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Progress on and

D inking Water
2012 UPDATE

© UNICEF and World Health Organization 2012 All rights reserved. UNICEF and the World Health Organization welcome requests for permission to reproduce or translate their publications – whether for sale or for non-commercial distribution. Applications and enquiries should be addressed to UNICEF, Division of Communication, 3 United Nations Plaza, New York 10017, USA (fax: +1 212 303 7985; e-mail: nyhqdoc.permit@unicef.org) or to WHO Press through the WHO website: http://www. who.int/about/licensing/copyright_form/en/index.html The designations employed and the presentation of the material in this publication do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of UNICEF or the World Health Organization concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or area or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries. Dotted and dashed lines on maps represent approximate border lines for which there may not yet be full agreement. The figures included in this report have been estimated by the WHO/UNICEF Joint Monitoring Programme for Water Supply and Sanitation (www.wssinfo.org) to ensure compatibility, thus they are not necessarily the official statistics of the concerned country, area or territory, which may use alternative rigorous methods. UNICEF and the World Health Organization do not warrant that the information contained in this publication is complete and correct and shall not be liable for any damages incurred as a result of its use. WHO Library Cataloguing-in-Publication Data Progress on Drinking Water and Sanitation: 2012 Update 1. Water supply – standards. 2. Potable water – supply and distribution. 3. Sanitation 4. Millennium Development Goals. 5. Programme evaluation I. WHO/UNICEF Joint Monitoring Programme for Water Supply and Sanitation. ISBN: 978-92-806-4632-0 (NLM classification: WA 670) ISBN: 972-924-1503297 Printed in the United States of America
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Page; P. 3 UNICEF/Olivier Asselin; P. 4 UNICEF/Kate Holt; P. 8 UNICEF/Noah Friedman-Rudovsky; P. 11 UNICEF/Eric Bouvet; P. 12 UNICEF/ Veronique de Viguerie; P. 14 UNICEF/Jean-Baptiste Lopez; P. 15 UNICEF/ Marta Ramoneda; P. 16 UNICEF/Josh Estey; P. 18 UNICEF/ Susan Markisz; P. 22 UNICEF/Marco Dormino; P. 23 UNICEF/Kate Holt; P. 25 UNICEF/Marco Dormino; P. 26 UNICEF/Olivier Asselin; P. 27 UNICEF/Olivier Asselin; P. 28 UNICEF/Ami Vitale; P. 29 UNICEF/Roger LeMoyne; P. 31 (top): UNICEF/Olivier Asselin; (bottom): UNICEF/ Shehzad Noorani; P. 32 UNICEF/Tibebu Lemma; P. 37 UNICEF/Roger LeMoyne; Back Cover © The Water Institute at UNC/Emily Zuehlke, 2011, Uganda

Progress on and

D inking Water
UPDATE

2012

PRogRess on DRinking WateR and Sanitation > 2012 Update .

particularly subSaharan Africa. are lagging behind. the target for drinking water has been met. United Nations . Of course. and I commend those who are participating in the Sustainable Sanitation: Five Year Drive to 2015. communities and individuals who saw the target not as a dream. more than 2 billion people have gained access to improved drinking water sources. The recognition by the UN General Assembly. but ultimately.8 billion people have gained access to improved sanitation since 1990. only one step on a long journey that we have yet to finish. the world remains off track for the sanitation target. of water and sanitation as a human right provides additional political impetus towards the ultimate goal of providing everyone with access to these vital services. I commend this report to all those working towards universal access to safe water and sanitation. And the burden of poor water supply falls most heavily on girls and women.Foreword Since the adoption of the Millennium Development Goals. Some regions. There are still 780 million people without access to an improved drinking water source. It is essential to accelerate progress in the remaining time before the MDG deadline. public and private sector entities. Let us use this success to invest our mission for sustainable. Reducing these disparities must be a priority. in 2010. much work remains to be done. as of 2010. Ban Ki-moon Secretary-General. Many rural dwellers and the poor often miss out on improvements to drinking water and sanitation. but as a vital step towards improving health and well-being. This achievement is a testament to the commitment of Government leaders. equitable development with renewed vigour so we can create the future we want. Many countries and agencies have joined hands in the Sanitation and Water for All partnership. This report contains the welcome announcement that. Since 1990. This report outlines the challenges that remain. And even though 1. Achieving the MDG drinking water target is a major step. Such collective efforts offer real promise and I urge all partners to contribute. the WHO/UNICEF Joint Monitoring Programme for Water Supply and Sanitation has reported on progress towards achieving Target 7c: reducing by half the proportion of people without sustainable access to safe drinking water and basic sanitation.

Looking Back 03 04 08 11 12 Global Drinking Water Trends 1990-2010 Progress Towards the MDG Target Regional Trends An Alternative Indicator of Progress Urban-Rural Disparities 14 15 18 22 23 Global Sanitation Trends 1990-2010 Progress Towards the MDG Target Regional Trends An Alternative Indicator of Progress Urban-Rural Disparities 26 27 28 29 31 The Equity Imperative Looking Beyond Averages Water & Sanitation Use in Least Developed Countries Water & Sanitation Use by Wealth Quintiles Gender and the Burden of Collecting Water 32 33 34 34 35 35 35 JMP Methodology and What Lies Ahead JMP Estimates Growth of the JMP Database Data Limitations Data Reconciliation JMP Task Forces Looking Beyond 2015 37 38 56 58 Statistical Tables Country. Regional and Global Estimates on Water & Sanitation Annex: Trends In Urban and Rural Water Supply Coverage Millennium Development Goals: Regional Groupings 01 .Contents 02 Looking Forward.

4 billion people will lack access to improved sanitation facilities. Accordingly. to bring sanitation ‘on track’. to promote global monitoring of drinking water quality. This is impressive. WHO and UNICEF are addressing current monitoring challenges and those that lie ahead. If current trends continue. was met in 2010. The report brings welcome news: The MDG drinking water target. Continued efforts are needed to reduce urban-rural disparities and inequities associated with poverty. this report details work under way to refine both indicators and methods of monitoring. reports every two years on access to drinking water and sanitation worldwide and on progress towards related targets under Millennium Development Goal 7.5 billion lack improved sanitation. particularly when the gains of countries that started at a low baseline and faced high population growth are considered. Many still lack safe drinking water. including both recent and older data sets that have come to the attention of the JMP.8 billion people gained access to improved sanitation facilities between 1990 and 2010. as part of the 2010-2015 JMP strategy. This 2012 report is based on data gathered from household surveys and censuses. It also discusses the beginnings of a process to develop new water. and to look beyond the MDG target towards universal coverage. which calls for halving the proportion of the population without sustainable access to safe drinking water between 1990 and 2015. As this progress report shows. these numbers will remain unacceptably high in 2015: 605 million people will be without an improved drinking water source and 2. Over 780 million people are still without access to improved sources of drinking water and 2. and the world is unlikely to meet the MDG sanitation target. five years ahead of schedule. Looking Back The WHO/UNICEF Joint Monitoring Programme for Water Supply and Sanitation. the report also shows why the job is far from finished. and this is why some of the news in this report is sobering. However. Indeed. Still. targets and indicators beyond 2015. to dramatically increase coverage in countries in sub-Saharan Africa and Oceania. over 2 billion people gained access to improved water sources and 1. in alignment with the human right to water and sanitation and the mandate of the UN Special Rapporteur on the Human Right to Water and Sanitation. much has been achieved.Looking Forward. As we approach the 2015 target date for the MDGs. The safety and reliability of drinking water supplies and the sustainability of both water supply sources and sanitation facilities are not addressed by the current set of indicators used to track progress. known as the JMP. 02 PRogRess on DRinking WateR and Sanitation > 2012 Update . The estimates presented here describe the situation as of end-2010 and supersede those of the JMP update published in March 2010. sanitation and hygiene goals. much of the progress of the last 20 years has been in the context of rapid population growth.

Global D inking Water Trends 1990-2010 03 .

While this tremendous achievement should be applauded. a proxy indicator for water quality was agreed upon for MDG monitoring. Systematically testing the microbial and chemical quality of water at the national level in all countries is prohibitively expensive and logistically complicated. Coverage in the developing world overall stands at 86 per cent. Similar disparities are found within countries – between the rich and poor and between those living in rural and urban areas. some of these sources may not be adequately maintained and therefore may not actually provide ‘safe’ drinking water. particularly faecal matter. by the nature of their construction. 89 per cent of the world’s population. The drinking water target has thus become one of the first MDG targets to be met.  The MDG drinking water target has been met % 100 24 21 17 14 11 8 12 MDG target 80 PRogRess on DRinking WateR and Sanitation > 2012 Update 60 40 76 79 83 86 89 92 20 0 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 2015 (projected) MDG taRget ■ impRoved souRces FIGURE 1 ■ UnimpRoved souRces Trends in global drinking water coverage. Almost 6. and the proportion of the global population still using unimproved sources is estimated at only 11 per cent (Figure 1). huge disparities exist. are protected from outside contamination. a great deal of work remains: First. Northern Africa and large parts of Asia. This proxy measures the proportion of the population using ‘improved’ drinking water sources. it is likely that the number of people using safe water supplies has been over-estimated (see Box 1). This is less than half of the 24 per cent estimated for 1990. therefore. Second. As a result. defined as those that. These inequities are explored later in this report.Global Drinking Water Trends 1990-2010 Progress Towards the MDG Target The MDG drinking water target has been reached: Over 2 billion people gained access to improved water sources from 1990 to 2010. While coverage of improved water supply sources is 90 per cent or more in Latin America and the Caribbean. were using an improved water source in 2010. projected to 2015 04 .1 billion people. However. it is only 61 per cent in sub-Saharan Africa. complete information about drinking water safety is not available for global monitoring. 1990-2010. but it is only 63 per cent in countries designated as ‘least developed’.

For a more detailed discussion of these issues. data limitations abound. largely due to the implementation of the UNICEF-supported Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS) and the Demographic and Health Survey (DHS). unimproved sources and surface water. it only calls for halving the proportion of people without safe drinking water. A key improvement in the mid-1990s was a shift to user-based data. which more accurately reflect actual use of water and sanitation facilities by individual households. Figure 2 illustrates the global trend in the use of drinking water sources. The figures did not reflect facilities that had fallen into disrepair or were constructed by others outside of government-supported programmes. This increased standardization has greatly enhanced the comparability of data. 1990-2010 05 . a proxy for sustainable access to basic sanitation is the use of improved sanitation facilities. n Increased availability of data: The late 1990s saw an unprecedented increase Drinking water coverage increased from 76 per cent in 1990 to 89 per cent in 2010 6 3 8 18 in the availability of household survey data. In response. Similarly. Measuring the actual sustainability of both water and sanitation facilities remains an area that could benefit from further attention. and since nationally representative information on water safety was not available for the period following the baseline year (1990). rapid. WHO and UNICEF were obliged 54 to use a proxy for ‘sustainable access to safe drinking water’.400 sources.to user-based data: Initially the JMP relied almost exclusively on government data. other improved drinking water sources. Still. WHO and UNICEF assisted the major household surveys to incorporate harmonized questions into their questionnaires. see section on ‘Data Limitations’. more than 780 million people remain unserved. To date it has remained impractical to obtain water quality data at the national Global dRinking WateR tRends 1990-2010 45 1990 ■ ■ ■ ■ 2010 level for all countries. increases the likelihood that it provides safe water. low-cost water quality testing kits. some 220 sources of data could be found in the JMP database. This is made feasible in part by the availability of new. disaggregated by category. boreholes. The main international household surveys – MICS and DHS – are piloting the inclusion of a water-quality module that will include testing for the presence of E. coli. n Expanded JMP database: In 2000. 35 31 Coverage (%) n Greater disaggregation of data: The introduction of drinking water and sanitation ‘ladders’ has allowed categories such as ‘piped drinking water on premises’ and ‘open defecation’ to be highlighted. through technological intervention. If successful.  An improved source is one that. as specified in the MDG target. rainwater collection and standpipes. The last two decades have seen impressive increases in the use of both piped connections to a dwelling. where ‘improved’ was determined by the type of technology a household reported as their primary source. which were largely drawn from water-utility companies and line ministries and were based on the number of facilities constructed. on page 34. n More standardized data: Lack of comparability of data on drinking water sources and sanitation facilities among countries and over time has posed a huge challenge to global monitoring. plot or yard and other improved sources. collected through household surveys and population censuses.Finally. this current update reflects more than 1. and in 2006 they published ‘Core Questions on Drinking Water and Sanitation for Household Surveys’ to encourage their more widespread use. such as protected dug wells. One major information gap is the safety of drinking water supplies. advances have been made in the availability and quality of data and the methods used to measure them: n A shift from provider. More than one tenth of the global population still relied on unimproved drinking water sources in 2010. Since cost-effective. BOX 1 Monitoring the global targets for drinking water and sanitation: Challenges and achievements In the two decades that WHO and UNICEF have been tracking progress in water and sanitation. The agreed proxy was ‘use of an improved water source’. periodic and standardized water quality testing was not possible on a global scale when the MDG target was formulated. it could lead to further evolution in monitoring and pave the way for a future drinking water target that includes a measure of water quality. SuRface wateR UnimpRoved OtheR impRoved Piped on pRemises FIGURE 2 Trend in the proportion of the global population using piped drinking water on premises. Although the MDG drinking water target has been met. initiated by the United States Agency for International Development (USAID).

Azerbaijan. Most of these people – 94 per cent – are rural inhabitants. The same methodology that is used to determine progress at the global level can be applied to individual countries. These have been translated into targets at the national level. however. since the inhabitants of these two countries represent 46 per cent of the developing world’s population. regions in which coverage was already high have made more modest gains.1 The MDGs are global goals with associated global targets. Figure 4 shows the number of people who have gained access to an improved drinking water source since 1990. This is not surprising. Of note are the impressive gains in Eastern Asia. Each of the small island states in the region has a very small number of data points. lakes. The results are illustrated in Figure 3. or 187 million people. Ukraine and Belarus). The progress of India and China not only dominates their respective regions. If only the developing world is considered. and the small decline in coverage in the Caucasus and Central Asia2 and in Oceania (Figure 5). which added 23 percentage points. China and India represent more than half of the people who have gained access. but represents nearly half of the global progress towards the drinking water target. Kazakhstan. Tajikistan. In fact. which shows that the majority of countries lagging behind on the drinking water target are in sub-Saharan Africa. irrigation channels and other surface sources. Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan. replacing the Commonwealth of Independent States (which included the Russian Federation. making it difficult to prepare robust estimates for 2010.or off-track in meeting its targets. In fact. data on the use of unimproved sources have been disaggregated into two categories: surface water and other unimproved sources. and they are concentrated in sub-Saharan Africa. 19 per cent of rural dwellers in sub-Saharan Africa and 39 per cent of rural residents in Oceania rely on surface water for drinking and cooking. Georgia. 06 . many of which date back several years. In general. 2 The Caucasus and Central Asia is a newly formed MDG region. using JMP estimates to assess whether a country is on. 2010 insufficient data oR not applicable: Data were unavailable ■ or insufficient to estimate trends or a progress assessment was not applicable PRogRess on DRinking WateR and Sanitation > 2012 Update For the first time. Kyrgyzstan. ponds. rising by only a few percentage points over 20 years. unprotected springs and water delivered by cart or tanker. only 19 out of 50 countries in that region are on track to meet the target by 2015. The latter includes unprotected dug wells.Sub-Saharan Africa and Oceania are not on track to meet the MDG drinking water target On tRack: Coverage rate in 2010 was >95% or was within 5% ■ of the 2010 rate required to meet the target PRogRess but insufficient: Coverage rate in 2010 was between ■ 5% and 10% of the 2010 rate required to meet the target Not on tRack: Coverage rate in 2010 was the same or lower than the ■ rate in 1990 or below 10% of the 2010 rate required to meet the target FIGURE 3 Progress towards the MDG drinking water target. The use of surface water stands at a surprisingly high 3 per cent of the global population. Surface water includes water collected directly from rivers. 1 It should be kept in mind throughout this report that data from Oceania are limited. Wide variations are found in the rate at which regions have improved coverage. The new region is composed of Armenia.

change 1990-2010 25 15 5 -5 -1 12 -1 17 4 18 23 5 9 16 1 13 100 80 Coverage (%) 60 99 86 89 40 54 20 61 87 88 89 90 91 92 94 Global dRinking WateR tRends 1990-2010 0 Caucasus and Central Asia Southern Asia South-Eastern Asia Western Asia Eastern Asia Latin America & the Caribbean Oceania Northern Africa Sub-Saharan Africa Developing regions Developed regions World FIGURE 5 Use of improved drinking water sources by MDG region in 2010. 457 million ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ Sub-SahaRan AfRica 273 South-EasteRn Asia 204 Latin AmeRica & the CaRibbean 179 Developed Regions 108 WesteRn Asia 76 NoRtheRn AfRica 49 Caucasus and CentRal Asia 16 Oceania 1 FIGURE 4 Number of people who gained access to improved drinking water sources from 1990 to 2010 by MDG region (millions) Since 1990.Almost half of the two billion people who have gained access to drinking water since 1990 live in China or India India. and percentage-point change 1990-2010 07 . 522 million Millions ■ SoutheRn Asia 679 in India 522 ■ EasteRn Asia 473 in China 457 China. drinking water coverage in the developing world has increased by 16 percentage points % pt.

Eastern Asia is also the region with the most dramatic increase in the use of improved drinking water sources overall. This represents a 23 percentage-point increase. The first is a set of regions in which the use of piped water to a dwelling. progress is mostly in the ‘other improved’ category of water sources. Of note is the fact that 65 per cent of the population in Southern Asia are using other improved sources rather than piped water on premises. Northern Africa. where at least 70 per cent of the population are using piped water on premises. Western Asia and Latin America and the Caribbean. 562 million new users have been added during a period in which the world as a whole added only 9 percentage points.Global Drinking Water Trends 1990-2010 Regional Trends Figure 6 shows trends in the use of different types of water sources from 1990 to 2010. plot or yard is low (30 per cent or less). gaining 35 percentage points in coverage in this category in 20 years. The second group consists of Eastern Asia. It includes sub-Saharan Africa. Although gains in the use of piped water on premises have been made in these regions. Figure 8 shows the number of people without improved water sources in the 10 countries with the largest unserved populations. China and India Access to piped water supplies on premises varies widely among regions 4 13 24 34 26 27 PRogRess on DRinking WateR and Sanitation > 2012 Update 1 9 7 3 9 3 9 1 7 6 25 7 8 2 11 2 6 9 1 14 13 2 9 5 12 7 8 1 5 8 22 8 3 11 6 18 3 8 31 24 22 32 21 34 29 35 40 31 11 15 65 52 55 83 70 56 53 35 72 58 58 33 38 84 73 86 Coverage (%) 45 34 29 30 46 32 45 54 26 15 1990 16 2010 1990 24 20 25 30 16 2010 1990 2010 1990 2010 1990 2010 1990 2010 1990 2010 1990 2010 1990 2010 1990 2010 1990 2010 Sub-Saharan Africa Oceania Southern Asia South-Eastern Caucasus and Asia Central Asia Eastern Asia Northern Africa Western Asia Latin America & the Caribbean Developing regions World ■ Piped on PRemises FIGURE 6 ■ OtheR ImpRoved ■ UnimpRoved ■ suRface wateR Drinking water coverage trends by developing regions. 1990-2010 08 . Southern Asia and South-Eastern Asia. Though they are on track to reach the target. by MDG regions. far higher than any other region. Two clear groupings emerge. starting at 68 per cent in 1990 and moving to 91 per cent coverage in 2010. Oceania. Countries that still have less than 50 per cent coverage in water supply are almost all in sub-Saharan Africa (Figure 7). Eastern Asia (dominated by China) has seen a dramatic increase in piped water supplies since 1990. Significant proportions of the population in Oceania and sub-Saharan Africa are still using surface water.

