontally but be vertically xed. The edge distance of rst channel grid from anking component should be approx. 100 mm.

10 mm

10 mm

10 mm

25 mm

Rigid suspension do not fasten cladding to perimeter channel

Soft suspension single layer cladding square layout connection to perimeter channel on one side

Figure 18 :Layouts

Construction examples can be seen in load-bearing structure

gures 19 and 20. The use of the soft suspension as shown

open joint

in gure 17 and table 7 is limited. In buildings classied as I and II according to Eususpended ceiling

mold

horizontal fixing

rocode 8-1-2 and areas with high seismic activity soft suspension systems cannot be used. Even for building classication III the

Figure 19: Section of suspended ceiling

Connection without fire protection requirements

Connection with 1.5 hr re protection

use is limited. Furthermore, constructional demands according to gure 18 should also be taken into account. All elements in the plenum (above the suspended ceilings) that are not part of the suspended ceiling must have a separa-

shifting substructure

Shifting substructure Rigid connection of cladding (tightness) Alternative: expanding sealing strip (with / without mold)

te suspension and are not allowed to apply their weight on any component of the suspended ceiling. This requirement should be fullled both for earthquake safety purposes and for re protection reasons.

Figure 20: Joint details

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Knauf partitions such as the wooden panel partitions and the metal stud partitions can be used as shear walls for horizontal loads from wind and earthquakes for both new buildings and the renovation of buildings. Shear walls are well-known building methods in the USA and New Zealand where wooden constructions are mainly used. The values and application guidelines of non-load bearing partitions can be ap-

Knauf Seismic Design

Shear Walls
Table 9: Horizontal load capacity of wooden panel partitions according to Allgemeinen bauaufsichtlichen Zulassungen (General Building Supervisory Permits) Z-9.1-339 (Knauf gypsum ber boards) and Z-9.1-199 (Knauf gypsum boards) Cladding Stud spacing
Standard

bS mm

Spacing of nails / staples eR mm min. 50

Gypsum ber boards perm. FH in kN for panel height h in m 2.60 3.00

Gypsum boards perm. FH in kN for panel height h in m 2.60 3.3 3.00

600-625

max. 75 max. 150

3.3 1.3 6.0 7.5 6.3 2.7 3.3 4.4 2.8 1.5 2.7 5.5

plied to lateral loads. No resonance effects should be expected for in-plane loads due to the high natural frequency in case of shear loads. Consequently, no dynamic effects need to be taken into consideration, and structural loads can be assumed accordingly.
1)

both sides min. 50 12001250 max. 75 max. 150 min. 50 one side 12001250 max. 75 max. 150

Table 9 shows the permissible in-plane loads for Knauf wooden panel partitions according to the Allgemeine bauaufsichtliche Zulassung Z-9.1-199 (The General Building Supervisory Permit) [10] (Further information about reduction factors is cited here). The German Standard for wooden constructions DIN 1052 (08/2004) includes

Linear interpolation is allowed for values of perm. FH between eR = 50 mm and 150 mm, likewise between h = 2.60 m and 3.0 m.

Half panel
eR

Full size panel


FV FH
eR

FV

FH

h 2600 mm

max. eM = 150

detailed information for the dimensioning of wooden panel partitions with gypsum
eR eR

boards and in-plane loading. Bernd Naujoks (TU Darmstadt, Institut fr Stahlbau und Werkstoffmechanik/ Technical University of Darmstadt) did a report on metal stud constructions, Tragverhalten von Wandtafeln mit Kaltprolen unter horizontalen Lasten [11]. Among other tests metal stud partitions with gypsum ber board application under in-plane load (horizontal, and combined with vertical load) ...
Continuation on page 15

eR

eR

ZA
bs = 600 to 625 mm

ZA
bs 625 to 1250 mm

Figure 21: Loading set-up for Table 9

14

(only with double sided cladding and b s 1200)

h 3000 mm

eR

eR

Table 10: Collapse loads for metal stud shear walls from [9] Cladding 1 Cladding 2 Spacing of screws sr [mm] at perimeter 100 150 Gypsum ber board (e.g. Knauf Vidiwall) Horizontal load FH at collapse [kN] 39.8 33.1 Vertical load FV at collapse [kN] 0 0 Number of tests

Continuation from page 14

...by varying the spacing of the screw attachment were tested for this research paper. A dimensioning calculation has been

Gypsum ber board (e.g. Knauf Vidiwall) Cementous ber board (e.g. Knauf Aquapanel) Chipboard Trapezoid metal sheet none

3 3

also developed by Bernd Naujoks. The test results shown in table 10 are not dimensioning values ; these are breaking

150

43.6

loads with dened collapse criteria without statistical consideration or safety factors.

