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# Hydrological Cycle

1. FORMS

## From Previous Lecture

6. PRESENTATION
Of Precipitation Data

2. TYPES

Precipitation

5. STORM 3. MEASUREMENT

4. ANALYSES
(Point Measurement)

## Losses from Precipitation

Quantity not used for hydropower generation, irrigation, water supply, other uses
Precipitation Surface Runoff = Total loss
Total loss = Evaporation + Transpiration + Interception + Depression storage + Infiltration

## EVAPORATION, TRANSPIRATION & EVAPOTRANSPIRATION

Chapter 4 (Abstraction from Precipitation)

## Evaporation, Transpiration and Infiltration

Units: L T-1
Losses form a major portion of hydrologic cycle:

## KNS 3143 Engineering Hydrology

LEARNING OBJECTIVES
At the end of this class, students should be able to:
Define evaporation and transpiration Explain evapotranspiration Calculate evaporation & evapotranspiration using different methods/ equations discussed in class

OVERVIEW
Chapter 4

Introduction

## Methods of Estimating Evaporation

Evapotranspiration

## Water Budget Energy Budget Mass Transfer Penmans Theory

Climatic Approach

Lysimeter

## KNS 3143 Engineering Hydrology

Introduction
Evaporation
A process by which water accumulated on the land surface and water body is converted into vapour state and returned to the atmosphere Water evaporates from land, either bare soil or soil covered vegetation, trees, impervious surfaces like roofs and roads, open water and flowing streams Evaporation rates are affected by climate
high in arid and semiarid regions low in humid regions

Meteorological Factors

Transpiration
Water absorbed by plants and crops and eventually discharged into the atmosphere Surface water storage: yield of river basin, capacity of reservoirs, size of pumping, consumptive use of water by crops, yield of underground supplies, etc.
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## Units: L T-1 such as mm h-1, cm d-1 or inches d-1

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## Met Factors (contd)

Not possible to measure lake evaporation directly Other meteorological (met) factors affecting evaporation
Solar radiation Wind Relative humidity Temperature

## Estimating Evaporation from Reservoir

Difficult to estimate due to complex interactions between components of landplant-atmosphere system Methods for estimating evaporation
Empirical Water budget method Energy budget method Mass transfer method Combination Measurement
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## Water Budget Method

Assumes all relevant water-transport phases can be evaluated for a time period, t (> 1 week) Reservoir and lake evaporation E = P + Q - O - I - S
E: volume evaporated from water P: Precipitation on reservoir (rain gauge) Q: Surface runoff inflow into reservoir (flow records) O: Outflow from reservoir (flow records) I : Net volume infiltration (indirect, permeability) S: change in stored volume (stage recorder)

## Water Budget Method (contd)

Most of the terms in the equation can be evaluated easily/ directly Net infiltration: evaluated indirectly, by measuring soil permeability or monitoring changes in groundwater level in nearby wells Difficulty in measuring net infiltration generally limits the water budget method

Simple in theory but rarely produce reliable results in practice; net infiltration measurement
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## Energy Budget Approach

Involves solving an equation that list all the sources and sinks of thermal energy Significant energy exchanges occur at the evaporating surface during evaporation Heat of vapourisation: amount of heat required to convert 1 g water to vapour 586 calories at 20 oC Requires great deal of instrumentation Reliable in theory, suitable for research only Requires detailed meteorological data
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## Mass Transfer Approach

Studies have shown that evaporation rates are a function of the difference between the saturation vapour pressure at water surface temperature and the vapour pressure of the overlying air (partial vapour pressure) Aerodynamic based method utilise the concept of eddy motion (turbulent) transfer of water vapour from an evaporating surface to the atmosphere Satisfactory results, use easily measurable variables, simple model form

## Mass Transfer Approach (contd)

Inconsistencies
Wind speed and air temperature measured at inconsistent heights (2 25 m) Meteorological data collection procedures and standards