Sub-Saharan Africa has the lowest drinking water coverage of any region FIGURE 7 Proportion of the population using improved drinking water sources in 2010 ■ 91-100% ■ 76-90% ■ 50-75% ■ <50% ■ insufficient data oR not applicable combined are still home to 216 million people without access to improved water supplies. In rural areas.3 The biggest change has been the increase in piped water supplies on premises. which were used by 54 per cent of people worldwide in 2010 – up from 45 per cent in 1990. Safety and Sustainability. Over the same period. the use of piped water on premises grew even faster – from 18 per cent in 1990 to 29 per cent in 2010. from 10 per cent to 5 per cent in rural areas and from 6 per cent to 3 per cent for This is discussed in more detail in the 2011 UNICEF and WHO thematic report entitled Drinking Water: Equity. population without access (millions) 09 . reliance on surface water was halved. Ten countries are home to two thirds of the global population without an improved drinking water source The last two decades have seen major shifts in the proportion of the global population using various types of drinking water sources (Tables 1 and 2). 3 Global dRinking WateR tRends 1990-2010 Millions ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ Rest of woRld 292 China 119 India 97 NigeRia 66 Ethiopia 46 Indonesia 43 ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ DemocRatic Republic of the Congo 36 Bangladesh 28 United Republic of Tanzania 21 Sudan 18 Kenya 17 FIGURE 8 Ten countries with the largest population without access to an improved drinking water source in 2010. This represents 28 per cent of the global population that remains unserved.

from 44 million to 85 million (this category does not count as ‘improved’.358 288 1. Global trends in the use of different drinking water sources (percentage) Facility type Urban (%) 1990 2010 1990 Rural (%) 2010 1990 Total (%) 2010 Piped on premises Public taps Boreholes Rainwater Dug wells Springs Tanker trucks and small cart with drum Surface water Bottled water* 81 5 6 0 5 1 1 1 1 80 6 8 0 4 1 1 0 6 18 6 29 1 27 8 1 10 0 29 8 30 2 19 6 1 5 1 45 5 19 1 18 5 1 6 1 54 7 18 1 12 4 1 3 3 *Survey data show that most people who use bottled water as their main source of drinking water also have piped water on premises as a secondary source. 1990 and 2010 (millions) 10 .3 billion in 2010. 1990 and 2010 (per cent) Global trends in the use of different drinking water sources (population) Facility type Urban (millions) 1990 2010 Rural (millions) 1990 2010 Total (millions) 1990 2010 PRogRess on DRinking WateR and Sanitation > 2012 Update Piped on premises Public taps Boreholes Rainwater Dug wells Springs Tanker trucks and small cart with drum Surface water Bottled water* 1.763 205 255 13 151 33 42 11 192 538 168 878 41 843 235 20 313 11 973 260 996 76 656 221 43 175 36 2. the proportion of people using piped water on premises remained almost the same in percentage terms. many boreholes with handpumps still impose a considerable burden on users in terms of the time and effort needed to collect the water.016 47 954 250 44 331 37 3. Bottled water is considered ‘improved’ only when the household also uses water from an improved source for cooking and personal hygiene. Bottled-water users are counted under the category ‘piped on premises’ in the table above. Bottled-water users are counted under the category ‘piped on premises’ in the table above. The number of people using bottled water to meet their drinking water needs also increased. The number of people using boreholes (which are usually handpump-operated) grew from 1 billion in 1990 to 1. are in rural areas.737 465 1.251 89 807 254 85 187 228 *Survey data show that most people who use bottled water as their main source of drinking water also have piped water on premises as a secondary source. almost a billion people. TAbLE 2 World population by types of drinking water sources by urban or rural areas.820 120 138 6 111 15 24 17 26 2. but the massive increases in urban populations during this time meant that the absolute number of urban dwellers using water piped to their homes grew by a billion.the total population. In urban areas. from 1. and most are also users of piped water on premises. A large majority of bottled-water users live in urban areas. While boreholes offer significant advantages over dug wells in terms of water quality. rising more than sixfold – from 37 million in 1990 to 228 million in 2010. The number of people relying on tanker trucks and small vendors for drinking water has almost doubled over the same 20-year period. Eighty per cent of borehole users.8 billion to 2.8 billion. due to concerns over water quality). TAbLE 1 Proportion of the population by types of drinking water sources by urban or rural areas.

6 37.4 45.7 10. The indicator is expressed as: the increase since 1995 in the number of people with access as a proportion of the current ( 2010) population. as opposed to only 157 countries for 1990. for instance.5 1.9 0. Even countries that have not reported such good progress are noteworthy in terms of the number of people served. more than 30 per cent of the population have gained access to improved drinking water sources since 1995. but still be persistently ‘off track’.5 4. Rwanda and Sierra Leone. Moreover. Added to this is the challenge of rapid population growth. Some countries have made remarkable progress in providing large proportions of their population with access to improved drinking water sources.4 2.8 TAbLE 3 Selected countries in sub-Saharan Africa that have performed above the regional average in terms of the proportion of their 2010 population that gained access to improved drinking water sources since 1995 Table 3 shows selected countries in sub-Saharan Africa that have performed above the regional average of nearly 26 per cent.7 27. 11 Global dRinking WateR tRends 1990-2010 .0 26.3 1.9 per cent.6 5.5 42. Afghanistan also shows stunning progress when viewed in this way.9 6.0 24. this represents over 3 million people. In Rwanda. it is the poorest countries that are often characterized by a combination of low baseline coverage and high population growth. and this is true even of countries that are off track in terms of MDG progress. Population in 2010 (millions) Water supply coverage in 2010 (%) Population that gained access to improved sources of drinking water since 1995 MDG progress Proportion of 2010 population that gained access to improved drinking water sources since 1995 (%) Malawi Burkina Faso Liberia Ghana Namibia Gambia Rwanda Sierra Leone Togo Sub-Saharan Africa 14.7 3.3 40. In response.4 This indicator can be used to assess a country’s performance irrespective of whether it started out with high or low baseline coverage. It is remarkable that sub-Saharan Africa has outstripped Eastern Asia in terms of the proportion of the current population that have gained access in the last 15 years.6 221 On track On track On track On track On track On track Not on track Not on track Not on track Not on track 48.8 42. since countries that started out with low baseline coverage have had to work much harder to halve the proportion of the population without water and sanitation.3 0.7 10. this represents more than 10 million people.3 1. both experienced conflict during the period 1995 to 2010. far surpassing the Southern Asian regional average of 30.6 1. The country has provided almost half its population (more than 15 million people) with access to improved water sources during a turbulent 15-year period. 1995 is used instead since the JMP had drinking water coverage estimates for 191 countries for 1995.7 30. which can easily mean that any gains in people served are overtaken by population growth.2 7.0 856 83 79 73 86 93 89 65 55 61 61 7.Global Drinking Water Trends 1990-2010 An Alternative Indicator of Progress Assessing progress towards the MDG target alone creates an incomplete picture. the JMP has developed an alternative indicator that represents the proportion of the current population that has gained access over the period from 1995 to the most recent update. but have nevertheless shown greater progress than that suggested by the regional average.9 16. The Democratic Republic of the Congo has provided improved water sources for only about 16 per cent of its population since 1995. It is thus the percentage of people living in a country today who have gained access in the last 15 years.1 25. in this case 2010. This means that countries may be making significant progress in the absolute number of people served. 4 Although using population with access figures for 1990 would be ideal. still.

The results show stark disparities between urban and rural coverage.747 1. the number of people using unimproved sources decreased from 1. Figures 11 and 12 show that while many countries have less than 50 per cent coverage of drinking water in rural areas.5 billion people. the rate of increase in piped water on premises has stagnated over the last 20 years. but coverage remains low.343 2. compared to only 29 per cent of people in rural areas. This means that 653 million rural dwellers lacked improved sources of drinking water. The rate of increase has been higher in rural areas.000 Population (millions) 653 109 2. no country has less than 50 per cent coverage in urban areas.3 billion to 3. An estimated 96 per cent of the urban population globally used an improved water supply source in 2010. in rural areas. This must be viewed in relation to the massive growth in the urban population over the same time period – rising from 2.000 130 3. Piped water on premises is a convenience enjoyed largely by urban populations 1 4 14 PRogRess on DRinking WateR and Sanitation > 2012 Update 1. 142 1. However. the number of people in rural areas using an unimproved water source in 2010 was still five times greater than in urban areas.000 3. In urban areas.2 billion people in urban areas gained access to an improved drinking water source between 1990 and 2010 4.000 2. compared to 81 per cent of the rural population. 80 per cent of the world’s urban population had piped water connections.1 billion to 653 million. 1990-2010 (millions) 12 . Though the ratio has improved since 1990. the number of urban dwellers using unimproved sources actually increased. data used to track progress towards the MDG drinking water target are disaggregated by rural and urban areas. 1990-2010 FIGURE 10 Population using improved and unimproved sources of drinking water by urban and rural areas. illustrating the challenges in equitable achievement of the MDGs. Figure 10 shows the significant increase in the urban population that gained access to improved water sources between 1990 and 2010 – well over a billion people. By contrast. during a time of more modest population growth.896 1 . from 109 million to 130 million.Global Drinking Water Trends 1990-2010 Urban-Rural Disparities In Figure 9. 139 4 16 10 5 14 28 Coverage (%) 52 81 80 44 18 1990 Urban 2010 1990 Rural 29 0 1990 Urban ■ UnimpRoved souRces ■ ImpRoved souRces 2010 1990 Rural 2010 2010 ■ UnimpRoved ■ suRface wateR ■ Piped on PRemises ■ OtheR ImpRoved FIGURE 9 Drinking water coverage trends by urban and rural areas. The figures in the Annex on page 56 illustrate urban-rural disparities in drinking water coverage in developing regions. Similarly.

2010 ■ 91-100% ■ 76-90% ■ 50-75% ■ <50% ■ insufficient data oR not applicable Global dRinking WateR tRends 1990-2010 Urban FIGURE 12 Drinking water coverage in urban areas. 2010 ■ 91-100% ■ 76-90% ■ 50-75% ■ insufficient data oR not applicable 13 .Most people without an improved drinking water source live in rural areas Rural FIGURE 11 Drinking water coverage in rural areas.

14 PRogRess on DRinking WateR and Sanitation > 2012 Update Global Sanitation Trends 1990-2010 .

Global Sanitation Trends 1990-2010 Progress Towards the MDG Target Though it is unlikely that the world will meet the MDG sanitation target by 2015. China and India contributed just under half of the global progress towards the MDG target in sanitation. bushes. Eastern Asia added 39 percentage points in coverage between 1990 and 2010. Globally. due to population growth. At current rates of progress. by MDG region. the absolute number has remained at over one billion for several years. an increase of almost 1. the MDG target may not be reached until 2026. projected to 2015 15 . including much of sub-Saharan Africa and several of the most populous countries in Asia (Figure 15). Progress in China and India is highlighted. bodies of water or other open spaces. the same is not true for India in Southern Asia. encouraging progress is being made. forests. Figure 17 represents the number of people who gained access to improved sanitation facilities since 1990. While China has contributed to more than 95 per cent of the progress in Eastern Asia. no regions have experienced decreases in coverage. Many countries are off track in meeting the MDG sanitation target. If current trends continue. an estimated 2. defined as defecation in fields. 63 per cent of the population use improved sanitation facilities. since these two countries represent such a large proportion of their regional populations. Unlike drinking water. This represents 1. we will reach 67 per cent coverage in 2015. Variation in the rate at which regions have increased access to improved sanitation facilities is striking (Figure 16). Figure 14 shows that 15 per cent of the population still practise open defecation. better than previous projections but still far from the 75 per cent needed to reach the target.5 billion people were still without improved sanitation. In 2010. This means that we are within 10 per cent of being ‘on track’. Though the proportion of people practising open defecation is decreasing.8 billion people since 1990 (Figure 13).1 billion people. Unless the pace of change in the sanitation sector can be accelerated. Together. the world will not meet the MDG sanitation target % 100 51 80 25 MDG target 48 44 40 37 33 60 40 52 56 60 63 67 Global sanitation tRends 1990-2010 49 20 0 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 2015 (projected) MDG taRget ■ impRoved sanitation FIGURE 13 ■ UnimpRoved sanitation Trends in global sanitation coverage 1990-2010.

Sanitation coverage increased from 49 per cent in 1990 to 63 per cent in 2010 15 25 11 20 Coverage (%) 11 6 63 49 1990 ■ impRoved ■ ShaRed 2010 ■ UnimpRoved ■ Open Defecation FIGURE 14 Trend in the proportion of the global population using improved. 2010 insufficient data oR not applicable: Data were unavailable ■ or insufficient to estimate trends or a progress assessment was not applicable 16 . shared or unimproved sanitation or practising open defecation. 1990-2010 The world is not on track to meet the MDG sanitation target PRogRess on DRinking WateR and Sanitation > 2012 Update On tRack: Coverage rate in 2010 was >95% or was within 5% ■ of the 2010 rate required to meet the target PRogRess but insufficient: Coverage rate in 2010 was between ■ 5% and 10% of the 2010 rate required to meet the target Not on tRack: Coverage rate in 2010 was the same or lower than the ■ rate in 1990 or below 10% of the 2010 rate required to meet the target FIGURE 15 Progress towards the MDG sanitation target.

251 million FIGURE 17 Number of people who gained access to improved sanitation from 1990 to 2010. change 1990-2010 40 30 20 10 0 4 17 0 39 23 12 5 18 5 20 0 14 100 80 Coverage (%) 60 96 95 40 66 55 20 30 41 69 80 85 90 56 63 0 Oceania South-Eastern Asia Latin America & the Caribbean Northern Africa Caucasus and Central Asia Southern Asia Eastern Asia Western Asia Sub-Saharan Africa Developing regions Developed regions World FIGURE 16 Use of improved sanitation facilities by MDG region in 2010. by MDG region (millions) 17 . and percentage-point change 1990-2010 Four out of 10 people who have gained access to improved sanitation since 1990 live in China or India China.Since 1990. sanitation coverage has increased by 20 percentage points in developing regions % pt. 593 million Millions ■ EasteRn Asia 613 in China 593 ■ SoutheRn Asia 399 in India 251 ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ South-EasteRn Asia 204 Sub-SahaRan AfRica 127 Latin AmeRica & the CaRibbean 169 Developed countRies 97 WesteRn Asia 74 NoRtheRn AfRica 62 Caucasus and CentRal Asia 27 Oceania 1 Global sanitation tRends 1990-2010 India.

Global Sanitation Trends 1990-2010 Regional Trends Trends in sanitation coverage by region show marked differences. and an estimated 25 per cent practise open defecation. several populous countries in Southern Asia also have low rates of improved sanitation. Southern Asia and sub-Saharan Africa still struggle with low coverage (41 per cent and 30 per cent. this means that the number of people practising open defecation has actually increased by 33 million. shared or public). Sanitation coverage is improving in almost every developing region 3 4 15 25 41 67 PRogRess on DRinking WateR and Sanitation > 2012 Update 1 7 14 7 2 1 3 19 32 25 15 4 18 5 5 6 13 13 18 8 10 2 36 31 6 10 32 32 9 5 9 7 7 5 11 12 59 19 25 13 20 11 17 26 8 10 24 6 Coverage (%) 6 90 19 14 46 80 69 55 55 68 80 72 85 7 66 91 96 7 63 49 3 6 41 24 56 36 26 30 27 1990 2010 1990 2010 1990 2010 1990 2010 1990 2010 1990 2010 1990 2010 1990 2010 1990 2010 1990 2010 1990 2010 Southern Asia Sub-Saharan South-Eastern Africa Asia Oceania Latin America & the Caribbean Northern Africa Western Asia Eastern Asia Caucasus and Central Asia Developing regions World ■ IMPROVED FIGURE 18 ■ SHARED ■ UnimpRoved ■ open Defecation Sanitation coverage trends by developing region. most of the countries with low sanitation coverage are in sub-Saharan Africa (Figure 19). 1990-2010 18 . In sub-Saharan Africa. As with water. and open defecation is the highest of any region. In Southern Asia. the proportion of the population using shared or unimproved facilities is much lower. the two regions differ significantly from one another in the proportions of populations using facilities other than those classified as ‘improved’. However. Far more countries have sanitation coverage of less than 50 per cent than water coverage of less than 50 per cent. Sub-Saharan African has not made the same progress in reducing open defecation. In fact. With population growth. respectively). sub-Saharan Africa has the highest proportion of people using some sort of unimproved sanitation of any region (these are facilities that fall short of being ‘improved’ and are either unimproved. as illustrated in Figure 18. it has decreased by only 11 per cent since 1990. That said. representing 692 million people. 45 per cent of the population use either shared or unimproved facilities. it is still practised by 41 per cent of the region’s population. suggesting that the demand for sanitation is on the rise. Although the number of people resorting to open defecation in Southern Asia has decreased by 110 million people since 1990. This proportion is growing. However.

In many countries of sub-Saharan Africa and Southern Asia, sanitation coverage is below 50 per cent

FIGURE 19

Proportion of the population using improved sanitation in 2010

■ 91-100% ■ 76-90% ■ 50-75% ■ <50% ■ insufficient data oR
not applicable

Figure 20 shows the 11 countries that make up more than three quarters (76 per cent) of the global population without improved sanitation facilities. One third of the 2.5 billion people without improved sanitation live in India. Despite significant and encouraging declines in open defecation since 1990, 1.1 billion people – 15 per cent of the world’s population – still resort to the practice. The majority of those practising open defecation (949 million) live in rural areas. Open defecation in rural areas persists in every region of the developing world, even among those who have otherwise reached high levels of improved sanitation use (Figure 21). For instance, the proportion of rural dwellers still practising open defecation is 9 per cent in Northern Africa and 17 per cent in Latin America and the Caribbean. Open defecation is highest in rural areas of Southern Asia, where it is practised by 55 per cent of the population.

More than half of the 2.5 billion people without improved sanitation live in India or China

Global sanitation tRends 1990-2010

Millions

■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■

Rest of woRld 604 India 814 China 477 Indonesia 110 NigeRia 109 Pakistan 91

■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■

Bangladesh 66 Ethiopia 66 DemocRatic Republic of the Congo 50 Russian FedeRation 43 United Republic of Tanzania 40 BRazil 40

FIGURE 20

Countries with the large numbers of people without access to improved sanitation (millions)

19

Open defecation is still practised by a majority of the rural population in 19 countries

FIGURE 21

Proportion of rural population practising open defecation in 2010

■ >50% ■ 26-50% ■ 11-25% ■ 1-10% ■ No open defecation ■ insufficient data oR
not applicable

Open defecation is largely a rural practice
1,200

Nearly 60 per cent of those practising open defecation live in India

900

PRogRess on DRinking WateR and Sanitation > 2012 Update

Population (millions)

600

1,183 949

300
Millions

142 0 Urban ■ 1990

105 Rural

■ 2010

■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■

Rest of woRld 150 India 626 Indonesia 63 Pakistan 40 Ethiopia 38 NigeRia 34 Sudan 19

■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■

Nepal 15 China 14 NigeR 12 BuRkina Faso 9.7 MozambiQue 9.5 Cambodia 8.6 MadagascaR 7.7 BRazil 7.2

FIGURE 22

Population practising open defecation by urban and rural areas, 1990-2010 (millions)

FIGURE 23

Countries with the largest numbers of people practising open defecation (millions)

20

Population (millions)

Open defecation is, however, decreasing in all regions, in both urban and rural areas (Figure 22). About 234 million fewer rural dwellers were practising open defecation in 2010 than in 1990. Those that continue to do so tend to be concentrated in a few countries, including India, where 626 million people practise open defecation (59 per cent of the global total) (Figure 23).
Shared sanitation is defined as sanitation facilities of an otherwise acceptable type that are shared between two or more households, including public toilets. Sanitation facilities that are shared among households, whether fully public or accessible only to some, are not considered improved according to the definition used for the MDG indicator. The reason stems from concerns that shared facilities are unacceptable both in terms of cleanliness (toilets may not be hygienic and fully separate human waste from contact with users) and accessibility (facilities may not be available at night, or used by children, for instance). However, it is also recognized that, globally, the number of people using shared sanitation is growing: The number of users has increased by 425 million since 1990 – increasing from 6 per cent of the global population to 11 per cent in 20 years. In many countries, particularly in crowded urban areas, shared sanitation is the only viable option for those wishing to avoid open defecation; in rural areas, families often keep costs down by sharing latrines between one or more households with family ties. A JMP task force on sanitation is exploring the issue of shared sanitation as part of its mandate. Shared sanitation is predominantly an urban phenomenon, and over 60 per cent of people using this type of facility live in urban areas (Figure 24).