150 172/150

39.9 39.0

0 0

3 3

The collapse of wooden panel partitions is usually caused by the connections between the board and the wooden framing mem-

200

12.2

30

bers. For metal stud partitions, however, the collapse can be caused by the buckling of the

1 3 FV

1 3 FV

1 3 FV

lower end of the pressure-impacted stud if

FH

the spacing of screws is small enough. [11] Additional reinforcements in this area, e.g. corner bracing components increase the load capacity of metal stud shear walls.

260 cm

It should, however, be borne in mind that the gures stated do not take into account any effects of creeping under permanent loads. Hence, it should be ensured that no permanent loads occur through plastic deformations or the restraint of anking components.
125 cm

Figure 22: Load set-up for Table 10

Drywall shear walls can be used up to 5 stories.

Table 11: Comparison of shear capacity of masonry walls and Knauf shear walls Wall type (l=5m, h=3m) 120 mm masonry1) 180 mm masonry1) 240 mm masonry1) 75 mm Knauf W 1112) 100 mm Knauf W 1122)
1)

In table 11 the shear load capacity of masonry and Knauf shear walls is stated for walls 3 m high and 5 m long. It shows that the shear capacity of Knauf partitions is comparable to the capacity of conventional masonry with a signicantly lower weight. Material values for dimensioning are stated in tables 12 and 13, pg 17.

Total capacity kN 9 15 20 12 19

Capacity kN/m 1.8 3.0 4.0 2.4 3.8

Weight of wall kg/m 194 299 405 25 50

Strength of bricks = 15.0 N/mm 2) Studs c/c 600 mm. Screw spacing around perimeter 200 mm in both layers.

15

The Knauf partner company, Danogips, offers the SBS (Steel Building System) as an efcient constructional option for new steel framework buildings. The wall and ceiling panels used in this system are prefabricated to various degrees and can bear horizontal loads from wind and earthquakes. To date the system can only be used for static loads. Knauf and Danogips are currently working together to adapt it for use under dynamic loads, such as in earthquake endangered areas, in the next few months. All the previously mentioned advantages of drywall constructions can be applied to the SBS. Additionally, there is the cost-saving option on expensive reinforced concrete or steel constructions as the SBS system is able to to bear loads.

Knauf Seismic Design

Bracing Wall and Ceiling Panels

Figure 23: Facade with Danogips SBS (Steel Building System)

Figure 24: Ceiling panel

16

Knauf Seismic Design

The material data according to DIN 1052 (08/2004) (table 13) and the shear capacities of the screw connectors (table 12) as determined by Danogips can be used as dimensioning values for metal stud partitions with shear load. Load capacity values for Knauf Systems will be available shortly.

Material Values
Table 12: Shear capacity [kN] of connection of cladding to metal stud (0.6 mm) per TN drywall screw in kN Gypsum board according to EN 520 12.5 mm Type E 12.5 mm Type F 12.5 mm Type A 12.5 mm Type I 15 mm Type F Screw in 1st layer 0.25 0.25 0.25 0.30 0.30 Screw in 2nd layer 0.14 0.14 0.14 0.17 0.17

Table 13: Characteristic values of rigidity and strength for gypsum boards according to DIN 1052 (08/2004) in N/mm Load direction Value Gypsum Board GKB/GKBI d [mm] 12.5 Gross Density k [kg/m] Shear load Shear Modulus Gmean 1) Shear Strength fv,k Transverse direction E Modulus Emean1) Flexural Strength fm,k Compressive Strength fc,k Tensile Strength ft,k Longitudinal direction E Modulus Emean1) Flexural Strength fm,k Compressive Strength fc,k Tensile Strength ft,k Lateral Load Transverse direction Compressive Strength fc,k E Modulus Emean1) Flexural Strength fm,k Longitudinal direction E Modulus Emean1) Flexural Strength fm,k
1)