## Mass Transfer Approach (contd)

Evaporation depends on supply of heat and vapour pressure gradient, and meteorological factors: temperature, wind speed, atmospheric pressure, solar radiation, water quality and nature and shape of evaporating surface E0 = C(es ea)
E0: Free water surface evaporation of air es: saturation vapour pressure at water surface temperature ea: air vapour pressure C: aerodynamic conductance; C = 1/ra ra: aerodynamic resistance
Saturation deficit

## Mass Transfer Approach (contd)

C assumed to be dependent on windspeed E0 = f(u) (es-ea)
E0: Free water surface evaporation es: saturation vapour pressure at water surface temperature e0: saturation vapour pressure at air temperature ea: air vapour pressure

## Penmans Theory (1948)

Estimate evaporation from weather data Requirements:
Supply of energy to provide latent heat of evaporation Mechanism for removing vapour, once produced

## E0 = f(u) g(e) h(T)

f(u): wind function g(e): vapour pressure function h(T): temperature function, considered 1.0
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The theory combines energy balance approach with mass transfer approach to compute evaporation E0 Penman formula:
E0 = H + E a +
H = R A ( 0 .18 + 0 .55 n / D )(1 0 .06 ) (117 .4 x10 9 )Ta4 ( 0 .47 0 .077 e )( 0 .20 + 0 .80 n / D )
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## Penmans Theory (contd)

E0: evaporation from open water ew: saturation vapour pressure of air at water surface temperature tw e: actual vapour pressure of air at temperature t = saturation vapour pressure at dew-point td es: saturation vapour pressure of air at temperature t e s : saturation vapour pressure of air at boundary layer temperature n/D: cloudiness ratio = actual/possible hours of sunshine (Table 2) RA: Angots value of solar radiation arriving at the atmosphere (Table 1) H: net amount of energy remaining at a free water surface : psychrometer constant = 0.66 if t is in C and e in mbar Ta: absolute earth temperature = t (C) + 273 Ea: evaporation (in energy terms) for hypothetical case of equal temperatures of air and water
tC 0 10 20 30 1.80 1.07 0.61 0.36

## Penmans Theory (contd)

E a es e = e E 0 es

## : is obtained from the saturation vapour pressure curve, typically as shown.

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## Penmans Theory (contd)

Angots values for shortwave radiation flux, RA

## Penmans Theory (contd)

Mean daily max hours of sunshine, n/D

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Transpiration
Only small fraction of water is retained in plant structure Most passes through the roots of stem or trunk; and transpired into atmosphere through leaves the process by which water is evaporated from air spaces in the plant leaves Controlled by solar radiation, temperature, wind and vapour pressure gradients In field conditions, it is practically impossible to differentiate evaporation from transpiration as the ground is covered by vegetation; commonly referred as evapotranspiration At night, the pores or stomata of plants close up and very little moisture leaves the plant surfaces
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Evapotranspiration
Total loss of water from land (evaporation) and plants (transpiration) Potential evapotranspiration (PET): rate of ET from a fully vegetated watershed when sufficient moisture is always available Actual evapotranspiration (AET): always less than or equal to PET depending on the specific situation ET can be estimated by:
Climatic approach Experimental field measurements

## KNS 3143 Engineering Hydrology

Evapotranspiration (ET)
Amount of ET depends on
Frequency/ occurrence of precipitation Climatic factors Type, manner of cultivation & extent of vegetation

Climatic Approach
Blaney-Criddle (1962) An empirical relation used by irrigation engineers to calculate crop water requirement of various crops Estimates of PET is carried out by correlating with sunshine temperature

Transpiration: Day time (under solar radiation) Night: pores of plants close up and little moisture leave plant surface Evaporation: as long as heat input is available Other factor: Availability of water supply
If water is abundant, more will be used by plants. Thus, Potential Evapotranspiration (PET) may take place Most methods assume abundant water supply
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Blaney-Criddle Method
Relatively simplistic method for calculating evaporation Provide rough estimate only Ideal when only air temperature data for site is available One month or greater