The majority of people who rely on shared or public sanitation facilities live in urban areas
500

400

300

464 200 298 100

0

Urban ■ 2010

Rural

FIGURE 24

Population sharing sanitation facilities by urban and rural areas, 2010 (millions)

Countries where more than a quarter of the population rely on shared or public sanitation facilities
Improved (%) Shared (%) Unimproved (%) Open defecation (%)

Ghana Bolivia Congo Gabon Malawi Nauru Mongolia Democratic Republic of the Congo Kenya Sierra Leone Zimbabwe Bhutan Bangladesh Liberia Nigeria

14 27 18 33 51 65 51 24 32 13 40 44 56 18 31

58 36 34 34 33 31 28 27 27 27 27 26 25 25 25

9 14 40 32 8 4 9 40 27 32 6 26 15 12 22

19 23 8 1 8 0 12 9 14 28 27 4 4 45 22
Global sanitation tRends 1990-2010

TAbLE 4

Proportion of the population using improved, shared or unimproved sanitation facilities or practising open defection in countries where the rate of shared sanitation use is 25 per cent or more (per cent)

The use of shared sanitation is most evident in sub-Saharan Africa and Eastern Asia, and is particularly

common in certain sub-Saharan African countries, including Ghana, Congo and Gabon (Table 4).

21

2 0. representing the proportion of the current population that gained access between 1995 and 2010.7 105 On track Not on track On track Progress but insufficient On track Not on track Not on track Not on track 35. Botswana and Malawi.3 12. notably Angola. However. Rwanda.8 3.4 10.5 1.5 0.Global Sanitation Trends 1990-2010 An Alternative Indicator of Progress As with water.7 2.0 14. The Democratic Republic of the Congo is remarkable for having added 10 million new users of improved sanitation facilities.2 TAbLE 5 Selected countries in sub-Saharan Africa that have performed above the regional average in terms of the proportion of their 2010 population that gained access to improved sanitation facilities since 1995 22 PRogRess on DRinking WateR and Sanitation > 2012 Update .0 856 58 55 61 68 62 51 24 30 6. Gambia.6 0.5 3.9 33. Cape Verde.3 28.1 10. Table 5 shows that sub-Saharan Africa as a whole has provided improved sanitation for an average of 12 per cent of its current population since 1995.5 25.6 0. This indicator reveals that even among some countries that remain off track.7 32.9 66.8 16. an alternative indicator has been developed to measure progress in sanitation. achievements can be striking. Countries in sub-Saharan Africa that performed above the regional average on sanitation Proportion of 2010 population that gained access to sanitation since 1995 (%) Population in 2010 (millions) Sanitation coverage in 2010 (%) Population that gained access to sanitation since 1995 (millions) MDG progress Angola Rwanda Cape Verde Gambia Botswana Malawi Democratic Republic of the Congo Sub-Saharan Africa 19. several individual countries have achieved proportions over 20 per cent.8 22.

The number of countries with less than 50 per cent coverage in urban areas is much lower (Figures 27 and 28). Large parts of the developing world have sanitation coverage of 50 per cent or less in rural areas. 105 million people practised open defecation in urban areas. representing 3 per cent of the urban population. 1. Globally. doing so at a higher rate than urban dwellers. a great deal of progress has been made in rural areas since 1990: 724 million rural dwellers have gained access to improved sanitation while the number of people unserved in urban areas has grown by 183 million. However.000 531 2. In rural areas.Global Sanitation Trends 1990-2010 Urban-Rural Disparities The disparities in rural and urban sanitation are even more pronounced than those in drinking water supply. disparities in sanitation coverage between urban and rural areas persist 4. 79 per cent of the urban population use an improved sanitation facility.000 3.156 28 76 79 4 9 2.000 1. As with drinking water. Urban-rural disparities in sanitation have decreased 3 6 8 10 5 13 39 28 Despite progress. In 2010. including much of sub-Saharan Africa and several populous countries in Southern Asia.720 879 0 47 29 1. 1990-2010 FIGURE 26 Population using improved or unimproved sanitation by urban and rural areas.000 16 Coverage (%) Population (millions) 714 1. The figures in the Annex on page 56 illustrate urban-rural disparities in sanitation coverage in developing regions. representing 72 per cent of the global total of those unserved. the number of urban residents using unimproved facilities increased from 1990 to 2010.8 billion people lack access to improved sanitation. A significant number of rural dwellers have moved away from open defecation. 1990-2010 (millions) 23 .796 2. compared to 47 per cent of the rural population (Figure 25). but in 2010 was still two and a half times that of urban areas (Figure 26).603 Global sanitation tRends 1990-2010 1990 Urban 2010 1990 Rural 2010 1990 Urban 2010 1990 Rural 2010 ■ UnimpRoved ■ Open Defecation ■ impRoved ■ ShaRed ■ UnimpRoved sanitation ■ impRoved sanitation FIGURE 25 Sanitation coverage trends by urban and rural areas.759 1. at a time of rapid growth in urban areas. The number of people using unimproved facilities in rural areas decreased.

Sanitation coverage is much lower in rural than in urban areas Rural FIGURE 27 Sanitation coverage in rural areas in 2010 ■ 91-100% ■ 76-90% ■ 50-75% ■ <50% ■ insufficient data oR not applicable PRogRess on DRinking WateR and Sanitation > 2012 Update Urban FIGURE 28 Sanitation coverage in urban areas in 2010 ■ 91-100% ■ 76-90% ■ 50-75% ■ <50% ■ insufficient data oR not applicable 24 .

and 9 per cent use improved sanitation only. A remaining 16 per cent use neither improved drinking water sources nor improved sanitation facilities (Figure 29). and those who use neither. an analysis has been carried out of the proportion of people who use both improved water sources and improved sanitation facilities. it was found that five out of six users of improved sanitation also use improved water sources.BOX 2 Progress in water & sanitation combined Most of those using an improved drinking water source also use improved sanitation For the first time. Only half the population of the 59 countries use both. A quarter use improved drinking water only. but it is less likely that users of improved water also use improved sanitation. 25% Water only 16% Neither water nor sanitation 9% Sanitation only 50% Both water and sanitation FIGURE 29 Proportion of the population in 59 developing countries using both improved drinking water sources and improved sanitation (per cent) 25 Global sanitation tRends 1990-2010 . Using data from 59 countries.

26 PRogRess on DRinking WateR and Sanitation > 2012 Update The Equity Imperative .

An ‘equity tree’. Figure 30 shows the wide variation in drinking water coverage among countries in sub-Saharan Africa.The Equity Imperative Looking Beyond Averages Global averages mask disparities in the way water and sanitation services are distributed. Sierra Leone’s coverage of 55 per cent is slightly below the regional average of 61 per cent.5 shedding light on other inequities. based on an asset index. Data available for 2010 have also been analysed by alternative country groupings (least developed countries). Regional and country averages mask huge disparities % 100 n 94 the CaRibbean n 89 WoRld Latin AmeRica & n 99 MauRitius n 97 Richest 20% n 91 South AfRica n 86 Ghana n 87 URban URBAN n 90 SoutheRn Asia 80 n 75 Benin n 72 Uganda n 64 Mali 60 n 61 Sub-SahaRan AfRica n 59 Kenya n 55 SieRRa Leone n 47 MozambiQue n 44 Ethiopia n 56 PooRest 20% n 59 Richest 20% URBAN RURAL 40 n 35 RuRal n 29 Somalia 20 n 10 PooRest 20% The EQuity impeRative RURAL 0 FIGURE 30 Drinking water coverage in selected countries in sub-Saharan Africa and urban/ rural coverage among poorest and richest households in Sierra Leone (per cent) Source: JMP 2012. tells a dramatic story that regional or national averages fail to reveal. compared to only 10 per cent of the poorest quintile in rural areas. we find that rural access is much lower than urban access. based on wealth quintiles. offers some insight into where these disparities are most acute. 2008 27 . and Sierra Leone DHS. but when coverage is examined by rural and urban access. The richest quintile of the urban population enjoys almost universal access. 5 The household surveys that the JMP relies on for its data allow for the classification of households by wealth. This makes it possible to determine whether improvements in water and sanitation have been distributed equitably across populations in the various wealth quintiles. The disaggregation of data by urban and rural areas. for example. gender and the burden of water collection. and by wealth quintiles. presented earlier in this report. Splitting out the urban and rural data for Sierra Leone by the first and fifth wealth quintile – the richest and poorest 20 per cent of the population – reveals huge disparities.

1990-2010 Trends in the use of improved. unimproved and shared sanitation facilities and open defecation in least developed countries by urban and rural areas. unimproved sources and surface water in least developed countries by urban and rural areas.The Equity Imperative Water & Sanitation Use in Least Developed Countries In the 48 countries designated as the least developed by the United Nations. Ten per cent of the population in least developed countries rely on surface water 3 18 10 16 16 22 2 14 Open defecation is practised by nearly a quarter of the population in least developed countries 7 14 24 45 20 21 53 32 27 30 33 Coverage (%) Coverage (%) 50 52 30 25 25 24 25 23 16 24 13 PRogRess on DRinking WateR and Sanitation > 2012 Update 52 44 43 31 30 21 8 1990 11 2 2010 1990 2010 1990 3 2010 1990 53 11 48 41 35 7 30 16 2010 1990 2010 1990 2010 Total Urban Rural Total Urban Rural ■ UnimpRoved ■ suRface wateR ■ Piped on PRemises ■ OtheR ImpRoved ■ UnimpRoved ■ Open Defecation ■ impRoved ■ ShaRed FIGURE 32 FIGURE 31 Trends in the use of piped water on premises. 1 in 4 people practise open defecation and 1 in 10 use surface water for drinking and household use. These countries clearly have many residents who are using a combination of surface water and open defecation and are thus excluded from any of the benefits of water and sanitation improvements. This is in contrast with Southern Asia. but the use of surface water in rural areas is very low (2 per cent). where 14 per cent of people rely on surface water sources. improved drinking water sources. the majority of people have not benefited from investment in water and sanitation. it is a convenience enjoyed by only 11 per cent of the people living in least developed countries and 3 per cent of their rural populations. Data from least developed countries also present a discouraging picture in terms of piped water connections. and almost a third practise open defecation (Figures 31 and 32). While 54 per cent of the global population use piped water on premises. In those countries. for instance. where the rural open defecation rate is much higher (55 per cent). 1990-2010 28 . The numbers are even higher in rural areas.

The Equity Imperative Water & Sanitation Use by Wealth Quintiles An analysis of data from 35 countries in sub-Saharan Africa (representing 84 per cent of the region’s population) shows significant differences between the poorest and richest fifths of the population in both rural and urban areas. However. access to sanitation is highly correlated with wealth and residence in urban areas % 100 80 59 60 33 40 26 20 15 0 Poorest 25 2nd 33 35 49 73 42 59 70 80 40 Total 17 3 9 24 21 32 34 37 40 91 24 15 3rd 4th Richest Poorest 2nd 3rd 4th Richest Poorest 22 2nd 26 3rd 33 The EQuity impeRative Urban 4 26 1 19 9 44 61 Rural 27 14 31 35 37 34 39 49 4th Richest ■ impRoved and ShaRed ■ UnimpRoved ■ Open Defecation FIGURE 34 Sub-Saharan Africa: Sanitation coverage by wealth quintiles and urban or rural areas. based on population-weighted averages from 35 countries Source: MICS and DHS surveys from 35 countries in sub-Saharan Africa. The poorest 60 per cent of the population in sub-Saharan Africa are largely denied the comforts and health benefits of a piped drinking water supply on premises % 100 80 65 60 40 20 0 45 1 Poorest 2nd 52 3 3rd 11 4th Richest 60 54 Total 11 29 45 51 62 64 59 38 5 Poorest 15 2nd 39 59 62 25 3rd 34 43 45 52 36 53 21 Urban 13 8 6 32 66 46 32 Rural 57 54 35 1 4th Richest Poorest 2nd 3rd 2 4th 9 Richest ■ Piped on PRemises ■ OtheR ImpRoved ■ UnimpRoved FIGURE 33 Sub-Saharan Africa: Drinking water coverage by wealth quintiles and urban or rural areas. and over 60 per cent have piped water on premises. 2004-2009 In sub-Saharan Africa. piped water is non-existent. based on population-weighted averages from 35 countries (per cent) Source: MICS and DHS surveys from 35 countries in sub-Saharan Africa. and open defecation is practised by over 60 per cent of households (Figures 33 and 34). Over 90 per cent of the richest quintile in urban areas use improved sanitation and improved water sources. 2004-2009 29 . in the poorest rural quintile.

Piped water on premises is only used to a significant degree among households in the fourth and fifth quintiles. improvements have been almost entirely in the ‘other improved’ category. improvements in drinking water supply have been equitably distributed among poor and wealthier populations in Southern Asia Poorest 15 36 30 2nd 10 27 3rd 7 19 4th 5 8 Richest 3 33 62 Coverage (%) 77 83 68 64 84 67 59 62 37 PRogRess on DRinking WateR and Sanitation > 2012 Update 60 33 16 2 1995 Figures 33 through 36 are weighted-averages of each of the quintiles of the countries represented. namely wells and handpumps. 2004. In the same three countries. and little improvement has been seen since 1990 (Figure 36). However. 4 out of 5 people in these two quintiles practise open defecation. Bangladesh: DHS 1993. 6 19 2 6 6 2008 1995 2008 1995 2008 2008 1995 2008 1995 ■ Piped on PRemises ■ OtheR ImpRoved ■ UnimpRoved FIGURE 36 Southern Asia: Drinking water coverage trends by wealth quintiles. The most progress was seen in the fourth wealthiest quintile. 2004. It should be noted that the asset index used to classify households into wealth quintiles has not been adjusted to remove drinking water or sanitation variables. Nepal: DHS 1996. Nepal: DHS 1996. 2001. drinking water trends by wealth quintile show a strikingly different pattern. It shows that. 2000. 1997. 1999. based on population-weighted averages from three countries. among the richest 20 per cent. 1997. The poorest 40 per cent of the population in Southern Asia have barely benefited from improvements in sanitation Poorest 2nd 3rd 4th 6 1 Richest 2 4 18 51 56 74 Coverage (%) 86 94 87 4 77 6 93 8 76 94 4 8 7 7 5 8 2008 1995 18 19 36 45 4 2 1995 2008 1995 2008 1995 2008 1995 2008 ■ impRoved and ShaRed ■ UnimpRoved ■ Open Defecation FIGURE 35 Southern Asia: Sanitation coverage trends by wealth quintiles. Major gains in coverage have been seen in all five quintiles. 1995-2008 Source: India: National Family Health Survey 1993. piped water is supplied to only 60 per cent of households. 2007. 1999. 2001. while the richest fifth of the population has maintained its very high coverage (Figure 35). Such an analysis was undertaken for the period 1995 to 2008 for three countries in Southern Asia.6 The trend data also show that sanitation coverage in the two poorest quintiles has shown little change over the 13-year period. the lowest quintile does not represent the poorest 20 per cent of the entire population of the region. 2000. Still. improvements in sanitation are strongly correlated with wealth. 1995-2008 Source: India: National Family Health Survey 1993. and that the richest households have benefited disproportionately. which represent 82 per cent of the region’s population. based on population-weighted averages from three countries. in the poorest quintiles. as in sub-Saharan Africa. 2007. 2006 30 . Therefore. 2006. 2006. 2006 In contrast to sanitation.The availability of additional data for some countries in Southern Asia enables us not only to examine sanitation use according to wealth quintiles. but also to look at trends over time. Bangladesh: DHS 1993.

In 71 per cent of all households without water on the premises. in fact. Further analysis shows that the mean time of one round-trip to collect water is approximately 30 minutes for both women and men. Only a quarter of the population in these countries had water on their premises in 2010. 25 countries in sub-Saharan Africa. Each household requires at least one trip per day. water had to be collected from a source some distance from the dwelling.The Equity Imperative Gender and the Burden of Collecting Water An analysis of data from 25 countries in sub-Saharan Africa. women or girls are mainly responsible for water collection. men or boys assume this task (Figure 37). at considerable cost in terms of their time. representing 48 per cent of the region’s population. require several trips. children under age 15 and men in households without piped water on premises. In 29 per cent of households. 4 million hours. In these 25 countries. 2006-2009 (per cent) Source: MICS and DHS surveys from 25 sub-Saharan African countries 31 The EQuity impeRative . Women bear the main responsibility for collecting water in sub-Saharan Africa 6% Boys 23% Men 62% Women 9% Girls FIGURE 37 Distribution of the water collection burden among women. it is estimated that women spend a combined total of at least 16 million hours each day collecting drinking water. and children. men spend 6 million hours. meaning that in 75 per cent of households. but may. reveals that women and girls bear primary responsibility for water collection. even based on a one trip per day minimum. The time and energy devoted to water collection is considerable. and is only slightly lower for children (28 minutes).

32 PRogRess on DRinking WateR and Sanitation > 2012 Update JMP Methodology and What Lies Ahead .

bush or field stream. particularly faecal matter. adequately protects the source from outside contamination. pond. Bottled water (considered to be Flush or pour-flush to elsewhere (that is. 2010 Revision. The coverage estimates for improved sanitation facilities presented in this report are discounted by the proportion of the population that shared an improved type of sanitation facility. the JMP has established a standard set of categories that are used to analyse national data on which the MDG trends and estimates are based (Table 6). estimates may differ from and may not be comparable to earlier estimates for the same reference year (including the 1990 baseline year). The red line will be used to determine the 2010 estimate and 33 . canal. not to piped sewer system. by the nature of its construction. lake. According to the JMP. Estimates in this report may therefore differ from national estimates.JMP Estimates The WHO/UNICEF Joint Monitoring Programme for Water Supply and Sanitation is tasked with providing estimates that are comparable among countries and across time. the JMP estimates are based on fitting a regression line to a series of data points from household surveys and censuses. The ratio (the proportion of the population that shares a sanitation facility of an otherwise improved type) derived from the latest household survey or census is subtracted from the trend estimates of improved sanitation facilities. Figure 38 shows the impact of adding data from a recent census (denoted in red as CEN10) to a file with eight previous data points. or open pit Bucket Hanging toilet or hanging latrine Shared or public facilities of No facilities. are those established by the United Nations Population Division. The population data used in this report. Because definitions of ‘improved’ sanitation facilities and drinking water sources can vary widely among countries. yard Public tap or standpipe Tubewell or borehole Protected spring Protected dug well Rainwater collection Flush or pour-flush to: or plot n n n n n – Piped sewer system – Septic tank – Pit latrine n n n Ventilated improved pit (VIP) latrine Pit latrine with slab Composting toilet Unimproved Use of: n n n n n Use of: n Unprotected dug well Unprotected spring Cart with small tank or drum Tanker truck Surface water (river. An improved sanitation facility is one that hygienically separates human excreta from human contact. due to the addition of newly available data or the addition of missing data from the past. an improved drinking water source is one that. Because the regression involves retrofitting TAbLE 6 Drinking Water Improved Use of: n Sanitation Use of: n Piped water into dwelling. For each country. including the proportion of the population living in urban and rural areas. irrigation channel) n improved only when the household uses drinking water from an improved source for cooking and personal hygiene) any type n (open defecation) Definitions of improved and unimproved drinking water sources and sanitation facilities 100 80 WMS04 60 Coverage (%) WMS00 WMS97 DHS05 DHS01 WHS03 WMS08 CEN10 40 CEN92 20 0 1990 1995 2000 Year 2005 2010 2015 RegRession line 1990-2008 RegRession line 1990-2010 JMP Methodology and what lies ahead FIGURE 38 Examples of a JMP country file with regression lines the entire time series. The definitions and data sources used by the JMP are often different from those used by national governments. dam. septic tank or pit latrine) n n n n Pit latrine without slab.