Gypsum Board GKB/GKBI d [mm] 12.5 800 700 1.0 1000 2.0 4.8 0.7 1200 4.0 5.5 1.7 5.5 2200 2.0 2800 6.5 15 800 700 1.0 1000 1.7 4.8 0.7 1200 3.8 5.5 1.4 5.5 2200 1.8 2800 5.4 18 800 700 1.0 1000 1.4 4.8 0.7 1200 3.6 5.5 1.1 5.5 2200 1.5 2800 4.2

15 680 700 1.0 1000 1.7 4.2 0.7 1200 3.8 3.5 1.4 3.5 2200 1.8 2800 5.4

18 680 700 1.0 1000 1.4 4.2 0.7 1200 3.6 3.5 1.1 3.5 2200 1.5 2800 4.2

680 700 1.0 1000 2.0 4.2 0.7 1200 4.0 3.5 1.7 3.5 2200 2.0 2800 6.5

For the characteristic rigidity values E05 and G05, use E05 = 0.5 Emean

G05 = 0,9 Gmean for calculation.

17

References [1] Univ. Doz. Dr. Rainer Flesch Grundlagen des erdbebensicheren Konstruierens, sterreichische Ingenieur- und Architekten-Zeitschrift Heft 9, Jahrgang 131 (1986) [2] Dowrik, D. J. Earthquake Resistant Design, John Wiley & Sons, 1977 [3] Mller, Keintzel Erdbebensicherung von Hochbauten, 2. Au., Wilhelm Ernst & Sohn, 1985 [4] Rosman, Riko Erdbebenwiderstandsfhiges Bauen, Wilhelm Ernst & Sohn, 1983 [5] European Macroseismic Scale 1998 EMS-98, G. Grnthal, ESC Working Group Macroseismic Scales, 1998 [6] Univ. Doz. Dr. Rainer Flesch Gutachten ber erdbebensichere Ausfhrung von Stnderwnden und Plattendecken, Bundesforschungs- und Prfzentrum Arsenal (Wien), 1995 [7] Dr. Tschirgin/ Dr. Tscherkaschin Gutachten ber die Anwendungsmglichkeit von Trennwand- und Wandbekleidungskonstruktionen aus Gips-/ [8] Naujoks, Bernd Tragverhalten von Wandtafeln mit Kaltprolen unter horizontalen und vertikalen Lasten, Verffentlichungen des Instituts fr Stahlbau und Werkstoffmechanik der Technischen Universitt Darmstadt, Heft 66, 2002 [9] Dr.-Ing. Meier-Drnberg Erdbebensicherheit von leichten Trennwnden - Knauf Stnderwnde mit Gipsplatten W111 und W112, TH Darmstadt, Institut fr Mechanik, 1984 [10] Allgemeines bauaufsichtliches Prfungszeugnis Wnde in Holztafelbauart mit Beplankungen aus KNAUFGipsplatten, Deutsches Institut fr Bautechnik, 2001 [11] Naujoks, Bernd Tragverhalten von

Wandtafeln mit Kaltprolen unter horizontalen Lasten, TU Darmstadt, Institut fr Stahlbau und Werkstoffmechanik 2002

Gipsfaserplatten in Erdbebengebieten, Kutscherenko-Forschungsinstitut ZNIISK, 2004

