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Rear axle construction In cases where the rear suspension is non-independent, the type of axle used is either

a dead axle or a live axle. The former only has to support the weight of the vehicle, where the latter has to fulfill this task and, in addition, contain a gear and shaft mechanism to drive the road wheels.

Axle shafts The axle shaft (half shaft) transmits the drive from the differential sun wheel to the rear hub. The arrangement of a simple rear axle can be seen in the figure, the road wheel attached to the end of the half shaft, which in turn is supported by bearing located in the axle casing. The diagram illustrates the forces acting on the rear axle assembly under a under different operating conditions.

Tensile and compressive stress due to cornering forces. *hear stress due to the weight of the vehicle ( ig.ending stress due to the weight of the vehicle ( ig. urthermore. under driving conditions the half shaft has to transmit the driving tor&ue which sub!ects the shaft to torsional stress. *emi-floating Three-&uarter floating . inally. 'c). . % side force also tends to bend the overhanging section of the half shaft. Types of axles %xle shafts are divided into three main groups depending on the stresses to which the shaft is sub!ected( .Operating conditions The total weight of the rear of the vehicle may exert a bending action on the half shaft. 'a shows a line sketch of a simple haft which is sub!ected to( ')+-torsional stress due to driving and braking tor&ue. Stresses The various types may be compared by considering the stresses the shaft has to resist ig. . there is a tendency for the overhanging section of the shaft to be sub!ect to a shearing force. "uring cornering a side force acts upon the road wheel which imposes a bending load and an end thrust becomes a #pull$. 'b).

the shaft diameter is increased. ully floating. %lthough the final-drive oil level is considerably lower than the axle shaft. Three-quarter floating . and bending loads in both the horizontal and vertical planes plus the percentage of car weight on the wheel. The half shaft in this assembly required to be able to withstand the torsion load involved in driving the road wheel. % single bearing at the hub end is fitted between the shaft and the casing. Semi-floating ig. ( atigue may be defined as breakage due to continual alteration of the stress in the material). )a shows a typical mounting of an axle shaft suitable for light cars. since a sudden change in crosssectional area would produce a stress-raiser and increase the risk of failure due to fatigue. %ny increase must be gradual. *ealing arrangements normally consists of an oil retainer fitted at the hub end (the lip of the seal is positioned towards the final drive). the large amount of #splash$ would cause the lubricant to work along the shaft and enter the brake drum.. so the shaft will have to resist all the stresses previously mentioned. To reduce the risk of fracture at the hub end (this would allow the wheel to fall off).

The half shaft must withstand bending loads due to side thrust when cornering and. The construction shown in ig./aving defined the semi-and the fully floating shaft. the shaft may be withdrawn without !acking up the vehicle. . The main shear stress on the shaft is relieved but all other stresses still have to be resisted. of course. This arrangement relieves the shaft of all stresses except torsional. ig. Fully floating This is generally fitted on commercial vehicles where tor&ue and axle loads are greater. *tuds connecting the shaft to the hub transmit the drive and when the nuts on theses studs are removed. )b shows a construction which has a single bearing mounted between the hub and the casing. )c consists of and independently mounted hub which rotates on two bearings widely spaced on the axle casing. any alternative between the two may be regarded as a three-&uarter floating shaft. The shaft is to transmit only the driving torque to the rear wheel. at the same time transmit driving torque. so the construction is very strong.

. % medium carbon alloy steel containing such elements as nickel. resist spline wear and provide good resistance to fatigue.Axel shaft material % tough. chromium and molybdenum is the usual choice. hard material must be used to withstand the various stresses.

.0alculation of axle shafts The following forces act on a moving wheel( . . The tor&ue due to the traction or braking force (T w and Tb) The traction or braking force ( The lateral force y w and b ) when the vehicle makes a turn or skid .

for !oint action is restricted by the adhesion force The loading conditions of axle shafts and beams reduce to the following three cases( '. The normal reaction 1w *imultaneous appearance of maximum longitudinal and transverse forces at the wheel road contact is not possible.6' m7s) wt 4 transferred weight where . where( Tw 4 wheel tor&ue Te max 4 maximum engine tor&ue ig 4 gearbox ratio ('st gear) if 4 final drive ratio kd 4 dynamic factor kl 4 the coefficient of differential locking ma 4 automobile mass accounted for the driving axle g 4 5..Rectilinear motion The longitudinal force ( 3aximum tor&ue is w or b ) attain its maximum value e&ual to 1w 2.

only the vertical force is accounted for where .centrifugal forcewhose value is limited by the wheel-road grip e&uals The vertical reactions and lateral forces of the inner and outer wheels are where v 4 vehicle speed (km7h) 1 4 radius of turn of the road t 4 wheel track width 2 4 coefficient of road adhesion during sidewise skidding 4'. the outer wheel.Skidding of automobile In this case a lateral force and normal reaction are acting on the wheel.6) 9 In this case. +. The largest lateral force.8 : 4 plus sign is used for the axle shaft of the wheel which is inner relative to the skidding direction.riving wheels overcome irregularities /ere. y 48 ). %ssume that the longitudinal force w 4 8. and the negative sign.2 4 coefficient of adhesion (8.