Drinking Water: Equity. Most of these surveys are from the developing world. Questions are often raised about the appropriateness of using a linear trend line. see the 2011 UNICEF and WHO thematic report. linear regression was deemed the best method for the limited number and often poorly comparable data on file (some countries had as few as two data points for many years). especially given the relatively short time frame of the MDGs – 25 years is only a fraction of the time needed to go from no access to full coverage. and censuses in the developed world rarely collect information about access to drinking water and sanitation. Growth of the JMP Database Since 2000. they are seldom robust enough to draw conclusions on a global scale.re-estimate coverage in the entire 1990 to 2010 period. the JMP has six surveys or censuses on file for each of the 153 countries in the developing world (Figure 39). either through household surveys or other data. particularly since sustainability involves so many dimensions. the paucity of data points in many countries makes the use of more complex procedures inconsistent with good statistical practice. a term used in the MDG target. The JMP has had access to limited data on some of these questions. When MDG monitoring commenced. Unfortunately. 25 20 PRogRess on DRinking WateR and Sanitation > 2012 Update Number of countries 15 10 5 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 >19 Number of surveys/censuses on file FIGURE 39 Number of surveys and censuses in the JMP database 34 . This report is based on data from more than 1. or the time household members spend on access and use of sources and facilities. the number of service hours available. For the other countries. and the four developing countries for which there are no data points represent just 0. which the JMP commissioned between 2002 and 2008. However. the distance to a water source or sanitation facility. (For more information on water quality. such as drinking water quality.) While there is broad agreement that the reliability and sustained functioning of water and sanitation systems should somehow be captured. The increased availability of more comparable data now allows for the exploration of more sophisticated modelling in preparation for a new. Though these partial data sets are sometimes reported on in updates. It does not take into account other important parameters. It can be argued that other types of curve-fitting procedures might better reflect the progression of coverage over time. the average number of surveys on file is nine and the median is eight. For the developed countries. This increase in data points over time has greatly increased the accuracy of the estimates prepared by the JMP. This is a fivefold increase in data sources since the JMP report in 2000.100 surveys and censuses from developing countries and 300 reports from developed countries. the JMP relies on reports submitted by governments. the JMP has steadily increased the number of data points per country. The countries with fewer than five surveys on file represent just 10 per cent of the developing world population. the availability of adequate quantities of water for domestic use. covering the period 1980 to 2010. has not been adequately defined in measurable terms. Data Limitations The current JMP method of monitoring assesses progress solely on the basis of the types of facilities used. Indeed. On average. such as the ‘Rapid Assessment of Drinking Water Quality’ studies. Safety and Sustainability. since few household surveys are conducted in the developed world. The median number of surveys is five. the current use of linear regression to derive estimates does not allow rapid changes in coverage to be captured.01 per cent. ‘sustainable access’. there are no broadly agreed-upon standards against which these should be measured. post-2015 drinking water target.

the Global Assessment and Analysis of Sanitation and Water Supply (GLAAS) is a new monitoring platform that tracks investments and aid targeting water and sanitation. this has led to an increased awareness of the need to use standard definitions of access and data collection methods across line ministries and among different national monitoring mechanisms. This has proved helpful in increasing understanding of what the JMP is actually measuring – that is. the use of improved drinking water sources and sanitation facilities. discussed ways to make sanitation estimates more accurate. The catalytic role of the JMP in this process – sharing its experiences in global monitoring to promote the strengthening of national monitoring – is becoming increasingly important. and reviewed the linkages between monitoring at municipal. In most countries. The task force considered recent research on new field-based. This is important for ensuring the quality of the data being collected in a country and in building trust with national partners. but may best be undertaken by other monitoring mechanisms. The task force reviewed the characteristics of urban settings. low-cost water-quality test kits for measuring E. which was determined to be the most promising water-quality indicator for global monitoring. since the current definition includes parameters that are not measured by household surveys. JMP Task Forces Three JMP technical task force meetings have been convened by WHO and UNICEF over the past two years: The Sanitation and Methodology Task Force examined the issue of the ‘floating baseline’ (the fact that the coverage estimate for 1990 changes every time new data are added and the trendline re-drawn). The task force also recommended that a second round of updated ‘Rapid Assessment of Drinking-Water Quality’ studies be carried out. One of the objectives of the strategy was to establish the JMP as a 35 . national and global levels. coli. In addition. Recent efforts to reconcile such discrepancies have been initiated by the JMP and partners such as WaterAid in a number of countries in Asia and Africa. though ways must still be found to keep related costs manageable. It has also helped to identify additional household surveys that are nationally representative and that the JMP is able to use. which defined its goals in the lead-up to 2015. The Urban Task Force looked into challenges specific to monitoring coverage in urban areas and to the role that the JMP can play in assessing progress in these settings. rather than verifying whether the infrastructure exists. It is also interested in examining other issues. such as the impact of seasonality on access. This represents a major step forward in reconciling national data. As such. and the JMP and GLAAS coordinate closely. determined what aspects of water supply and sanitation need to be measured for global monitoring. In 2010 the JMP launched a new strategy. the feasibility of using drinking-water regulator data and of strengthening the role of such data in global monitoring will be explored. the JMP has been the official instrument for measuring progress towards the MDG drinking water and sanitation target. the adequacy of particular sanitation options in high-density urban areas. MICS and DHS have agreed to pilot a new water-quality module using these new kits. and safe disposal and treatment of pit latrine contents and sewerage. The task force recommended the use of innovative methods such as remote sensing to add a spatial element to global monitoring. the task force is reviewing the definition of ‘pit latrine with slab’. including social obstacles to access for certain population groups. These reconciliation processes have brought together senior staff from national statistics offices and relevant line ministries to assess discrepancies among national data sources and also discrepancies Looking Beyond 2015 JMP Methodology and what lies ahead Since 2000. In addition. agreed how measurements can be carried out. The Water Quality Task Force explored options for including water-quality measurement in future JMP reporting. and considered the proposal for an alternative indicator of performance (discussed on pages 11 and 22).The JMP intends to explore how best to comprehensively monitor these important aspects of the existing MDG target. Data Reconciliation The JMP has been proactive in holding in-country workshops to explain the methodology behind the JMP biennial reports. The process has allowed the JMP to fill important data gaps with survey and census data that it did not yet have on file. subnational. For instance. It also explored alternative estimation methods. The task force will oversee the commissioning of research to assess differences in health outcomes between the use of individual household facilities and shared or public facilities. between these sources and the international estimates generated by the JMP. affordability and participation in water and sanitation governance. Other issues should also be monitored. it complements the JMP.

with special attention to human rights criteria. participation. It was determined that two linked types of monitoring would be needed to meet different needs at different levels: For monitoring future global development targets: to keep basic access as the centrepiece of global targets. A number of expectations for indicators were identified during the consultation. Subsequently.platform for the development of post2015 targets and indicators for safe drinking water and basic sanitation. acceptability. including that they should be measurable. where feasible. Despite the many criticisms of the current indicators of access and the system to monitor them. Initial discussions brought to light several shortcomings of the current MDG target: It requires a halving of the proportion of those without access. Full details of the Berlin consultation are available on the JMP website: www. A distinctive feature of the human rights framework is the principle of non-discrimination. This is a complex set of issues. The participants also agreed that attainment of universal coverage through at least basic access to both drinking water and sanitation services should be reflected in future targets. the human rights criteria described in Box 3. Non-discrimination and equity would become central components of monitoring. and inexpensive to collect. Rather. safety. but they must make tangible progress towards the realization of this right. Indicators would be monitored partly by strengthening the existing national water sector monitoring infrastructure and operations in rural and urban subsectors. This requires looking beyond average attainment and disaggregating data sets to determine whether any sort of discrimination is occurring. and to propose indicators for capturing the equity and nondiscrimination dimensions. However. Fundamental to the human rights framework is the concept of progressive realization: Governments cannot solve the drinking water and sanitation situation overnight. namely: availability. it incorporates concepts that are difficult to measure (the sustainability of access and the safety of drinking water have yet to be fully addressed). since it would be too difficult to implement and would ultimately be counterproductive. the strategy proposes a highly interactive process. 36 PRogRess on DRinking WateR and Sanitation > 2012 Update . at its 15th session in September 2010. according to attendees. Human rights principles also define various characteristics against which the enjoyment of the right can be assessed. it was also acknowledged that recent recognition of safe drinking water and sanitation as a human right could open the door to a new approach to setting future targets and indicators (Box 3). the UN General Assembly recognized that safe and clean drinking water and sanitation are human rights. proved elusive. the UN Human Rights Council affirmed that the right to water and sanitation is derived from the right to an adequate standard of living and inextricably related to the right to the highest attainable standard of physical and mental health. making it legally binding like any other of the rights inscribed in UN treaties. it was agreed that the existing system can and should be improved to address the concerns raised during the consultation and in previous forums. Previous global targets for universal access. the participants at the Berlin consultation concurred that an altogether new monitoring system was unnecessary. to explore the inclusion of more water supply and sanitation indicators and different standards for rural and urban areas. comparable. This was to be followed by a series of consultations with stakeholders.wssinfo. affordability. Furthermore. would be to find a way of recalibrating existing targets. followed by discussions with researchers. using a range of basic versus more advanced indicators based on the technology category or service ladder concept. practitioners and data-collection experts. starting with an initial scoping exercise. and to ensure consistency with current monitoring. leaving many unserved. In looking beyond 2015.org BOX 3 Water and sanitation are human rights On 28 July 2010. policy-relevant. facilitated by the JMP. However. non-discrimination and accountability. accessibility. essential to the full enjoyment of life and all other human rights. For more detailed sector and human rights monitoring: to expand the set of indicators using a number of service-level and human rights criteria. such as those set during the Water Decade 1980-1990. time-bound. The combined effect of the two resolutions was to anchor the right to water and sanitation in the framework of the right to an adequate standard of living. The preferred option. and through additional human rights monitoring. future targets and monitoring systems must endeavour to take these various aspects into account. This would reflect. It was around this premise that the first stakeholder consultation was organized – in Berlin. if recognition of the human right to safe and clean drinking water and sanitation is to have any meaning. as well as to the right to life and human dignity. in May 2011.

Statistical Tables 37 .

671 8.289 3.308 3.307 9.773 6.005 8.072 3.096 19.USE of SANItAtIoN FACILItIES (percentage of population) Country.412 3.082 8 11 15 62 78 89 32.850 60 63 65 559 571 726 6.595 9.212 8.299 30.658 8.468 47 58 68 53 65 85 10.260 10.188 256 298 343 493 638 1.692 260 268 273 10.111 9.931 40.926 19.545 3.592 148.204 25.518 8.164 22.032 22.092 62 90 107 17.176 10.412 3.000) Unimproved Other Unimproved Open Defecation Improved Improved Rural Unimproved Other Unimproved Open Defecation Improved National Unimproved Other Unimproved Open Defecation – 29 17 – – 0 – 6 4 – – – 0 0 0 58 43 25 – 2 – – – – – – – – 0 0 – – – 0 0 0 0 0 0 – 0 0 0 0 0 – – – 33 20 4 0 0 0 – – – 0 0 0 7 5 1 81 69 56 – – – – 10 4 43 34 23 – 1 0 Proportion of the 2010 population that gained access since 1995 (%) Shared Shared Shared Afghanistan Albania Algeria American Samoa Andorra Angola Anguilla Antigua and Barbuda Argentina Armenia Aruba Australia Austria Azerbaijan Bahamas Bahrain Bangladesh Barbados Belarus Belgium Belize Benin Bermuda Bhutan Bolivia (Plurinational State of) Bosnia and Herzegovina 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 13.058 9.949 10.856 31.760 18 20 23 36 42 52 52 60 66 81 89 93 95 92 88 37 49 59 100 100 100 35 32 30 87 90 92 67 65 64 50 47 47 85 87 89 66 66 68 54 51 52 80 82 84 88 88 89 20 24 28 33 38 44 66 70 75 96 97 97 47 48 52 34 38 42 100 100 100 16 25 35 56 62 67 39 43 49 – 46 60 94 95 95 99 99 98 – – – 100 100 100 67 75 85 – 94 – – 98 98 93 92 – 95 95 95 – – – 100 100 100 100 100 100 – 73 86 100 100 100 100 100 100 58 58 57 100 100 100 91 91 91 100 100 100 77 85 93 14 19 25 – – – – 66 73 28 31 35 98 98 99 – – – 4 4 4 – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – 4 4 4 – – – – – – 0 0 0 – 9 11 – – – – – – 27 26 26 – – – 8 8 8 0 0 0 6 6 7 20 28 36 – – – – 19 21 36 41 46 0 0 1 – 43 38 2 1 1 1 0 1 – – – 0 0 0 8 8 9 – 4 – – 2 2 7 8 – 1 1 1 – – – 0 0 0 0 0 0 – 18 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 8 11 15 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 0 13 7 0 14 13 11 – – – – 10 5 14 12 11 2 2 0 – 11 2 – – 0 – 1 1 – – – 0 0 0 25 17 6 – 2 – – – – – – – – 0 0 – – – 0 0 0 0 0 0 – 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 7 5 2 0 0 0 – – – 0 0 0 4 2 0 52 40 28 – – – – 5 1 22 16 8 – 0 0 – 28 30 66 76 93 77 82 88 – – – 100 100 100 6 11 19 NA NA NA – 94 – 73 77 – – 77 80 – – – 100 100 100 100 100 100 – 50 78 100 100 100 – – – 34 43 55 100 100 100 96 96 97 100 100 100 77 82 87 0 3 5 – – – – 30 29 6 8 10 – 93 92 – – – 5 6 7 – – – – – – – – – – – – NA NA NA – – – – – – – 3 3 – – – – – – 0 0 0 – 2 3 – – – – – – 16 20 25 – – – 2 2 2 0 0 0 6 6 7 1 6 12 – – – – 28 28 10 14 17 – 1 1 – 39 48 29 18 0 23 4 2 – – – 0 0 0 17 22 30 NA NA NA – 6 – 27 23 – – 20 17 – – – 0 0 0 0 0 0 – 48 18 0 0 0 – – – 11 13 15 0 0 0 2 2 1 0 0 0 7 5 3 3 4 6 – – – – 30 38 15 16 19 – 5 7 – 33 22 – – 0 – 14 10 – – – 0 0 0 77 67 51 NA NA NA – – – – – – – 0 0 – – – 0 0 0 0 0 0 – 0 1 0 0 0 – – – 39 24 5 0 0 0 – – – 0 0 0 10 7 3 96 87 77 – – – – 12 5 69 62 54 – 1 0 – 32 37 76 84 94 88 92 95 – – – 100 100 100 29 42 58 – 94 – – 95 – 90 91 – – 89 90 – – – 100 100 100 100 100 100 – 62 82 100 100 100 – – – 39 47 56 100 100 100 93 93 93 100 100 100 77 83 90 5 9 13 – – – – 39 44 18 22 27 – 95 95 – – – 5 5 5 – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – 4 4 – – – – – – 0 0 0 – 6 7 – – – – – – 18 21 25 – – – 6 6 6 0 0 0 6 6 7 8 14 22 – – – – 26 26 24 31 36 – 1 1 – 39 46 19 11 1 12 2 1 – – – 0 0 0 13 15 17 – 4 – – 5 – 10 9 – – 7 6 – – – 0 0 0 0 0 0 – 32 11 0 0 0 – – – 10 12 15 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 0 10 6 2 6 8 9 – – – – 25 26 15 13 14 – 3 4 19 17 23 – 24 36 – – – NA* – 19 5 34 18 – 23 4 NA* 6 33 9 – – 11 11 38 PRogRess on DRinking WateR and Sanitation > 2012 Update . Area or Territory Year Percentage Urban Population Population (x 1.712 190 251 312 4.534 35.076 3.335 13. Regional and Global Estimates on Water & Sanitation Urban Country.930 4.256 129.262 105.268 7.394 7.694 3.642 36.

USE of DRINKING WAtER SoURCES (percentage of population) Urban Country. Area or Territory Year Total Improved Improved Other Improved Piped on Premises Unimproved Unimproved Total Improved Improved Other Improved Piped on Premises Rural Unimproved Unimproved Total Improved National Improved Piped on Premises Other Improved Unimproved Unimproved Proportion of the 2010 population that gained access since 1995 (%) Country. Regional and Global Estimates on Water & Sanitation Surface Water Surface Water Afghanistan Albania Algeria American Samoa Andorra Angola Anguilla Antigua and Barbuda Argentina Armenia Aruba Australia Austria Azerbaijan Bahamas Bahrain Bangladesh † Barbados Belarus Belgium Belize Benin Bermuda Bhutan Bolivia (Plurinational State of) Bosnia and Herzegovina 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 – 36 78 100 100 96 100 93 85 – – – 100 100 100 46 52 60 – 60 – – 95 95 97 98 98 98 98 99 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 88 88 88 98 98 98 100 100 100 87 86 85 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 89 93 98 72 78 84 – – – 99 99 100 92 94 96 99 99 100 – 10 16 97 96 91 87 84 80 – – – 100 100 100 15 23 34 – 45 – – 73 – 76 81 – 95 96 98 100 100 100 – – – 100 100 100 67 72 78 – 69 – 100 100 100 26 23 20 98 100 100 – 89 95 100 100 100 75 81 87 16 23 31 – – – – 81 81 78 87 95 96 96 94 – 26 62 3 4 5 13 9 5 – – – 0 0 0 31 29 26 – 15 – – 22 – 21 17 – 3 2 1 0 0 0 – – – 0 0 0 21 16 10 – 29 – 0 0 0 61 63 65 2 0 0 – 11 5 0 0 0 14 12 11 56 55 53 – – – – 18 19 14 7 1 3 3 6 – 54 17 0 0 4 0 7 15 – – – 0 0 0 51 45 38 – 40 – – 5 5 3 2 2 2 2 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 12 11 10 2 2 2 0 0 0 13 14 15 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 11 7 2 19 17 14 – – – 1 0 0 7 5 4 1 1 0 – 10 5 0 0 0 0 0 – – – – 0 0 0 3 3 2 – – – – – – 0 0 – – 0 – 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 – 1 2 – – – 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 9 5 2 – – – – 1 0 1 1 0 – 0 0 1 18 42 96 96 94 88 84 79 – – – 100 100 100 40 40 38 NA NA NA – 89 – 72 78 – – 81 97 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 49 59 71 – 86 – – – – 75 77 80 100 100 100 99 99 99 100 100 100 61 80 99 49 59 68 – – – – 82 94 43 57 71 96 96 98 0 0 0 – 48 67 48 52 56 – – – 100 100 100 0 1 2 NA NA NA – 82 – 22 39 – 56 68 83 100 100 100 – – – 100 100 100 17 18 20 – 80 – – – – 0 0 1 – – – – 30 72 96 99 100 21 44 68 0 2 4 – – – – 45 44 14 33 51 – 77 71 1 18 42 – 48 27 40 32 23 – – – 0 0 0 40 39 36 NA NA NA – 7 – 50 39 – – 13 14 0 0 0 – – – 0 0 0 32 41 51 – 6 – – – – 75 77 79 – – – – 69 27 4 1 0 40 36 31 49 57 64 – – – – 37 50 29 24 20 – 19 27 99 43 47 4 2 6 10 15 21 – – – 0 0 0 27 24 21 NA NA NA – 11 – 15 15 – – 19 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 51 24 13 – 14 – – – – 21 20 18 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 0 27 14 1 22 23 25 – – – – 5 1 15 12 9 4 4 2 – 39 11 – 2 0 2 1 – – – – 0 0 0 33 36 41 NA NA NA – – – 13 7 – – 0 – 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 – 17 16 – – – – – – 4 3 2 0 0 0 – – – 0 0 0 12 6 0 29 18 7 – – – – 13 5 42 31 20 – 0 0 – 22 50 97 98 95 94 89 83 – – – 100 100 100 42 46 51 – 60 – – 91 – 94 96 – – 92 98 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 70 74 80 – 96 – – – – 77 79 81 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 74 86 98 57 66 75 – – – – 86 96 70 80 88 97 97 99 – 2 4 – 68 79 68 71 72 – – – 100 100 100 6 12 21 – 45 – – 79 – 69 77 – 82 86 93 100 100 100 – – – 100 100 100 44 46 50 – 71 – – – – 5 5 6 – – – – 71 89 100 100 100 47 62 78 6 10 15 – – – – 54 57 50 66 80 – 85 82 – 20 46 – 30 16 26 18 11 – – – 0 0 0 36 34 30 – 15 – – 12 – 25 19 – – 6 5 0 0 0 – – – 0 0 0 26 28 30 – 25 – – – – 72 74 75 – – – – 29 11 0 0 0 27 24 20 51 56 60 – – – – 32 39 20 14 8 – 12 17 – 45 40 3 1 5 5 11 17 – – – 0 0 0 36 34 31 – 40 – – 9 – 4 3 – – 8 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 30 17 11 – 4 – – – – 20 19 18 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 20 11 2 21 21 20 – – – – 4 1 11 8 5 3 3 1 Surface Water – 33 10 – 1 0 1 0 – – – – 0 0 0 22 20 18 – – – – – – 2 1 – – 0 – 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 – 9 9 – – – – – – 3 2 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 6 3 0 22 13 5 – – – – 10 3 19 12 7 – 0 0 49 -1 9 – 24 24 – – – 4 25 19 5 20 – – 20 4 NA* 6 42 35 – – 31 13 39 Statistical table .