18

Table 14: Selected international standards


International Germany ISO 3010 Basis for design of structures - Seismic actions on structures (Pre-standard) DIN V ENV 1998-1-1 Eurocode 8 - Design provisions for earthquake resistance of structures - Part 1-1: General rules; seismic actions and general requirements for structure; German version ENV 1998-1-1:1994 (Pre-standard) DIN V ENV 1998-1-2 Eurocode 8 - Design provisions for earthquake resistance of structures - Part 1-2: General rules; general rules for building; German version ENV 1998-1-2:1994 (Pre-standard) DIN V ENV 1998-1-3 Eurocode 8 - Design provisions for earthquake resistance of structures - Part 1-3: General rules; specic rules for various materials and elements; German version ENV 1998-1-3:1995 (Pre-standard) DIN V ENV 1998-1-4 Eurocode 8: Design provisions for earthquake resistance of structures - Part 1-4: General rules; strengthening and repair of buildings; German version ENV 1998-1-4:1996 (Draft standard) DIN 4149 Buildings in German earthquake areas - Design loads, analysis and structural design of buildings DIN 4149-1 Buildings in German Earthquake Zones; Design Loads, Dimensioning, Design and Construction of Conventional Buildings DIN 4149-1 Beiblatt 1 Buildings in German earthquake areas; relation of administration areas with earthquake areas DIN 4149-1/A1 Buildings in German earthquake areas; design loads, analysis and structural design, usual buildings; amendment 1, map showing earthquake areas NF P06-013 Earthquake resistant construction rules. Earthquake resistant rules applicable to buildings, called PS 92. NF P06-013/A1 Earthquake resistant construction rules. Earthquake resistant rules applicable to buildings, called PS 92 XP P06-031-1 Eurocode 8 : Design provisions for earthquake resistance of structures and national application document - Part 1-1 : general rules - Seismic actions and requirements for structures. XP P06-031-2 Eurocode 8 : Design provisions for earthquake resistance of structures and national application document - Part 1-2 : general rules for buildings. XP P06-031-3 Eurocode 8 - Design provisions for earthquake resistance of structures and national application document - Part 1-3 : general rules - Specic rules for various materials and elements. (Draft standard) P06-033PR Eurocode 8 : Design provisions for earthquake resistance of structures - Part 1-4 : general rules - Strengthening and repair of buildings. (Pre-standard) BS DD ENV 1998-1-1 Eurocode 8: Design provisions for earthquake resistance of structures - General rules - Seismic actions and general requirements for structures (Pre-standard) BS DD ENV 1998-1-2 Eurocode 8: Design provisions for earthquake resistance of structures - General rules - General rules for buildings (Pre-standard) BS DD ENV 1998-1-3 Eurocode 8: Design provisions for earthquake resistance of structures - General rules - Specic rules for various materials and elements (Pre-standard) BS DD ENV 1998-1-4 Eurocode 8: Design provisions for earthquake resistance of structures - General rules - Strengthening and repair of buildings SniP II 7-81 Bauen in erdbebengefhrdeten Gebieten D.M.L.P. 24. Januar 1986 Technische Normen fr erdbebensichere Gebude (Draft standard) OENORM EN 1998-1 Eurocode 8: Design of structures for earthquake resistance - Part 1: General rules, seismic actions and rules for buildings (Pre-standard) OENORM ENV 1998-1-1 Eurocode 8: Design provisions for earthquake resistance of structures - Part 1-1: General rules - Seismic actions and general requirements for structures (Pre-standard) OENORM ENV 1998-1-2 Eurocode 8: Design provisions for earthquake resistance of structures - Part 1-2: General rules - General rules for buildings (Pre-standard) OENORM ENV 1998-1-3 Eurocode 8: Design provisions for earthquake resistance of structures - Part 1-3: General rules - Specic rules for various materials and elements (Pre-standard) OENORM ENV 1998-1-4 Eurocode 8: Design provisions for earthquake resistance of structures - Part 1-4: General rules - Strengthening and repair of buildings OENORM B 4015 Design loads in building - Accidental actions - Seismic actions - General principles and methods of calculation SIA 260 Basis of structural design SIA 261 Actions on Structures SIA 261/1 Actions on Structures - Supplementary Specications (Pre-standard) SN ENV 1998-1-1 Eurocode 8 - Design provisions for earthquake resistance of structures - Part 1-1: General rules; seismic actions and general requirements for structure (Pre-standard) SN ENV 1998-1-2 Eurocode 8 - Design provisions for earthquake resistance of structures - Part 1-2: General rules; general rules for building (Pre-standard) SN ENV 1998-1-3 Eurocode 8 - Design provisions for earthquake resistance of structures - Part 1-3: General rules; specic rules for various materials and element Part III - Earthquake Disaster Prevention 12/01 06/97 06/97 06/97 09/99 10/02 04/81 04/81 12/92

France

12/95 02/01 12/01 12/00 03/03

Great Britain

05/96 05/96 05/96 05/96

CIS Italy Austria

2000 01/86 05/04 06/97 06/97 06/97 12/99 06/02 01/03 01/03 01/03 1998 1994 1995

Switzerland

Turkey ABYYHY Specications for Structures to be Built in Disaster Areas

07/98

19

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