Blaney-Criddle (contd)
ratio of mean daily hours for a given month to total daytime in the year (%) P = (x/y) x 100
x: the mean daily daytime hours for a given month y: the total daytime hours in the year

ET0 = P (0.46Tm + 8)
ET0: Evapotranspiration for reference crop Tm: mean daily temperature (C) P: ratio of mean daily hours for a given month to total daytime in the year (%) kc: crop factor
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## Blaney-Criddle Method for Crops

Value of kc depends on the month and locality. Average value for the season for selected crops is given below

Blaney-Criddle (contd)
Doorenbos and Pruitt accounted for actual isolation time, relative humidity and daytime windspeed ET0 = P (0.46Tm + 8) becomes f = P (0.46Tm + 8) f: daily consumptive use factor (mm) Then, ET0 = a + bf, a and b are constants Just use ET0 = P (0.46Tm + 8) Eventually use ETc= kc ET0

## Procedures in using Blaney-Criddle

Determine mean daily temperature, Tm
No. days = 30 Sum Tmax = 1097.2 Sum Tmin = 750.8 Mean Tmax = 1097.2/30 = 36.6 oC Mean Tmin = 750.8/30 = 25.0 oC Step 1: Determination of the mean daily temperature: Tm
Tmax = Tmin = Tm = Sum of all Tmax values during the month Number of days of the month Sum of all Tmin values during the month Number of days of the month Tmax + Tmin 2

Step 2: Determination of the mean daily percentage of annual daytime hours, p Step 3: Calculate ETo
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Mean daily percentage (p) of annual daytime hours for different latitudes
Latitude North

Estimating ET0

Jan July .15 .17 .19 .20 .22 .23 .24 .24 .25 .26 .26 .27 .27 .27 .27 .27 .27 .27 .27 .27 .27 .27 .27 .27 KNS 3143 Engineering Hydrology .27 .27 .28 .28 .28 .28 .28 .28 .27 .27 .27 .27 .27 .28 .28 .29 .29 .28 .28 .27 .26 .26 .26 .27 .28 .29 .29 .29 .28 .28 .27 .26 .25 .26 .27 .28 .29 .30 .30 .29 .28 .26 .25 .25 .26 .27 .29 .30 .31 .31 .29 .28 .26 .25 .24 .25 .27 .29 .31 .32 .31 .30 .28 .26 .24 .23 .25 .27 .29 .31 .32 .32 .30 .28 .25 .23 .22 .24 .27 .30 .32 .34 .33 .31 .28 .25 .22 .21 .23 .27 .30 .34 .35 .34 .32 .28 .24 .21 .20 .23 .27 .31 .34 .36 .35 .32 .28 .24 .20 .18 .21 .26 .32 .36 .39 .38 .33 .28 .23 .18 .16 .20 .26 .32 .38 .41 .40 .34 .28 .22 .17 .13 Aug Sept Oct Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar Apr May June

Feb

Mar

Apr

May

June

July

Aug

Sept

Oct

Nov

Dec

## ETo = p (0.46 Tm +8)

Class Exercise
Question Determine the mean ET0 for the month of April, in mm d-1 using the Blaney-Criddle Method. Given Latitude: 35o North Mean Tmax = 29.5 oC Mean Tmin = 19.4 oC

Class Exercise
Step 1: Determine Tm Tm = (Tmax + Tmin)/2 = (29.5 + 19.4)/2 = 24.5 oC Step 2: Determine p Given Latitude 35o North, Month: April From the table of mean daily percentage (p) of annual daytime hours for different latitudes, p = 0.29 Step 3: Calculate ET0 = p (0.46 Tm +8) = 0.29 (0.46 x 24.5 +8) = 5.6 mm d-1 ETo
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## Indicative values of ET0 (mm d-1)

An exponential relationship between mean monthly temperature and mean monthly consumptive.
Mean daily temperature Climatic zone Desert/arid Semi arid Sub-humid (Moist) Humid 1-2 3-4 5-6 3-4 5-6 7-8 4-5 6-7 8-9 low (less than 15C) 4-6 7-8 medium (15-25C) high (more than 25C) 9-10