667 34.114 1.650 174.104 11.043 18 18 20 3.517 4.227 140 145 153 13.117 1.203 39.181 15. Area or Territory Year Percentage Urban Population Population (x 1.738 4.758 2.401 6.403 10.138 12.659 12.919 4.599 27.389 3.602 6.295 438 562 735 2.011 8.506 4.764 46.195 1.494 9. Regional and Global Estimates on Water & Sanitation Urban Country.104 42 53 61 74 81 87 38 39 41 66 71 76 66 69 71 14 18 26 6 8 11 13 17 20 41 50 58 77 79 81 44 53 61 100 100 100 37 38 39 21 23 28 31 30 31 83 86 89 26 36 47 68 72 75 28 28 28 54 58 62 58 65 75 51 59 64 40 44 51 54 56 58 73 76 75 67 69 70 61 69 75 80 82 85 100 100 100 – – – 100 100 100 43 46 50 41 46 49 36 50 73 63 61 58 100 100 100 – 61 73 96 96 96 21 32 43 21 26 30 – – – 91 96 98 48 61 74 79 81 82 34 42 50 – 21 20 100 100 100 94 95 95 38 37 36 99 99 99 86 90 94 100 100 100 5 6 6 1 1 1 – – – – – – – – – 32 34 37 18 20 22 5 7 10 20 19 18 – – – – – – – – – 12 18 24 12 15 18 – – – – – – 15 20 24 14 14 15 2 2 3 – 42 39 – – – 4 4 4 25 24 23 1 1 1 5 5 5 – – – 22 19 18 13 14 13 0 0 0 – – – 0 0 0 13 10 4 40 33 27 10 6 2 15 19 23 0 0 0 – 12 8 4 4 4 57 44 30 42 39 37 – – – 4 2 2 34 18 2 4 2 1 64 56 46 – 35 38 0 0 0 1 0 1 31 33 35 0 0 0 9 4 1 0 0 0 12 6 1 6 3 1 0 0 0 – – – 0 0 0 12 10 9 1 1 2 49 37 15 2 1 1 0 0 0 – 27 19 – – – 10 6 3 25 20 15 – – – 5 2 0 3 1 0 3 3 2 0 0 1 – 2 3 0 0 0 1 1 0 6 6 6 0 0 0 – 1 0 0 0 0 22 32 41 33 38 44 100 100 100 – – – 98 100 100 2 4 6 44 45 46 5 10 20 37 37 36 99 99 99 – 25 43 NA NA NA 5 16 28 4 5 6 – – – 48 71 83 15 35 56 40 52 63 11 23 30 – 18 15 91 99 100 91 94 96 8 10 11 98 98 98 64 73 81 100 100 100 6 8 11 0 1 1 – – – – – – – – – 3 6 10 4 4 4 1 2 4 8 8 8 – – – – – – NA NA NA 2 8 14 1 1 1 – – – – – – 4 9 14 4 5 6 1 2 2 – 30 25 – – – 4 4 4 8 10 12 1 1 1 10 12 13 – – – 19 15 10 20 27 34 0 0 0 – – – 2 0 0 6 7 8 49 49 49 5 6 4 38 40 44 1 1 1 – 17 14 NA NA NA 44 36 27 2 7 13 – – – 47 25 17 72 51 28 14 12 11 88 74 67 – 34 43 9 1 0 1 0 0 28 27 27 1 0 1 26 10 4 0 0 0 53 45 38 47 34 21 0 0 0 – – – – 0 0 89 83 76 3 2 1 89 82 72 17 15 12 – – – – 58 43 NA NA NA 49 40 31 93 87 80 – – – 5 4 0 9 5 2 42 31 20 0 1 1 – 18 17 – – 0 4 2 0 56 53 50 – 1 – – 5 2 0 0 0 38 52 62 68 74 79 100 100 100 – – – 99 100 100 8 11 17 44 45 46 9 17 31 48 49 49 100 100 100 – 44 61 96 96 96 11 22 34 8 10 13 – – – 84 92 96 24 44 64 67 73 77 17 28 36 – 20 18 96 100 100 93 95 95 20 22 24 99 99 99 80 86 91 100 100 100 6 7 8 1 1 1 – – – – – – – – – 7 11 17 5 5 6 2 3 5 13 13 14 – – – – – – – – – 6 12 18 3 4 6 – – – – – – 7 13 19 11 11 13 1 2 2 – 37 34 – – – 4 4 4 15 16 18 1 1 1 6 7 7 – – – 20 17 15 14 16 16 0 0 0 – – – 1 0 0 7 8 7 48 48 47 5 6 3 28 30 31 0 0 0 – 15 11 4 4 4 48 39 28 10 15 19 – – – 11 6 4 62 39 16 7 5 4 82 69 61 – 34 40 4 0 0 1 0 1 29 29 30 0 0 0 14 5 2 0 0 0 26 21 26 – NA* 11 14 23 14 14 32 41 23 7 – 23 34 22 21 – 10 26 8 NA* 10 23 40 PRogRess on DRinking WateR and Sanitation > 2012 Update .006 7.532 12.701 30.702 4.222 11.007 149.335 33.374 8.324 12.935 3.678 19.946 16 20 23 252 327 399 8.341.136 4.819 8.420 17.382 1.447 14.425 194.017 348 437 496 26 40 56 2.469 5.294 16.070 3.518 16.000) Unimproved Other Unimproved Open Defecation Improved Improved Rural Unimproved Other Unimproved Open Defecation Improved National Unimproved Other Unimproved Open Defecation 36 24 15 17 9 4 0 0 0 – – – – 0 0 78 70 59 3 2 1 84 74 61 11 8 6 0 0 0 – 41 28 – – – 35 27 20 79 71 62 – – – 5 2 0 7 4 1 15 11 6 0 1 1 – 9 8 – 0 0 2 1 0 36 33 28 0 0 0 – 2 0 0 0 0 Proportion of the 2010 population that gained access since 1995 (%) Shared Shared Shared Botswana Brazil British Virgin Islands Brunei Darussalam Bulgaria Burkina Faso Burundi Cambodia Cameroon Canada Cape Verde Cayman Islands Central African Republic Chad Channel Islands Chile China Colombia Comoros Congo Cook Islands Costa Rica Côte d’Ivoire Croatia Cuba Cyprus 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1.269.145.258 767 943 1.USE of SANItAtIoN FACILItIES (percentage of population) Country.582 19.383 9.570 11.188 15.

USE of DRINKING WAtER SoURCES (percentage of population) Urban Country. Regional and Global Estimates on Water & Sanitation Surface Water Surface Water Botswana Brazil British Virgin Islands Brunei Darussalam Bulgaria Burkina Faso Burundi Cambodia Cameroon Canada Cape Verde Cayman Islands Central African Republic Chad Channel Islands Chile China Colombia Comoros Congo Cook Islands Costa Rica Côte d’Ivoire Croatia Cuba Cyprus 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 100 99 99 96 98 100 98 98 98 – – – 100 100 100 75 85 95 97 89 83 48 63 87 76 86 95 100 100 100 – 84 90 – 93 96 78 85 92 49 60 70 – – – 99 99 99 97 98 98 98 99 99 98 93 91 95 95 95 99 99 98 99 99 100 90 91 91 100 100 100 93 95 96 100 100 100 38 63 85 93 94 96 97 97 97 – – – 96 97 98 12 17 23 32 41 47 15 33 63 23 25 26 100 100 100 – 42 58 37 67 95 8 7 6 7 15 23 – – – 97 98 99 92 93 95 98 95 92 31 45 53 – 46 36 – – – 92 97 100 50 57 64 96 96 96 77 80 82 100 100 100 62 36 14 3 4 4 1 1 1 – – – 4 3 2 63 68 72 65 48 36 33 30 24 53 61 69 0 0 0 – 42 32 – 26 1 70 78 86 42 45 47 – – – 2 1 0 5 5 3 0 4 7 67 48 38 – 49 59 – – – 7 2 0 40 34 27 4 4 4 16 15 14 0 0 0 0 1 1 4 2 0 2 2 2 – – – 0 0 0 24 15 5 3 6 9 30 22 9 11 8 4 0 0 0 – 16 10 – 7 4 20 14 7 48 38 30 – – – 1 1 1 2 1 2 2 1 1 1 6 9 5 4 5 1 1 2 1 1 0 10 9 8 0 0 0 7 5 4 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 – – – – – – 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 5 8 22 15 4 13 6 1 0 0 0 – 0 0 – – – 2 1 1 3 2 0 – – – 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 – 1 0 – – – 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 – 0 0 0 0 0 88 90 92 68 77 85 98 98 98 – – – 99 100 100 38 55 73 68 70 71 29 40 58 31 42 52 99 99 99 – 81 85 NA NA NA 47 49 51 37 41 44 – – – 48 66 75 56 70 85 69 71 72 83 92 97 – 36 32 87 87 – 86 89 91 67 67 68 97 97 97 53 73 89 100 100 100 13 25 36 40 53 65 97 97 97 – – – 69 77 – 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 2 5 2 2 3 – 38 – 0 8 40 NA NA NA 0 0 0 0 0 1 – – – 22 39 47 12 28 45 58 58 58 10 17 21 4 4 2 – – – 71 81 91 5 10 16 – 77 – 30 44 54 100 100 100 75 65 56 28 24 20 1 1 1 – – – 30 23 – 38 55 73 67 69 70 29 38 53 29 40 49 – 61 – – 73 45 NA NA NA 47 49 51 37 41 43 – – – 26 27 28 44 42 40 11 13 14 73 75 76 – 32 30 – – – 15 8 0 62 57 52 – 20 – 23 29 35 0 0 0 3 4 4 17 16 13 2 2 2 – – – 1 0 0 52 38 22 25 16 10 36 31 22 17 18 18 1 1 1 – 18 15 NA NA NA 34 38 43 47 49 51 – – – 25 15 25 34 24 13 16 11 8 7 5 3 – 52 39 13 13 – 6 4 4 17 23 28 3 2 3 47 25 9 0 0 0 9 6 4 15 7 2 – – – – – – – 0 0 10 7 5 7 14 19 35 29 20 52 40 30 – – – – 1 0 NA NA NA 19 13 6 16 10 5 – – – 27 19 0 10 6 2 15 18 20 10 3 0 – 12 29 – – – 8 7 5 16 10 4 – 1 – – 2 2 0 0 0 93 95 96 89 94 98 98 98 98 – – – 100 100 100 43 60 79 70 72 72 31 44 64 49 64 77 100 100 100 – 83 88 – 93 96 58 63 67 39 45 51 – – – 90 94 96 67 80 91 89 91 92 87 92 95 – 70 71 94 95 – 93 95 97 76 77 80 99 99 99 82 90 94 100 100 100 23 45 66 79 86 92 97 97 97 – – – 87 91 – 2 3 6 3 4 6 2 7 17 11 13 16 – 87 – – 26 51 37 67 95 3 3 2 1 4 7 – – – 84 90 93 33 51 68 85 85 84 16 25 30 – 28 23 – – – 82 90 97 23 30 40 – 88 – 64 71 75 100 100 100 70 50 30 10 8 6 1 1 1 – – – 13 9 – 41 57 73 67 68 66 29 37 47 38 51 61 – 13 – – 57 37 – 26 1 55 60 65 38 41 44 – – – 6 4 3 34 29 23 4 6 8 71 67 65 – 42 48 – – – 11 5 0 53 47 40 – 11 – 18 19 19 0 0 0 2 2 2 7 5 2 2 2 2 – – – 0 0 0 48 34 17 23 15 10 36 29 19 15 13 10 0 0 0 – 17 12 – 7 4 29 29 29 48 47 45 – – – 5 3 4 25 16 8 6 4 3 6 6 5 – 24 18 6 5 – 3 2 1 14 17 18 1 1 1 18 10 6 0 0 0 Surface Water 5 3 2 4 1 0 – – – – – – 0 0 0 9 6 4 7 13 18 33 27 17 36 23 13 0 0 0 – 0 0 – – – 13 8 4 13 8 4 – – – 5 3 0 8 4 1 5 5 5 7 2 0 – 6 11 – – – 4 3 2 10 6 2 – 0 – – 0 0 0 0 0 22 22 17 – NA* 46 21 37 37 14 24 43 21 25 – 19 25 22 35 – – 27 22 NA* 11 23 41 Statistical table . Area or Territory Year Total Improved Improved Other Improved Piped on Premises Unimproved Unimproved Total Improved Improved Other Improved Piped on Premises Rural Unimproved Unimproved Total Improved National Improved Piped on Premises Other Improved Unimproved Unimproved Proportion of the 2010 population that gained access since 1995 (%) Country.

668 5.493 20.333 5.297 1.195 8.121 5.302 14.000) Unimproved Other Unimproved Open Defecation Improved Improved Rural Unimproved Other Unimproved Open Defecation Improved National Unimproved Other Unimproved Open Defecation 0 0 0 – – – 18 14 9 0 0 0 20 17 14 – 17 – 11 7 4 21 11 5 10 4 0 19 11 6 – – – 89 87 – 0 0 0 93 76 46 – – – – – – 5 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 – – – – – – – 3 1 – 5 2 – 1 – 0 0 0 22 21 19 Proportion of the 2010 population that gained access since 1995 (%) Shared Shared Shared Czech Republic Democratic People’s Republic of Korea Democratic Republic of the Congo Denmark Djibouti Dominica Dominican Republic Ecuador Egypt El Salvador Equatorial Guinea Eritrea Estonia Ethiopia Faeroe Islands Falkland Islands (Malvinas) Fiji Finland France French Guiana French Polynesia Gabon Gambia Georgia Germany Ghana 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 10.927 10.158 3.173 5.894 24.465 56.345 14.349 82.505 966 1.578 82.254 1.143 22.648 81.098 82.986 5.341 48.333 65.261 12.141 5.568 1.843 67.371 1.940 6.392 75 74 74 58 59 60 28 30 35 85 85 87 76 76 76 68 67 67 55 62 69 55 60 67 43 43 43 49 59 64 35 39 40 16 18 22 71 69 69 13 15 17 31 36 40 74 68 74 42 48 52 79 82 85 74 77 85 75 75 76 56 52 51 69 80 86 38 49 58 55 53 53 73 73 74 36 44 51 100 99 99 – 65 86 23 23 24 100 100 100 73 69 63 – 80 – 83 85 87 86 92 96 91 95 97 88 89 89 – 92 – 58 54 – 96 96 96 20 24 29 – – – – – – 90 92 94 100 100 100 100 100 100 – 85 – 99 99 99 – 37 33 – 67 70 97 96 96 100 100 100 12 16 19 0 1 1 – 5 6 32 33 33 0 0 0 6 5 5 – – – 9 10 10 2 3 3 3 3 3 8 8 8 – – – – – – 4 4 4 27 33 40 – – – – – – – – – – – – 0 0 0 – – – – – – – 40 36 – 24 25 3 3 3 0 0 0 44 59 73 0 0 0 – 30 8 40 40 42 0 0 0 10 20 32 – 2 – 5 2 1 5 2 0 5 1 0 1 0 1 – 8 – 10 8 – 0 0 0 11 16 22 – – – – – – 10 8 6 0 0 0 0 0 0 – 15 – 1 1 1 – 21 30 – 8 5 0 1 1 0 0 0 33 16 2 0 0 0 – – – 5 4 1 0 0 0 11 6 0 – 18 – 3 3 2 7 3 1 1 1 0 3 3 2 – – – 32 38 – 0 0 0 42 27 9 – – – – – – 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 – – – – – – – 2 1 – 1 0 0 0 – 0 0 0 11 9 6 98 97 97 – 55 71 4 13 24 100 100 100 45 30 10 – 84 – 61 68 75 48 70 84 57 79 93 62 74 83 – 87 – 0 2 4 94 94 94 1 6 19 – – – – – – 40 59 71 100 100 100 100 100 100 – 57 – 97 97 97 – 30 30 – 60 65 95 94 93 100 100 100 4 6 8 2 3 3 – 2 3 4 13 23 0 0 0 6 4 1 – – – 11 12 13 2 3 4 4 5 7 3 4 5 – – – – – – 6 6 6 0 2 6 – – – – – – – – – – – – 0 0 0 – – – – – – – 24 25 – 14 15 1 1 1 0 0 0 20 31 43 0 0 0 – 43 26 69 56 40 0 0 0 2 13 28 – 2 – 8 7 5 11 5 0 22 9 0 1 0 0 – 13 – 0 1 96 0 0 0 0 7 22 – – – – – – 52 37 28 0 0 0 0 0 0 – 43 – 3 3 3 – 41 43 – 18 15 4 3 6 0 0 0 47 32 16 0 0 0 – – – 23 18 13 0 0 0 47 53 61 – 14 – 20 13 7 39 22 12 17 7 0 34 22 12 – – – 100 97 – 0 0 0 99 85 53 – – – – – – 8 4 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 – – – – – – – 5 2 – 8 5 – 2 – 0 0 0 29 31 33 100 98 98 – 61 80 9 16 24 100 100 100 66 60 50 – 81 – 73 78 83 69 83 92 72 86 95 75 83 87 – 89 – 9 11 – 95 95 95 3 9 21 – – – – – – 61 75 83 100 100 100 100 100 100 – 78 – 98 98 98 – 36 33 – 63 68 96 95 95 100 100 100 7 10 14 0 2 2 – 4 5 12 19 27 0 0 0 6 5 4 – – – 10 11 11 2 3 3 4 4 5 5 6 7 – – – – – – 5 5 5 3 7 12 – – – – – – – – – – – – 0 0 0 – – – – – – – 37 34 – 19 21 2 2 2 0 0 0 29 43 58 0 0 0 – 35 15 61 51 40 0 0 0 8 18 32 – 2 – 6 4 2 8 3 0 14 6 0 1 0 0 – 11 – 2 2 – 0 0 0 1 8 21 – – – – – – 34 23 17 0 0 0 0 0 0 – 22 – 2 2 2 – 24 32 – 13 9 2 2 3 0 0 0 42 26 9 1 32 16 6 5 – 23 32 35 14 – – NA* 18 – – 22 5 8 – 20 7 29 NA* 0 8 42 PRogRess on DRinking WateR and Sanitation > 2012 Update .235 1. Regional and Global Estimates on Water & Sanitation Urban Country.746 4. Area or Territory Year Percentage Urban Population Population (x 1.708 59.626 65.346 36.406 49.303 10.048 62.966 5.365 56.340 5.787 117 165 231 195 238 271 929 1.793 19.352 79.165 24.592 9.460 4.193 374 520 700 3.950 48 46 49 2 3 3 728 812 861 4.728 5.USE of SANItAtIoN FACILItIES (percentage of population) Country.550 562 732 889 71 70 68 7.243 10.