=8 -The axle shaft dimensions are determined for the most dangerous case of loading. kdr4 ). for trucks. for cars. the bending stress is . 3o 4 1 w o b : yo rw where rw 4 wheel radius (the upper sings are used for the inner axle shaft. the e&uivalent stress due to bending and torsion is where d 4 the axle shaft diameter b 4 the overhanging length "uring skidding the following bending moments and stresses act on the axle shaft 3i 4 1w i b ? yi rw.<=.kdr 4 is the dynamic factor of road. -@hen the driving wheels overcome an irregularity. or s semi-floating axle the dangerous cress section lies in the bearing installation >one. and the lower sign.The floating axle is calculated only for torsion at the maximum traction force . or the first condition. kdr 4 '. for the outer axle shaft relative to the skidding direction).

).The axle shaft is calculated also for the maximum twist angle where A 4 the length of the axle shaft B 4 the shear modulus C 4 the moment of inertia of the cross section of axle shaft sb 4 == 3Da for shafts without keyway -8 3Da for shafts with keyway 9 The permissible twist angle is E 4 6o for ' m length of the shaft.8.= 0ritical *peeds of *haft . F Gumber of splines of the axle shaft is form '8 (for cars) to '6 (for trucks) F the shaft factor of safety 4 ).

the magnitude of the deflection depends upon the stiffness of the shaft and its supports. The unit weight of shaft materials is <I. deflect during rotation.8 kG7m+. the half axle has the following dimensions the length between bearings is 8. and the amount of damping in the system. H 4 )88 BDa. *hafts of constant cross section( Hxample( ind the half axle critical speed.%ll rotating shafts. . even in the absence of external load.I m and its diameter is )= mm. the imbalance mass with respect to the axis of rotation. the total mass of the shaft and attachment parts.

the loads on wheel bearing are calculated using the following formulas( Straight!line motion "r # Rz l $ a% "a# & .0alculation of wheel-hub bearings or the bearings of the driving axle with semi-floating axle shafts (as seen in the figure).

earing 0lassifications .'urvilinear motion "r o # Rz o l $ a ( Ry o rw $ a% "a o # Ry o "r i # Rz o l $ a ) Ry i rw $ a% "a i # Ry i Gecessary service life of bearings (in millions of revolutions) is ascertained based on the specified life of the automobile with due consideration of overhaul periods. .

earings /igh (advantage) Goisy at high speed Dreferable when the axialdimension are limited .ecoming noisy when failure is imminent 0an carry combination of radial and thrust loads 3uch less the !ournal bearing. more accurate position (gears) Cournal .earings( eatures *tarting tor&ue Juit operation *pace Aimitation .earings versus Cournal .1olling .earings Aow Juit operation Dreferable when the radialdimension are limited Kil film provides insulation ailure is sudden - Hlectrical insulation ailure warning Thrust load 0learance .all .

Aubrication problem Got sensitive Kverload . 0. The basic dynamic load rating. is the load the bearing can withstand without any permanent deformation of any component. amongst other factors( load speed location si>e cost starting tor&ue noise lubrication supply Lery sensitive 0an take high overloads for short time "efinitions( The basic static load rating. in an involved activity. which the bearing runs before the development of fatigue in any of the bearing components. is the number of revolutions (or hours at some constant speed). 0o. . The equivalent load. which needs to take into account. whoever.earing *election( The selection of an appropriate bearing for a given task. D. A. The life of a ball bearing. is the constant radial load which a bearing can endure for 'x'8 I revolutions without evidence of the development of fatigue in any of the bearing components.

T 4 applied thrust load (G) . see table ) for example data. N 4 thrust factor (given in bearing catalogues).) if mounting rotates is recommended 4 '.8 if shaft rotates.is defined as the constant radial load which if applied to a bearing would give the same life as that which the bearing would attain under the actual conditions of load and rotation. L 4 '. M 4 radial factor (given in bearing catalogues). see table ) for example data. D 4 LM1 : NT @here( D 4 e&uivalent load (G).