## Thornthwaite Equation (1948)

10Tm ETmonth = 1.62 R f Te
a = 0.4923 + 0.01792Te 0.0000771Te2 + 0.000000675Te3
T Te = m 5
Rf is the reduction factor (Table 3), Tm the mean monthly temperature in C, a is a constant Te is the annual heat index, excluding negative temperature.
1.514

## In books, it is usually without Rf, but sometimes PET = RfPET(0)

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Class Exercise
Estimate the monthly potential evapotranspiration by using the Thornthwaite formula for a place located at latitude of 40N The monthly temperature are shown in the next table If the growing season for crops is from May 15 to September 15, determine the seasonal consumption for the crops
Month January February March April May June July August September October November December
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## 5.2 Field Measurements

Tm (C) -18.6 -14.6 -1.0 4.6 14.5 24.2 21.3 19.7 10.6 4.6 -0.4 -9.3
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## Evaporation pan practical.

Pan expose free water surface to the air, Evaporation rate is determined by measuring water loss during one time period, usually 1 day. Evaporation rate measured by the pan, however is not the same as that of the lake or reservoir exposed to similar meteorological conditions.

Evaporation rate measured by the pan is not the same as that of the lake or reservoir exposed to similar meteorological conditions Difference attributed to pan installation & exposure. The factors produce pan evaporation rate greater than actual lake/reservoir evaporation. Therefore, apply correction factor: pan coefficient

## Pan Evaporation (contd)

Relationship between PET and pan evaporation is given by: most widely used evaporation pan in US recommended as a standard for evaporation measurement by the World Meteorological Organisation Practical
Pan exposes free water surface to the air Evaporation rate: water loss in 1 d Not the same as lake

## PET = kpan Epan

kpan = pan coefficient (value varies from 0.64 to 0.81) Epan = data from pan evaporation

## Evaporation Pan: NWS Class A

Unpainted galvanized iron, diameter: 122 cm Height: 25.4 cm Mounted 15 cm above ground Pan initially filled with water to 20 cm, refilled when fall below 17.5 cm More accurate measurement of water loss as pan has proper level at all time

Add water when the water depth in the pan drops too much

Remove water from the pan when the water depth rises too much

## KNS 3143 Engineering Hydrology

Class Exercise
Class A evaporation pan Water depth on day 1 = 150 mm Water depth on day 2 = 144 mm (after 24 hours) Rainfall (during 24 hours) = 0 mm Kpan = 0.75 Formula: ET0 = kpan Epan Calculation: Epan = 150 144 = 6 mm d-1 ET0 = 0.75 x 6 = 4.5 mm d-1
Measuring water depth on day 1
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## Measuring water depth on day 2 (after 24 hours)

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Evapotranspirometers
Sum Epan Epan = Number of days in month = 6.5 mm d-1 Kpan = 0.70 ET = Kpan x Epan 0 = 0.70 x 6.5 = 4.6 mm d-1
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Measure PET Consist of: central tanks & 2 or more watertight soil tanks Soil tanks: connected to central tank, vegetative cover, open to air above Water enter only from above: natural @ artificial precipitation Water leave soil tanks only from bottom pipes, to the central tank Amount of water entering soil tanks Amount of water collected in collecting cans in central tank = water lost in ET If soil moisture is maintained at field capacity, difference is PET

Lysimeters
Measure AET More difficult to measure than PET A properly constructed lysimeter must be representative of the surrounding area Ideal conditions are rarely obtained, particularly when AET is markedly less than PET A lysimeter is buried to the level of natural soil Diameter of lysimeters may vary from 0.6 to 3.3 m and depth from 1.8 to 3.3 m Arrangements are made to weigh the lysimeters whenever reading is required to be taken Outflow from the lysimeter is measured by a metering device
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Non-weighing Lysimeters
PET = R + A P PET: potential evapotranspiration R: rainfall A: additional water P: percolated water

Weighing lysimeter