Area or Territory Year Total Improved Improved Other Improved Piped on Premises Unimproved Unimproved Total Improved Improved Other Improved Piped on Premises Rural Unimproved Unimproved Total Improved National Improved Piped on Premises Other Improved Unimproved Unimproved Proportion of the 2010 population that gained access since 1995 (%) Country.USE of DRINKING WAtER SoURCES (percentage of population) Urban Country. Regional and Global Estimates on Water & Sanitation Surface Water Surface Water Czech Republic Democratic People’s Republic of Korea Democratic Republic of the Congo Denmark Djibouti Dominica Dominican Republic Ecuador Egypt El Salvador Equatorial Guinea Eritrea Estonia Ethiopia Faeroe Islands Falkland Islands (Malvinas) Fiji Finland France French Guiana French Polynesia Gabon Gambia Georgia Germany Ghana 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 100 100 100 100 100 99 90 85 79 100 100 100 80 88 99 96 96 96 98 92 87 81 90 96 96 98 100 90 92 94 – 66 – 62 70 – 99 99 99 79 87 97 – – – – – – 94 98 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 – 88 – 100 100 100 – 95 95 86 90 92 94 97 100 100 100 100 84 87 91 97 97 97 – 81 93 51 38 21 100 100 100 67 73 79 – 78 – 94 86 80 66 83 93 90 95 100 72 76 80 – 10 – 40 42 – 92 95 97 9 26 46 – – – – – – 92 95 97 96 99 100 100 100 100 – 83 – 99 99 99 – 52 49 25 40 51 81 86 92 100 100 100 41 37 33 3 3 3 – 19 6 39 47 58 0 0 0 13 15 20 – 18 – 4 6 7 15 7 3 6 3 0 18 16 14 – 56 – 22 28 – 7 4 2 70 61 51 – – – – – – 2 3 3 4 1 0 0 0 0 – 5 – 1 1 1 – 43 46 61 50 41 13 11 8 0 0 0 43 50 58 0 0 0 0 0 0 10 13 17 0 0 0 20 12 1 4 4 4 2 8 13 14 9 4 4 2 0 9 7 6 – 26 – 37 30 – 1 1 1 11 7 3 – – – – – – 6 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 – 12 – 0 0 0 – 3 1 14 10 8 6 3 0 0 0 0 7 9 9 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 2 4 0 0 0 – 0 0 – – – 0 0 0 5 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 – 8 – 1 0 – – 0 – 10 6 0 – – – – – – 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 – – – 0 0 0 – 2 4 0 0 0 – 0 0 0 0 0 9 4 0 100 100 100 100 99 97 27 27 27 100 100 100 70 63 54 – 92 – 76 80 84 62 79 89 90 95 99 58 68 76 – 42 – 39 50 – 97 97 97 5 19 34 – – – – – – 77 88 95 100 100 100 100 100 100 – 71 – 100 100 100 – 47 41 67 77 85 66 80 96 100 100 100 36 58 80 – 91 – – 72 80 0 1 2 100 100 100 18 11 1 – 49 – 46 50 55 24 55 73 39 66 93 14 29 42 1 1 1 0 0 0 51 65 – 0 0 1 – – – – – – 38 55 66 85 92 96 95 99 100 – 65 – 96 96 96 – 8 10 0 3 5 19 34 51 97 99 100 2 3 3 – 9 – – 27 17 27 26 25 0 0 0 52 52 53 – 43 – 30 30 29 38 24 16 51 29 6 44 39 34 – 41 – 39 50 – 46 32 – 5 19 33 – – – – – – 39 33 29 15 8 4 5 1 0 – 6 – 4 4 4 – 39 31 67 74 80 47 46 45 3 1 0 34 55 77 0 0 0 0 1 0 40 43 47 0 0 0 30 32 41 – 8 – 3 10 16 5 7 9 7 4 1 21 16 12 – 5 – 34 37 – 3 3 3 39 40 43 – – – – – – 18 8 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 – 29 – 0 0 0 – 18 13 33 23 15 34 20 4 0 0 0 11 10 9 0 0 0 0 – 3 33 30 26 0 0 0 – 5 5 – – – 21 10 0 33 14 2 3 1 0 21 16 12 – 53 – 27 13 – – 0 – 56 41 23 – – – – – – 5 4 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 – – – 0 0 0 – 35 46 0 0 0 – 0 0 0 0 0 53 32 11 100 100 100 100 100 98 45 44 45 100 100 100 78 82 88 – 95 – 88 87 86 72 86 94 93 96 99 74 82 88 – 51 – 43 54 – 98 98 98 14 29 44 – – – – – – 84 93 98 100 100 100 100 100 100 – 84 – 100 100 100 – 85 87 74 83 89 81 89 98 100 100 100 53 71 86 – 95 – – 77 88 14 12 9 100 100 100 55 58 60 – 68 – 73 72 72 47 72 86 61 78 96 43 57 66 4 4 5 6 7 – 80 86 – 1 4 8 – – – – – – 60 74 82 94 98 99 99 100 100 – 79 – 98 98 98 – 43 44 10 21 32 53 61 73 99 100 100 16 18 18 – 5 – – 23 10 31 32 36 0 0 0 23 24 28 – 27 – 15 15 14 25 14 8 32 18 3 31 25 22 – 47 – 37 47 – 18 12 – 13 25 36 – – – – – – 24 19 16 6 2 1 1 0 0 – 5 – 2 2 2 – 42 43 64 62 57 28 28 25 1 0 0 37 53 68 0 0 0 0 0 0 31 34 37 0 0 0 22 17 11 – 5 – 3 9 14 10 8 6 5 3 1 15 11 8 – 13 – 34 35 – 2 2 2 36 35 37 – – – – – – 13 5 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 – 16 – 0 0 0 – 6 3 26 17 11 19 11 2 0 0 0 10 9 9 Surface Water 0 0 0 0 0 2 24 22 18 0 0 0 – 1 1 – – – 9 4 0 18 6 0 2 1 0 11 7 4 – 36 – 23 11 – – 0 – 50 36 19 – – – – – – 3 2 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 – – – 0 0 0 – 9 10 0 0 0 – 0 0 0 0 0 37 20 5 2 9 16 6 33 – 16 31 27 15 – – NA* 31 – – 18 5 8 – 20 27 38 2 0 42 43 Statistical table .

889 6.871 54.741 122.470 70 77 83 4.447 31. Regional and Global Estimates on Water & Sanitation Urban Country.237 14.125 8.984 255 281 320 873. Area or Territory Year Percentage Urban Population Population (x 1.832 56.827 6.759 8.974 17.254 40.614 184.986 60.672 3.582 2.241 1.857 31.551 2.211 9.344 9.346 213.871 65.395 239.376 10.365 2.017 1.785 1.987 11.957 16.720 126.374 23.218 7.513 59 60 61 80 82 84 33 36 39 99 98 98 91 93 93 41 45 49 28 31 35 28 30 30 30 29 29 29 36 52 40 45 52 66 65 68 91 92 93 26 28 30 31 42 44 56 64 71 70 68 66 57 59 62 52 52 51 90 91 92 67 67 68 49 52 52 63 65 67 72 78 79 56 56 59 18 20 22 100 99 99 100 100 100 96 96 96 – 94 95 99 99 99 81 85 87 19 26 32 – 36 44 – 86 88 44 34 24 71 78 85 100 100 100 100 100 100 51 55 58 56 64 73 83 92 100 76 76 100 100 100 – – – 100 100 100 – – – 78 78 78 100 100 100 98 98 98 96 97 97 27 30 32 – – – 0 0 0 – – – – – – – – – 9 9 10 23 32 40 – 13 16 – 8 8 44 35 24 6 7 7 0 0 0 0 0 0 17 18 19 8 9 10 – – – 19 19 – – – – – – – – – – – – 20 20 20 0 0 0 2 2 2 3 3 3 42 45 48 0 1 1 0 0 0 4 4 4 – 6 5 1 1 1 5 3 1 52 39 27 – 47 38 – 5 4 0 20 43 14 10 7 0 0 0 0 0 0 4 5 9 17 11 3 17 8 0 5 5 0 0 0 – – – 0 0 0 – – – 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 28 22 18 0 0 – 0 0 0 – – – – – – – – – 5 3 2 6 3 1 – 4 2 – 1 0 12 11 9 9 5 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 28 22 14 19 16 14 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 – – – 0 0 0 – – – 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 3 2 93 96 97 100 100 100 97 97 97 – – – 98 98 98 48 60 70 6 9 11 4 5 9 – 76 82 19 15 10 36 53 69 100 100 100 100 100 100 7 14 23 21 30 39 74 86 100 54 67 98 98 98 – – – 100 100 100 – – – 81 82 82 100 100 100 95 96 98 97 97 98 25 28 32 – – – 0 0 0 – – – – – – – – – 4 5 6 4 5 6 1 1 2 – 8 9 12 9 6 1 2 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 3 4 6 9 12 – – – 10 12 – – – – – – – – – – – – 14 14 14 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 16 19 21 0 0 3 0 0 0 3 3 3 – – – 2 2 2 13 14 14 35 44 53 95 41 46 – 15 8 7 20 35 15 13 12 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 4 6 25 19 13 26 13 0 19 17 2 2 2 – – – 0 0 0 – – – 4 3 3 0 0 0 4 1 1 0 1 1 42 35 29 7 4 – 0 0 0 – – – – – – – – – 35 21 10 55 42 30 – 53 43 – 1 1 62 56 49 48 32 17 0 0 0 0 0 0 91 79 67 48 42 36 1 0 17 4 – – – – – – 0 0 0 – – – 1 1 1 0 0 0 – 2 0 2 1 0 17 18 18 97 98 98 100 100 100 97 97 97 – – – 99 99 99 62 71 78 10 14 18 – 14 20 – 79 84 26 22 17 50 64 77 100 100 100 100 100 100 18 25 34 32 44 54 79 90 100 69 73 99 99 99 – – – 100 100 100 – – – 80 80 80 100 100 100 97 98 98 96 97 97 25 28 32 – – – 0 0 0 – – – – – – – – – 6 7 8 9 13 18 – 5 6 – 8 9 21 18 15 3 4 5 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 7 9 7 9 11 – – – 16 17 – – – – – – – – – – – – 17 17 17 0 0 0 2 2 2 2 2 2 21 24 27 0 0 2 0 0 0 3 3 3 – – – 1 1 1 9 9 8 40 43 44 – 43 43 – 12 6 5 20 40 15 12 9 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 5 6 22 16 9 21 10 0 10 9 1 1 1 – – – 0 0 0 – – – 2 2 2 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 1 1 40 33 27 7 2 4 – 19 32 9 10 8 -3 35 NA* 17 17 22 33 30 19 – 28 – 9 2 29 2 14 44 PRogRess on DRinking WateR and Sanitation > 2012 Update .342 73.000) Unimproved Other Unimproved Open Defecation Improved Improved Rural Unimproved Other Unimproved Open Defecation Improved National Unimproved Other Unimproved Open Defecation 3 2 – 0 0 0 – – – – – – – – – 23 13 6 41 30 20 – 38 31 – 1 1 48 40 28 32 20 9 0 0 0 0 0 0 75 63 51 39 31 26 0 0 5 1 – – – – – – 0 0 0 – – – 1 1 1 0 0 0 – 0 0 1 0 0 14 15 14 Proportion of the 2010 population that gained access since 1995 (%) Shared Shared Shared Greece Greenland Grenada Guadeloupe Guam Guatemala Guinea Guinea-Bissau Guyana Haiti Honduras Hungary Iceland India Indonesia Iran (Islamic Republic of) Iraq Ireland Isle of Man Israel Italy Jamaica Japan Jordan Kazakhstan Kenya 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 10.224.416 4.359 56 56 57 96 102 104 386 427 461 134 155 180 8.187 16.645 9.015 7.515 725 733 754 7.500 6.804 4.026 23.923 11.053.982 1.161 10.389 5.531 3.418 56.530 14.601 10.993 4.898 1.USE of SANItAtIoN FACILItIES (percentage of population) Country.536 3.251 125.

Area or Territory Year Total Improved Improved Other Improved Piped on Premises Unimproved Unimproved Total Improved Improved Other Improved Piped on Premises Rural Unimproved Unimproved Total Improved National Improved Piped on Premises Other Improved Unimproved Unimproved Proportion of the 2010 population that gained access since 1995 (%) Country.USE of DRINKING WAtER SoURCES (percentage of population) Urban Country. Regional and Global Estimates on Water & Sanitation Surface Water Surface Water Greece Greenland Grenada Guadeloupe Guam Guatemala Guinea Guinea-Bissau Guyana Haiti Honduras Hungary Iceland India Indonesia Iran (Islamic Republic of) Iraq Ireland Isle of Man Israel Italy Jamaica Japan Jordan Kazakhstan Kenya 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 99 100 100 100 100 100 97 97 97 98 98 98 100 100 100 91 95 98 87 88 90 45 68 91 – 94 98 84 84 85 96 95 95 98 100 100 100 100 100 88 93 97 91 91 92 98 98 97 97 95 91 100 100 100 – – – 100 100 100 100 100 100 98 98 98 100 100 100 99 98 98 99 99 99 92 87 82 99 100 100 100 100 100 – 93 –98 98 98 – – – 68 83 96 21 25 29 14 13 11 – 74 79 27 21 15 85 90 95 94 95 95 100 100 100 49 49 48 25 31 36 97 96 96 – 92 89 100 100 100 – – – 100 100 100 100 100 100 89 90 91 97 98 99 98 96 93 91 87 82 56 50 45 0 0 0 0 0 0 – 4 – 0 0 0 – – – 23 12 2 66 63 61 31 55 80 – 20 19 57 63 70 11 5 0 4 5 5 0 0 0 39 44 49 66 60 56 1 2 1 – 3 2 0 0 0 – – – 0 0 0 0 0 0 9 8 7 3 2 1 1 2 5 8 12 17 36 37 37 1 0 0 0 0 0 3 3 3 2 2 2 0 0 0 7 4 2 5 9 10 55 32 8 – 5 2 12 12 11 4 5 5 2 0 0 0 0 0 11 7 3 8 8 8 2 2 3 3 3 7 0 0 0 – – – 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 2 2 0 0 0 1 2 2 1 1 1 4 9 14 – 0 0 0 0 0 – – – – – – 0 0 0 2 1 0 8 3 0 0 0 1 – 1 0 4 4 4 0 0 0 – 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 – 2 2 0 0 0 – – – 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 – – 0 0 0 4 4 4 92 98 99 100 100 100 – 93 – – 93 – 100 100 100 74 81 87 37 52 65 32 43 53 – 87 93 49 50 51 62 71 79 91 98 100 100 100 100 63 77 90 61 68 74 80 85 92 44 49 56 100 100 100 – – – 100 100 100 100 100 100 88 88 88 100 100 100 90 91 92 92 91 90 33 43 52 82 95 99 100 100 100 – 75 – – 75 – – – – 34 54 69 0 0 1 0 0 0 – 56 59 2 3 4 42 59 74 72 86 – 100 100 100 7 10 12 2 5 8 65 76 88 – 37 50 99 99 99 – – – 98 98 98 96 100 100 34 42 47 86 91 95 87 83 79 28 26 24 10 11 12 10 3 0 0 0 0 – 18 – – 18 – – – – 40 27 18 37 52 64 32 43 53 – 31 34 47 47 47 20 12 5 19 12 – 0 0 0 56 67 78 59 63 66 15 9 4 – 12 6 1 1 1 – – – 2 2 2 4 0 0 54 46 41 14 9 5 3 8 13 64 65 66 23 32 40 8 2 1 0 0 0 – 7 – – 7 – 0 0 0 7 7 7 9 15 21 63 53 44 – 7 2 35 31 28 37 28 19 9 2 0 0 0 0 33 21 9 32 26 22 16 13 8 56 16 27 0 0 0 – – – 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 5 8 0 0 0 9 9 8 5 6 7 18 18 18 – – – 0 0 0 – – – – – – 0 0 0 19 12 6 54 33 14 5 4 3 – 6 5 16 19 21 1 1 2 – 0 0 0 0 0 4 2 1 7 6 4 4 2 0 – 35 17 0 0 0 – – – 0 0 0 0 0 0 11 7 4 0 0 0 1 – – 3 3 3 49 39 30 96 99 100 100 100 100 – 94 – – 98 – 100 100 100 81 87 92 51 63 74 36 50 64 – 89 94 59 62 69 76 82 87 96 99 100 100 100 100 69 81 92 70 78 82 90 93 96 81 80 79 100 100 100 – – – 100 100 100 100 100 100 93 93 93 100 100 100 97 96 97 96 96 95 44 52 59 92 98 100 100 100 100 – 81 – – 98 – – – – 48 67 82 6 8 11 4 4 3 – 61 65 9 9 10 59 73 85 86 92 – 100 100 100 18 21 23 9 16 20 83 89 94 – 74 76 100 100 100 – – – 100 100 100 99 100 100 61 67 70 93 96 98 95 93 90 63 60 58 18 19 19 4 1 0 0 0 0 – 13 – – 0 – – – – 33 20 10 45 55 63 32 46 61 – 28 29 50 53 59 17 9 2 10 7 – 0 0 0 51 60 69 61 62 62 7 4 2 – 6 3 0 0 0 – – – 0 0 0 1 0 0 32 26 23 7 4 2 2 3 7 33 36 37 26 33 40 4 1 0 0 0 0 – 6 – – 2 – 0 0 0 7 6 5 8 13 17 60 47 34 – 6 2 28 24 19 23 17 12 4 1 0 0 0 0 28 18 7 25 18 16 8 6 4 19 7 14 0 0 0 – – – 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 4 5 0 0 0 3 4 3 3 3 4 15 16 17 Surface Water – – 0 0 0 0 – – – – – – 0 0 0 12 7 3 41 24 9 4 3 2 – 5 4 13 14 12 1 1 1 – 0 0 0 0 0 3 1 1 5 4 2 2 1 0 – 13 7 0 0 0 – – – 0 0 0 0 0 0 6 3 2 0 0 0 0 – – 1 1 1 41 32 24 8 2 – – 19 34 30 32 9 21 29 NA* 17 33 20 22 28 19 – 28 6 10 2 28 0 26 45 Statistical table .

696 3.364 20.000) Unimproved Other Unimproved Open Defecation Improved Improved Rural Unimproved Other Unimproved Open Defecation Improved National Unimproved Other Unimproved Open Defecation 57 49 – 0 0 0 – 0 0 – 65 28 – 0 – – – – – 45 37 – 56 45 – – – – – – – – – 0 0 0 56 47 37 31 19 8 5 2 0 23 14 0 30 21 14 0 0 0 – – 13 – – – 44 49 54 0 0 0 – – – 22 11 1 – – – 0 0 0 Proportion of the 2010 population that gained access since 1995 (%) Shared Shared Shared Kiribati Kuwait Kyrgyzstan Lao People’s Democratic Republic Latvia Lebanon Lesotho Liberia Libya Liechtenstein Lithuania Luxembourg Madagascar Malawi Malaysia Maldives Mali Malta Marshall Islands Martinique Mauritania Mauritius Mayotte Mexico Micronesia (Federated States of) Monaco 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 72 84 100 2.960 113.737 4.673 11. Regional and Global Estimates on Water & Sanitation Urban Country.423 96 107 111 31 35 35 35 43 44 98 98 98 38 35 35 15 22 33 69 68 68 83 86 87 14 20 27 41 44 48 76 76 78 17 15 14 68 67 67 81 84 85 24 27 30 12 15 20 50 62 72 26 28 40 23 28 36 90 92 95 65 68 72 86 90 89 40 40 41 44 43 42 36 48 50 71 75 78 26 22 23 100 100 100 36 47 – 100 100 100 94 94 94 – 64 89 – 82 – 100 100 100 – 37 32 – 23 29 97 97 97 – – – 95 95 95 100 100 100 15 18 21 48 49 49 88 94 96 98 98 98 33 34 35 100 100 100 77 80 83 – 94 95 29 38 51 91 91 91 – – – 76 81 87 55 59 – 100 100 100 7 9 – – – – 5 5 5 – 4 5 – 13 – – – – – 34 30 – 23 30 – – – – – – – – – 0 0 0 21 24 28 43 44 44 4 4 4 2 2 2 36 37 38 0 0 0 11 12 12 – – – 10 14 18 8 8 8 – – – 10 10 11 – – – 0 0 0 16 3 – 0 0 0 1 1 1 – 8 3 – 5 – 0 0 0 – 18 32 – 29 16 3 3 3 – – – 5 5 5 0 0 0 41 37 32 5 4 5 7 1 0 0 0 0 26 25 23 0 0 0 12 8 1 – 6 5 38 28 16 1 1 1 – – – 4 4 2 45 41 – 0 0 0 41 41 – 0 0 0 – 0 0 – 24 3 – 0 – 0 0 0 – 11 6 – 25 25 – – – – – – – – – 0 0 0 23 21 19 4 3 2 1 1 0 0 0 0 5 4 4 0 0 0 – – 4 – – – 23 20 15 0 0 0 – – – 10 5 0 – – – 0 0 0 21 22 – 100 100 100 – 93 93 – 15 50 – 71 – – 87 – – 22 24 – 3 7 96 96 96 – – – – 69 – 100 100 100 7 10 12 38 45 51 81 90 95 58 72 97 10 12 14 100 100 100 41 48 53 – – – 8 9 9 88 88 88 – – – 34 56 79 20 16 – NA NA NA 2 2 – – – – – 2 2 – 0 1 – 3 – – – – – 3 4 – 8 21 – – – – – – – – – 0 0 0 9 12 14 22 26 30 3 4 4 1 1 2 6 7 9 0 0 0 9 11 12 – – – 3 4 4 9 9 9 – – – 4 7 10 – – – NA NA NA 12 21 – 0 0 0 – 5 5 – 9 8 – 26 – – 13 – – 22 23 – 9 8 4 4 4 – – – – 31 – 0 0 0 18 22 29 6 7 9 7 2 1 10 8 1 47 53 57 0 0 0 50 41 0 – – – 31 19 6 3 3 3 – – – 11 8 5 80 84 – NA NA NA 65 55 – 0 0 0 – 0 0 – 76 41 – 0 – – – – – 53 49 – 80 64 – – – – – – – – – 0 0 0 66 56 45 34 22 10 9 4 – 31 19 0 37 28 20 0 0 0 – – 35 – – – 58 68 81 0 0 0 – – – 51 29 6 – – – NA NA NA 26 33 – 100 100 100 – 93 93 – 26 63 – 78 – – 98 – – 25 26 – 12 18 97 97 97 – – – – 86 – 100 100 100 9 12 15 39 46 51 84 92 96 68 79 97 15 18 22 100 100 100 64 70 75 – – – 16 21 26 89 89 89 – – – 64 75 85 29 26 – 100 100 100 4 5 – – – – – 3 3 – 1 2 – 10 – – – – – 9 11 – 15 25 – – – – – – – – – 0 0 0 12 15 18 24 29 33 3 4 4 1 1 2 13 16 19 0 0 0 10 12 12 – – – 6 8 10 9 9 9 – – – 8 9 11 – – – 0 0 0 13 13 – 0 0 0 – 4 4 – 8 7 – 12 – – 2 – – 21 26 – 17 12 3 3 3 – – – – 14 – 0 0 0 23 26 30 6 6 8 8 2 0 8 6 1 42 45 45 0 0 0 26 18 0 – – – 34 22 10 2 2 2 – – – 6 5 3 71 74 – 0 0 0 – 41 13 50 – – 6 12 24 – – 20 8 23 31 43 11 7 11 – 15 11 – 28 – 6 46 PRogRess on DRinking WateR and Sanitation > 2012 Update .334 5.USE of SANItAtIoN FACILItIES (percentage of population) Country.639 1.401 219 273 316 8.500 3.664 2.742 4.307 99.996 2.901 18.355 29 33 36 3.088 1.941 2.370 368 397 417 47 52 54 359 385 406 1.299 92 149 204 84.948 3.192 5.317 6.714 9.415 28.994 4.060 1.381 11.231 6.295 15.964 2.847 3.324 381 435 507 11.127 2.252 2.643 3.395 4.460 1.201 2.334 4.209 23.229 14.385 2.281 15.171 2. Area or Territory Year Percentage Urban Population Population (x 1.228 1.955 5.196 1.

Regional and Global Estimates on Water & Sanitation Surface Water Surface Water Kiribati Kuwait Kyrgyzstan Lao People’s Democratic Republic Latvia Lebanon Lesotho Liberia Libya Liechtenstein Lithuania Luxembourg Madagascar Malawi Malaysia Maldives Mali Malta Marshall Islands Martinique Mauritania Mauritius Mayotte Mexico Micronesia (Federated States of) Monaco 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 76 77 – 99 99 99 98 98 99 – 75 77 100 100 100 100 100 100 95 94 91 – 74 88 54 54 – – – – 98 98 98 100 100 100 75 75 74 91 93 95 94 99 100 100 100 100 53 70 87 100 100 100 94 93 92 100 100 100 36 45 52 100 100 100 – – – 93 95 97 93 94 – 100 100 100 46 48 – – – – 75 82 89 – 37 55 – 93 – 100 100 100 25 39 63 3 4 8 – – – – – – 89 93 95 100 100 100 24 19 14 42 35 28 86 95 99 50 67 96 17 26 35 100 100 100 1 1 1 99 99 99 15 26 35 100 100 100 – – – 88 91 93 – – – 100 100 100 30 29 – – – – 23 16 10 – 38 22 – 7 – 0 0 0 70 55 28 – 70 80 – – – – – – 9 5 3 0 0 0 51 56 60 49 58 67 8 4 1 50 33 4 36 44 52 0 0 0 93 92 91 1 1 1 21 19 17 0 0 0 – – – 5 4 4 – – – 0 0 0 24 23 – 1 1 1 2 1 1 – 20 20 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 6 9 – 26 11 46 46 – – – – 2 2 2 0 0 0 16 13 11 5 5 5 6 1 0 0 0 0 45 29 13 0 0 0 6 7 8 0 0 0 63 54 48 0 0 0 – – – 3 3 3 7 6 – 0 0 0 – – – – – – – 1 0 – 5 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 – – 1 – – – – – – – – – 0 0 0 9 12 15 4 2 0 – 0 0 0 0 0 2 1 0 0 0 0 – – – 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 – – – 4 2 0 – – – 0 0 0 33 50 – 99 99 99 – 73 85 – 37 62 96 96 96 100 100 100 78 76 73 – 50 60 55 55 – – – – – 81 – 100 100 100 15 24 34 35 57 80 82 93 99 91 93 97 20 36 51 98 100 100 97 98 99 – – – 26 37 48 99 99 99 – – – 64 77 91 87 92 – NA NA NA 13 21 – – – – 25 30 34 – 5 3 – 59 – – 85 – 2 3 4 1 1 1 – – – – – – 49 57 – 98 98 98 1 2 3 2 2 2 59 80 – 0 0 1 0 1 1 98 100 100 0 0 0 – – – 0 8 14 99 99 99 – – – 50 62 74 – – – NA NA NA 20 29 – – – – – 43 51 – 32 59 – 37 – – 15 – 76 73 69 – 49 59 – – – – – – – 24 – 2 2 2 14 22 31 33 55 78 23 13 – 91 93 96 20 35 50 0 0 0 97 98 99 – – – 26 29 34 0 0 0 – – – 14 15 17 – – – NA NA NA 67 50 – 1 1 1 – 4 4 – 29 21 4 4 4 0 0 0 20 23 26 – 50 17 45 45 – – – – – 19 – 0 0 0 36 31 25 45 31 16 18 5 1 9 7 3 70 57 46 2 0 0 3 2 1 – – – 65 56 46 1 1 1 – – – 0 6 9 13 8 – NA NA NA – – – – – – – 23 11 – 34 17 – 0 – 0 0 0 2 1 1 – – 23 – – – – – – – – – 0 0 0 49 45 41 20 12 4 – 2 – – – – 10 7 3 – 0 0 – – – – – – 9 7 6 0 0 0 – – – 36 17 0 – – – NA NA NA 48 62 – 99 99 99 – 82 90 – 45 67 99 99 99 100 100 100 80 80 78 – 61 73 54 54 – – – – – 92 – 100 100 100 29 38 46 41 62 83 88 97 100 93 95 98 28 46 64 100 100 100 95 95 94 – – – 30 40 50 99 99 99 – – – 85 90 96 89 92 – 100 100 100 25 33 – – – – 44 48 53 – 12 20 – 82 – – 98 – 5 10 20 2 2 4 – – – – – – 76 81 – 100 100 100 6 7 6 7 7 7 72 89 – 13 19 39 4 8 13 100 100 100 1 1 1 – – – 6 15 23 99 99 99 – – – 77 84 89 – – – 100 100 100 23 29 – – – – – 34 37 – 33 47 – 17 – – 2 – 75 70 58 – 59 69 – – – – – – – 11 – 0 0 0 23 31 40 34 55 76 16 8 – 80 76 59 24 38 51 0 0 0 94 94 93 – – – 24 25 27 0 0 0 – – – 8 6 7 – – – 0 0 0 52 38 – 1 1 1 – 3 3 – 27 21 1 1 1 0 0 0 18 19 21 – 39 15 46 46 – – – – – 8 – 0 0 0 31 26 21 41 28 14 12 2 0 7 5 2 64 49 34 0 0 0 5 5 6 – – – 64 55 46 1 1 1 – – – 2 4 4 11 8 – 0 0 0 Surface Water – – – – – – – 15 7 – 28 12 – 0 – 0 0 0 2 1 1 – – 12 – – – – – – – – – 0 0 0 40 36 33 18 10 3 – 1 0 – – – 8 5 2 0 0 0 – – – – – – 6 5 4 0 0 0 – – – 13 6 0 – – – 0 0 0 – 40 23 36 NA* 18 12 43 – – – 20 25 48 32 25 40 7 4 – 26 12 – 24 – 6 47 Statistical table . Area or Territory Year Total Improved Improved Other Improved Piped on Premises Unimproved Unimproved Total Improved Improved Other Improved Piped on Premises Rural Unimproved Unimproved Total Improved National Improved Piped on Premises Other Improved Unimproved Unimproved Proportion of the 2010 population that gained access since 1995 (%) Country.USE of DRINKING WAtER SoURCES (percentage of population) Urban Country.

593 15 19 20 2.883 2.379 6.193 2.268 44.868 2.423 2 2 1 44 68 61 4.922 15.517 4.689 158.039 1.963 1.074 5.USE of SANItAtIoN FACILItIES (percentage of population) Country.199 4.863 16.344 6.959 14.121 5.788 7.368 4.455 57 57 62 48 59 61 13 11 14 48 53 58 21 31 38 25 28 34 28 32 38 100 100 100 9 13 19 69 77 83 86 90 93 60 59 57 85 86 86 52 55 57 15 16 17 35 43 50 31 33 38 90 90 91 72 76 79 68 72 74 66 72 73 31 33 36 70 70 83 54 66 75 15 13 13 49 55 61 – 65 64 – 92 92 96 96 96 81 82 83 36 37 38 – 79 83 62 60 57 66 66 65 37 42 48 100 100 100 – – – – – – – – – 59 61 63 19 27 34 39 37 35 100 100 100 85 92 – 100 100 100 91 91 92 96 98 100 72 72 72 78 91 100 73 74 – 78 75 71 61 79 90 – 32 31 – 3 3 – – – 14 14 14 7 7 8 – 12 12 22 21 20 31 31 31 28 32 36 0 0 0 – – – – – – – – – 8 8 9 14 20 25 42 40 38 – – – – – – 0 0 0 5 5 5 – – – 6 6 6 – – – 11 11 – – – – 3 4 4 – 3 2 – 5 5 4 4 4 0 2 3 26 31 41 – 7 4 5 4 4 3 1 4 5 4 3 0 0 0 – – – – – – – – – 29 27 24 41 31 21 11 13 15 0 0 0 15 8 – 0 0 0 4 3 2 2 0 0 14 16 18 22 9 0 14 14 – 19 21 24 35 16 6 – 0 3 – 0 0 – – – 5 2 0 31 25 13 – 2 1 11 15 19 – 2 0 30 22 13 0 0 0 – – – – – – – – – 4 4 4 26 22 20 8 10 12 0 0 0 – – – 0 0 0 – 1 1 2 2 0 8 6 4 – – 0 2 1 – 3 4 5 1 1 – – 28 29 – 87 87 96 96 96 27 43 52 4 4 5 – 56 73 9 13 17 NA NA NA 7 17 27 100 100 100 – – – – – – 88 – – 26 32 37 2 3 4 36 32 27 100 100 100 78 93 96 100 100 100 – 83 92 55 71 95 7 20 34 36 68 100 40 47 – 42 42 41 15 31 40 – 21 22 – 3 3 – – – 3 5 6 1 1 1 – 10 14 2 3 4 NA NA NA 2 6 9 0 0 0 – – – – – – – – – 4 5 6 1 1 2 18 16 13 – – – – – – 0 0 0 – 6 7 – – – 1 4 6 – – – 4 4 – – – – 0 0 1 – 15 23 – 10 10 4 4 4 2 2 4 21 27 36 – 18 5 6 7 7 NA NA NA 6 6 7 0 0 0 – – – – – – 12 – – 25 32 37 2 3 3 12 20 29 0 0 0 22 7 4 0 0 0 – 7 0 13 0 5 20 23 26 64 32 0 32 32 – 42 41 41 81 67 59 – 36 26 – 0 0 – – – 68 50 38 74 68 58 – 16 8 83 77 72 NA NA NA 85 71 57 0 0 0 – – – – – – – – – 45 31 20 95 93 91 34 32 31 0 0 0 – – – 0 0 0 – 4 1 32 29 – 72 53 34 – – 0 24 17 – 16 17 18 4 2 – – 49 51 – 90 90 96 96 96 53 64 70 11 14 18 – 62 76 24 28 32 66 66 65 10 20 31 100 100 100 – – – – – – – – – 43 48 52 5 7 9 37 34 31 100 100 100 84 92 – 100 100 100 – 89 92 82 90 99 27 37 48 65 84 100 58 65 – 47 46 45 37 58 71 – 27 28 – 3 3 – – – 8 10 11 2 3 4 – 11 13 8 9 10 31 31 31 4 9 14 0 0 0 – – – – – – – – – 6 7 8 3 4 6 26 26 25 – – – – – – 0 0 0 – 5 6 – – – 3 5 6 – – – 8 9 – – – – 1 2 3 – 8 9 – 7 7 4 4 4 1 2 3 22 28 37 – 15 5 5 6 6 3 1 4 6 7 6 0 0 0 – – – – – – – – – 27 29 29 8 7 6 12 17 22 0 0 0 16 8 – 0 0 0 – 4 1 6 0 1 18 21 23 35 16 0 22 20 – 39 39 39 59 39 26 9 – NA* 21 9 28 13 0 20 7 – – – 15 6 6 0 – 11 36 30 24 39 – 12 35 48 PRogRess on DRinking WateR and Sanitation > 2012 Update .613 191 180 201 170 212 251 3.491 4.283 9 10 10 19.958 47.552 123.845 144.264 2.892 15. Area or Territory Year Percentage Urban Population Population (x 1.416 2.756 609 633 631 11 5 6 24.398 3.858 4.788 10.241 4.782 111.401 29.415 1.081 3.858 4.000) Unimproved Other Unimproved Open Defecation Improved Improved Rural Unimproved Other Unimproved Open Defecation Improved National Unimproved Other Unimproved Open Defecation – 16 12 – 0 0 – – – 38 24 16 65 55 41 – 12 6 63 57 52 – 2 0 80 64 49 0 0 0 – – – – – – – – – 24 16 11 84 82 79 25 23 22 0 0 0 – – – 0 0 0 – 2 1 12 10 – 52 37 23 – – 0 12 6 – 14 15 16 3 1 – Proportion of the 2010 population that gained access since 1995 (%) Shared Shared Shared Mongolia Montenegro Montserrat Morocco Mozambique Myanmar Namibia Nauru Nepal Netherlands Netherlands Antilles New Caledonia New Zealand Nicaragua Niger Nigeria Niue Northern Mariana Islands Norway Occupied Palestinian Territory Oman Pakistan Palau Panama Papua New Guinea Paraguay 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 2.411 2.781 28.201 23.951 13.158 5.522 173.391 39.793 31.896 2.547 18.956 3.244 5.081 24.512 97. Regional and Global Estimates on Water & Sanitation Urban Country.

Area or Territory Year Total Improved Improved Other Improved Piped on Premises Unimproved Unimproved Total Improved Improved Other Improved Piped on Premises Rural Unimproved Unimproved Total Improved National Improved Piped on Premises Other Improved Unimproved Unimproved Proportion of the 2010 population that gained access since 1995 (%) Country. Regional and Global Estimates on Water & Sanitation Surface Water Surface Water Mongolia Montenegro Montserrat Morocco Mozambique Myanmar Namibia Nauru Nepal Netherlands Netherlands Antilles New Caledonia New Zealand Nicaragua Niger Nigeria Niue Northern Mariana Islands Norway Occupied Palestinian Territory Oman Pakistan Palau Panama Papua New Guinea Paraguay 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 74 86 100 99 99 99 100 100 100 93 96 98 73 75 77 80 85 93 99 99 99 98 98 88 96 94 93 100 100 100 – – – – – – 100 100 100 92 95 98 57 78 100 79 77 74 100 100 100 98 98 98 100 100 100 100 95 86 84 87 93 95 96 96 73 78 83 99 97 97 89 88 87 81 92 99 53 42 26 98 98 98 98 98 98 74 82 89 22 21 19 17 18 19 82 77 72 – – – 43 48 53 100 100 100 – – – – – – 100 100 100 82 86 89 21 30 39 32 20 8 – – – – – – 100 100 100 – 87 78 27 49 82 56 57 58 38 40 43 97 95 – 61 59 57 59 75 85 21 44 74 1 1 1 2 2 2 19 14 9 51 54 58 63 67 74 17 22 27 – – – 53 46 40 0 0 0 – – – – – – 0 0 0 10 9 9 36 48 61 47 57 66 – – – – – – 0 0 0 – 8 8 57 38 11 39 39 38 35 38 40 2 2 – 28 29 30 22 17 14 20 11 0 1 1 1 0 0 0 7 4 2 24 21 19 20 6 5 1 1 1 2 2 12 2 3 4 0 0 0 – – – – – – 0 0 0 7 4 2 42 22 0 17 19 21 0 0 0 2 2 2 0 0 0 0 4 14 12 9 7 4 4 4 27 22 17 1 3 3 4 7 11 18 8 1 6 3 0 – 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 4 4 – 9 2 0 0 0 – – – 2 3 3 0 0 0 – – – – – – 0 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 4 4 5 0 0 0 – – – 0 0 0 0 1 – 4 4 – 1 0 0 – – – 0 0 – 7 5 2 1 0 0 27 37 53 96 96 96 100 100 100 54 58 61 26 27 29 48 60 78 51 72 90 NA NA NA 74 81 88 100 100 100 – – – – – – 100 100 100 54 62 68 31 35 39 30 36 43 100 100 100 100 97 97 100 100 100 – 86 81 72 74 78 81 85 89 96 96 96 66 77 – 32 32 33 25 51 66 0 1 2 – 70 70 0 0 0 4 12 19 1 1 1 1 2 3 14 21 28 NA NA NA 5 8 10 95 100 100 – – – – – – 100 100 100 17 24 29 0 1 2 4 2 1 – 80 – – – – 100 100 100 – 64 67 4 15 31 8 15 23 40 40 40 60 72 – 4 3 3 0 21 35 27 36 51 – 26 26 100 100 100 50 46 42 25 26 28 47 58 75 37 51 62 NA NA NA 69 73 78 5 0 0 – – – – – – 0 0 0 37 38 39 31 34 37 26 34 42 – 20 – – – – 0 0 0 – 22 14 68 59 47 73 70 66 56 56 56 6 5 – 28 29 30 25 30 31 18 20 23 4 4 4 0 0 0 41 27 16 41 47 55 52 16 14 35 15 0 NA NA NA 13 10 6 0 0 0 – – – – – – 0 0 0 30 27 25 66 62 58 29 33 35 0 0 0 0 3 3 0 0 0 – 11 19 18 16 22 8 7 6 4 4 4 23 12 – 17 20 22 63 42 30 55 43 24 – 0 0 0 0 0 5 15 23 33 26 16 – 24 8 14 13 10 NA NA NA 13 9 6 0 0 0 – – – – – – 0 0 0 16 11 7 3 3 3 41 31 22 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 – 3 – 10 10 – 11 8 5 – – – 11 11 – 51 48 45 12 7 4 54 65 82 97 98 98 100 100 100 73 78 83 36 42 47 56 67 83 64 81 93 98 98 88 76 83 89 100 100 100 – – – – – – 100 100 100 74 80 85 35 42 49 47 53 58 100 100 100 98 98 98 100 100 100 – 92 85 80 83 89 85 89 92 80 83 85 84 90 – 41 39 40 52 74 86 30 24 17 – 86 87 12 11 14 38 49 60 5 7 8 5 6 8 33 39 45 – – – 8 13 18 98 100 100 – – – – – – 100 100 100 51 58 63 3 6 8 14 10 4 – – – – – – 100 100 100 – 81 75 19 39 68 23 29 36 39 40 43 80 87 – 13 10 10 29 51 66 24 41 65 – 12 11 88 89 86 35 29 23 31 35 39 51 61 75 31 42 48 – – – 68 70 71 2 0 0 – – – – – – 0 0 0 23 22 22 32 36 41 33 43 54 – – – – – – 0 0 0 – 11 10 61 44 21 62 60 56 41 43 42 4 3 – 28 29 30 23 23 20 19 15 9 3 2 2 0 0 0 24 15 7 37 39 42 44 13 11 26 10 0 2 2 12 12 9 6 0 0 0 – – – – – – 0 0 0 18 14 12 62 55 49 25 27 28 0 0 0 2 2 2 0 0 0 – 6 15 14 11 11 7 6 5 20 17 15 11 6 – 15 19 20 41 23 12 Surface Water 27 20 9 – 0 0 0 0 0 3 7 10 27 19 11 – 20 6 10 9 7 – – – 12 8 5 0 0 0 – – – – – – 0 0 0 8 6 3 3 3 2 28 20 14 0 0 0 – – – 0 0 0 – 2 – 6 6 – 8 5 3 – – – 5 4 – 44 42 40 7 3 2 36 NA* NA* 19 21 31 41 -10 31 7 – – 16 23 27 23 0 7 11 22 24 28 15 – 12 39 49 Statistical table .USE of DRINKING WAtER SoURCES (percentage of population) Urban Country.

139 20.310 93.207 22.958 7. Regional and Global Estimates on Water & Sanitation Urban Country.925 10.814 3.336 10.244 146.506 12.629 77.077 61.242 9.270 5.192 21. Area or Territory Year Percentage Urban Population Population (x 1.988 48.086 5.302 38.759 42.862 29.569 10.364 4.030 69 73 77 49 48 49 61 62 61 48 54 61 72 95 99 92 95 96 74 80 83 47 45 47 81 90 94 53 53 57 73 73 73 5 14 19 35 33 32 29 28 28 41 45 49 21 22 20 90 93 94 44 53 62 77 80 82 39 40 42 50 53 56 49 51 55 33 36 38 100 100 100 56 56 55 50 51 50 71 76 81 69 74 79 96 96 96 97 99 100 – – – 100 100 100 100 100 100 – 87 89 – – – 88 88 – 80 77 74 69 60 52 96 96 96 67 69 71 – – – 100 99 98 – – – – 27 30 100 100 100 62 66 70 96 96 96 – 94 98 22 22 23 99 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 8 8 9 15 16 17 – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – 7 7 – – – 3 3 – 16 15 15 24 21 18 – – – 3 3 3 – – – – – – – – – – 4 4 – – – 17 18 19 3 3 3 – – – 42 44 45 – – – 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 8 9 8 4 1 4 4 4 3 1 0 – – – 0 0 0 0 0 0 – 6 4 – – – 9 9 – 4 8 10 4 17 29 4 4 4 24 20 17 – – – 0 1 2 – – – – 4 17 0 0 0 12 11 9 1 1 1 – 5 2 35 30 25 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 16 8 1 8 6 3 – – – – – 0 – – – 0 0 0 0 0 0 – 0 – – – – – – – – – 1 3 2 1 – – – 6 8 9 – – – 0 0 0 – – – – 65 49 0 0 0 9 5 2 – 0 0 1 1 4 7 – 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 17 27 37 45 57 69 – 80 – 87 97 100 – – – 100 100 100 100 100 100 – 72 82 – – – 52 54 – 58 59 59 34 45 56 96 96 96 54 59 63 96 96 96 99 98 98 – – – – 15 19 – – – 22 31 39 – 88 88 – – – 5 5 6 NA NA NA 100 100 99 100 100 100 2 2 3 10 13 16 – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – 4 5 – – – 1 1 – 11 11 11 4 5 6 – – – 4 4 4 – – – – – – – – – – 4 5 – – – 6 8 10 – 3 3 – – – 15 16 16 NA NA NA 0 0 0 0 0 0 7 20 32 22 12 3 – 20 – 13 3 0 – – – 0 0 0 0 0 0 – 24 13 – – – 47 45 – 31 30 29 55 45 35 4 4 4 31 27 25 4 4 4 1 2 2 – – – – 3 12 – – – 15 19 23 – 9 9 – – – 55 46 37 NA NA NA 0 0 1 0 0 0 74 51 28 23 18 12 – – – – – 0 – – – 0 0 0 0 0 0 – 0 – – – – – – – – – 1 7 5 3 – – – 11 10 8 – – – – – 0 – – – – 78 64 – – – 57 42 28 – 0 0 – – – 25 33 41 NA NA NA 0 0 – 0 0 0 54 63 71 57 65 74 – 90 – 92 98 100 – – – 100 100 100 100 100 100 – 79 85 – – – 71 72 – 74 72 70 36 47 55 96 96 96 58 62 65 – – – 99 98 98 – – – – 21 26 – – – 38 45 52 – 92 92 – – – 11 11 13 99 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 6 6 8 12 14 16 – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – 5 6 – – – 2 2 – 15 14 14 5 7 8 – – – 4 4 4 – – – – – – – – – – 4 4 – – – 10 12 14 – 3 3 – – – 24 26 27 – – – 0 0 0 0 0 0 6 11 14 15 9 2 – 10 – 8 2 0 – – – 0 0 0 0 0 0 – 16 9 – – – 27 26 – 11 14 15 52 41 34 4 4 4 28 25 23 – – – 1 2 2 – – – – 4 15 – – – 14 16 17 – 5 5 – – – 48 40 32 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 23 28 – 10 – 71 7 NA* – – NA* 34 17 15 – 7 – 10 – 25 – – 5 32 1 3 50 PRogRess on DRinking WateR and Sanitation > 2012 Update .927 1.980 45.919 5.056 38.856 71 79 87 3.143 5.107 3.624 41 46 52 138 157 174 107 108 109 161 177 183 24 27 32 116 141 165 16.000) Unimproved Other Unimproved Open Defecation Improved Improved Rural Unimproved Other Unimproved Open Defecation Improved National Unimproved Other Unimproved Open Defecation 34 20 7 16 12 8 – – – – – 0 – – – 0 0 0 0 0 0 – 0 – – – – – – – – – 1 7 5 3 – – – 10 9 8 – – – – – 0 – – – – 71 55 – – – 38 27 17 – 0 0 – – – 17 23 28 – 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Proportion of the 2010 population that gained access since 1995 (%) Shared Shared Shared Peru Philippines Poland Portugal Puerto Rico Qatar Republic of Korea Republic of Moldova Réunion Romania Russian Federation Rwanda Saint Kitts and Nevis Saint Lucia Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Samoa San Marino Sao Tome and Principe Saudi Arabia Senegal Serbia Seychelles Sierra Leone Singapore Slovakia Slovenia 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 21.261 38.462 1.758 142.USE of SANItAtIoN FACILItIES (percentage of population) Country.529 3.184 4.017 3.045 27.448 7.110 8.868 3.749 474 591 1.982 4.434 9.985 2.277 9.573 612 739 846 23.405 5.486 148.134 9.098 10.676 3.686 25.

Regional and Global Estimates on Water & Sanitation Surface Water Surface Water Peru Philippines Poland Portugal Puerto Rico Qatar Republic of Korea Republic of Moldova Réunion Romania Russian Federation Rwanda Saint Kitts and Nevis Saint Lucia Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Samoa San Marino Sao Tome and Principe Saudi Arabia Senegal Serbia Seychelles Sierra Leone Singapore Slovakia Slovenia 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 88 90 91 93 93 93 100 100 100 98 99 99 – – – 100 100 100 97 98 100 98 99 99 – – – 93 97 99 98 98 99 95 86 76 99 99 99 96 97 98 – – – 97 96 96 – – – – 86 89 97 97 97 88 90 93 99 99 99 – 84 100 63 75 87 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 74 78 83 40 50 61 97 99 99 95 98 99 – – – – – – 96 97 99 – 77 84 – – – 88 90 92 88 90 91 33 23 13 – 72 – 83 84 85 – – – 85 85 84 – – – – 31 32 97 97 97 46 60 75 97 97 97 – 84 100 19 19 19 100 100 100 100 96 – 100 100 100 14 12 8 53 43 32 3 1 1 3 1 0 – – – – – – 1 1 1 – 22 15 – – – 5 7 7 10 8 8 62 63 63 – 27 – 13 13 13 – – – 12 11 12 – – – – 55 57 0 0 0 42 30 18 2 2 2 – 0 0 44 56 68 0 0 0 0 4 – 0 0 0 11 9 8 6 7 7 0 0 0 2 1 1 – – – 0 0 0 3 2 0 2 1 1 – – – 7 3 1 2 2 1 1 7 14 1 1 1 4 3 2 – – – 3 4 3 – – – – 4 9 3 3 3 12 10 6 1 1 1 – 0 0 29 18 7 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 – – – – – – 0 0 0 – – 0 – 0 – – – – – – – 0 0 0 4 7 10 – – – – – – – – – – – 1 – – – – 10 2 – – – 0 0 1 – – 0 – 16 0 8 7 6 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 45 55 65 77 85 92 – – – 94 98 100 – – – 100 100 100 – 75 88 – 89 93 – – – 55 70 – 80 86 92 64 63 63 99 99 99 93 94 95 – 93 – 87 91 96 – – – – 70 88 63 – – 43 49 56 98 98 98 – – – 26 30 35 NA NA NA 100 100 100 99 99 99 13 29 46 9 17 25 73 89 96 80 95 100 – – – – – – – 46 64 0 2 16 – – – 13 21 28 37 46 55 0 0 1 – 72 – 70 68 67 – 73 – 72 76 80 – – – – 14 18 60 – – 3 8 13 – 63 63 – – – 2 1 1 NA NA NA 89 92 – 99 99 99 32 26 19 68 68 67 – – – 14 3 0 – – – – – – – 29 24 – 87 77 – – – 42 49 – 43 40 37 64 63 62 – 27 – 23 26 28 – 20 – 15 15 16 – – – – 56 70 3 – – 40 41 43 – 35 35 – – – 24 29 34 NA NA NA 11 8 – 0 0 0 28 23 19 21 14 7 – – – 6 2 0 – – – 0 0 0 – 25 12 – 11 7 – – – 45 30 – 19 12 8 12 17 21 1 1 1 7 6 5 – 7 – 13 9 3 – – – – 7 8 37 – – 55 49 42 2 2 2 – – – 29 23 16 NA NA NA 0 0 0 1 1 1 27 22 16 2 1 1 – – – 0 – – – 0 0 0 – – – – 0 – – – – – – – 1 2 – 24 20 16 – – – – – – – – – – – 1 – – – – 23 4 – – – 2 2 2 – – 0 – – – 45 47 49 NA NA NA 0 0 0 – – – 75 81 85 85 89 92 – – – 96 99 99 – – – 100 100 100 – 93 98 – 93 96 – – – 75 84 – 93 95 97 66 66 65 99 99 99 94 95 96 – – – 89 92 96 – – – – 79 89 89 – – 61 66 72 99 99 99 – – – 38 46 55 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 99 55 65 74 24 33 43 88 95 98 87 97 99 – – – – – – – 87 93 – 35 48 – – – 53 58 65 74 78 81 2 3 3 – 72 – 74 72 72 – – – 75 78 81 – – – – 23 27 88 – – 20 29 39 – 81 82 – – – 8 7 8 100 100 100 95 94 – 100 100 99 20 16 11 61 56 49 – – – 9 2 0 – – – – – – – 6 5 – 58 48 – – – 22 26 – 19 17 16 64 63 62 – 27 – 20 23 24 – – – 14 14 15 – – – – 56 62 1 – – 41 37 33 – 18 17 – – – 30 39 47 0 0 0 5 6 – 0 0 0 16 12 11 13 10 7 – – – 4 1 1 – – – 0 0 0 – 7 2 – 7 4 – – – 25 16 – 7 4 3 11 16 20 1 1 1 6 5 4 – – – 11 8 3 – – – – 5 8 11 – – 38 33 26 1 1 1 – – – 29 21 13 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 Surface Water 9 7 4 2 1 1 – – – – – – – – – 0 0 0 – – – – 0 – – – – – – – 0 1 – 23 18 15 – – – – – – – – – – – 1 – – – – 16 3 – – – 1 1 2 – – 0 – – – 33 33 32 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 – 21 28 – 7 – 71 14 NA* – – NA* 31 19 17 – 13 – 31 – 29 NA* – 27 32 2 3 51 Statistical table . Area or Territory Year Total Improved Improved Other Improved Piped on Premises Unimproved Unimproved Total Improved Improved Other Improved Piped on Premises Rural Unimproved Unimproved Total Improved National Improved Piped on Premises Other Improved Unimproved Unimproved Proportion of the 2010 population that gained access since 1995 (%) Country.USE of DRINKING WAtER SoURCES (percentage of population) Urban Country.

599 7.860 26.028 2 2 1 95 98 104 1.889 40. Regional and Global Estimates on Water & Sanitation Urban Country.752 3.794 6.501 5.173 6.989 20.664 12.760 50.860 9.124 3.042 12 19 38 9 9 10 17.666 4.USE of SANItAtIoN FACILItIES (percentage of population) Country.559 8.000) Unimproved Other Unimproved Open Defecation Improved Improved Rural Unimproved Other Unimproved Open Defecation Improved National Unimproved Other Unimproved Open Defecation – – – – 52 53 13 10 8 0 0 0 14 7 0 38 41 43 – 8 6 – 23 15 0 0 0 0 0 0 9 5 0 – 2 0 12 2 0 – 0 0 – 46 35 59 55 51 – – – – – – 0 – – 22 11 – 2 1 0 – 1 – – – – – – 4 20 14 10 – 0 0 Proportion of the 2010 population that gained access since 1995 (%) Shared Shared Shared Solomon Islands Somalia South Africa Spain Sri Lanka Sudan Suriname Swaziland Sweden Switzerland Syrian Arab Republic Tajikistan Thailand The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia Timor-Leste Togo Tokelau Tonga Trinidad and Tobago Tunisia Turkey Turkmenistan Turks and Caicos Islands Tuvalu Uganda Ukraine 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 310 409 538 6.668 4.552 407 467 525 863 1.341 8.674 7.215 9.331 36.645 48.448 14 16 19 30 33 37 52 57 62 75 76 77 19 16 14 27 33 40 60 65 69 23 23 21 83 84 85 73 73 74 49 52 56 32 26 26 29 31 34 58 59 59 21 24 28 30 37 43 0 0 0 23 23 23 9 11 14 58 63 67 59 65 70 45 46 50 74 85 93 41 46 50 11 12 13 67 67 69 98 98 98 – 45 52 82 84 86 100 100 100 85 87 88 51 48 44 90 90 90 62 63 64 100 100 100 100 100 100 95 95 96 93 93 95 94 95 95 92 92 92 – 56 73 26 26 26 NA NA NA 98 98 98 93 92 92 95 95 96 96 96 97 99 99 99 98 98 98 86 87 88 32 33 34 97 97 96 – – – – 26 30 8 8 9 0 0 0 7 7 7 12 11 11 9 9 9 29 29 30 0 0 0 0 0 0 4 4 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 5 5 – 9 11 44 44 43 NA NA NA – – – 7 7 7 2 2 2 1 2 2 – – – – – – – – – 48 49 50 2 2 2 2 2 2 – 16 15 8 6 3 0 0 0 4 3 3 27 26 25 1 1 1 9 6 4 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 3 2 1 0 0 0 3 3 3 – 12 3 5 8 11 NA NA NA 2 2 2 0 1 1 0 2 2 3 2 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 14 13 10 17 16 15 1 1 2 – – – – 13 3 2 2 2 0 0 0 4 3 2 10 15 20 – 0 0 – 2 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 – 1 0 1 0 0 – 0 0 – 23 13 25 22 20 NA NA NA – – – 0 – – 3 1 – 0 0 0 – 0 – – – – – – 2 3 2 1 – 0 0 – 18 – – 10 6 60 63 67 100 100 100 67 81 93 18 16 14 – 65 66 44 49 55 100 100 100 100 100 100 75 81 93 – 89 94 80 93 96 – 82 82 – 33 37 8 5 3 41 63 93 96 96 96 93 92 92 44 57 – 66 71 75 97 97 97 – 94 – 76 79 81 26 30 34 – 91 89 – – – – 9 6 6 7 7 0 0 0 2 3 3 5 5 4 – 11 11 15 16 18 0 0 0 0 0 0 4 5 5 – 3 3 3 4 4 – 7 7 – 4 4 15 11 6 – – – – – – 7 7 7 6 7 – 2 3 3 – – – – – – – – – 12 14 15 – 4 4 – 82 – – 9 5 9 9 9 0 0 0 15 8 4 29 25 23 – 2 3 41 6 8 0 0 0 0 0 0 4 4 2 – 6 3 0 0 0 – 10 10 – 9 16 3 10 17 59 37 7 4 4 4 0 1 1 1 7 – 27 23 21 3 2 3 – 6 – 24 21 12 40 40 40 – 5 7 – – – – 72 83 25 21 17 0 0 0 16 8 0 48 54 59 – 22 20 – 29 19 0 0 0 0 0 0 17 10 0 – 2 0 17 3 0 – 1 1 – 54 43 74 74 74 – – – – – – 0 – – 49 29 – 5 3 1 – 1 – – – – – – 7 22 16 11 – 0 0 – 31 – – 22 23 71 75 79 100 100 100 70 82 92 27 27 26 – 81 83 48 52 57 100 100 100 100 100 100 85 88 95 – 90 94 84 94 96 – 88 88 – 39 47 13 13 13 41 63 93 96 96 96 93 92 92 74 81 – 84 87 90 98 98 98 – 97 – 80 83 85 27 30 34 – 95 94 – – – – 15 15 7 8 8 0 0 0 3 4 4 7 7 7 – 10 10 18 19 21 0 0 0 0 0 0 4 4 4 – 3 3 4 4 4 – 6 6 – 5 6 24 23 22 – – – – – – 7 7 7 4 4 – 1 2 2 – – – – – – – – – 16 18 20 – 3 3 – 69 – – 11 9 9 7 5 0 0 0 13 7 4 28 25 24 – 1 1 34 6 7 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 3 1 – 5 3 0 0 0 – 6 6 – 10 12 4 9 14 59 37 7 4 4 4 0 1 1 0 4 – 13 10 8 2 1 2 – 3 – 20 17 11 37 38 36 – 2 3 – 8 19 14 26 8 16 17 6 8 35 20 19 – 19 4 0 8 5 – 21 17 – 10 16 NA* 52 PRogRess on DRinking WateR and Sanitation > 2012 Update .186 8.288 46.456 10.292 1.130 63.215 1. Area or Territory Year Percentage Urban Population Population (x 1.628 72.168 7.303 6.380 6.892 45.077 17.072 63.009 2.155 69.122 1.700 24.061 743 830 1.337 18.494 34.399 9.745 20.213 33.909 2.324 15.794 44.481 54.188 43.411 5.879 57.064 1.133 38.425 51.

Area or Territory Year Total Improved Improved Other Improved Piped on Premises Unimproved Unimproved Total Improved Improved Other Improved Piped on Premises Rural Unimproved Unimproved Total Improved National Improved Piped on Premises Other Improved Unimproved Unimproved Proportion of the 2010 population that gained access since 1995 (%) Country. Regional and Global Estimates on Water & Sanitation Surface Water Surface Water Solomon Islands Somalia South Africa Spain Sri Lanka Sudan Suriname Swaziland Sweden Switzerland Syrian Arab Republic Tajikistan Thailand The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia Timor-Leste Togo Tokelau Tonga Trinidad and Tobago Tunisia Turkey Turkmenistan Turks and Caicos Islands Tuvalu Uganda Ukraine 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 – 94 – – 35 66 98 98 99 100 100 100 91 95 99 84 76 67 99 98 97 87 88 91 100 100 100 100 100 100 97 95 93 – 93 92 96 97 97 100 100 100 – 69 91 79 84 89 NA NA NA 100 100 100 92 95 98 95 98 99 94 97 100 97 97 97 100 100 100 92 95 98 78 86 95 100 99 98 76 76 – 0 12 53 86 87 89 99 99 99 37 53 67 76 62 47 – 91 78 67 70 74 100 100 100 100 100 100 94 93 92 – 77 83 74 77 80 96 96 96 – 24 45 14 13 12 NA NA NA 72 81 85 88 89 92 – 91 95 99 – 81 – – 78 – 92 95 97 8 14 20 – 92 86 – 18 – – 23 13 12 11 10 1 1 1 54 42 32 8 14 20 – 7 19 20 18 17 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 2 1 – 16 9 22 20 17 4 4 4 – 45 46 65 71 77 NA NA NA 28 11 10 10 6 6 – 3 2 1 – 16 – – 22 – 0 0 1 70 72 75 – 7 12 – 6 – – 59 30 2 2 1 0 0 0 9 5 1 13 21 31 1 2 3 5 6 6 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 5 7 – 3 2 4 3 3 0 0 0 – 28 9 20 15 10 NA NA NA 0 0 0 5 5 2 5 2 1 6 3 0 3 2 3 0 0 0 8 5 2 19 12 3 0 1 2 – – – – 6 4 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 3 2 – 0 0 8 6 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 – 0 0 – 4 6 0 0 0 0 0 0 – 3 0 1 1 1 NA NA NA 0 0 0 3 – – 0 0 – 0 0 0 – 1 – 0 0 0 – – – 3 2 2 0 0 0 – 65 – – 15 7 66 71 79 100 100 100 62 77 90 58 55 52 – 73 81 25 41 65 100 100 100 100 100 100 75 79 86 – 50 54 82 90 95 99 99 99 – 49 60 36 38 40 90 93 97 100 100 100 88 91 93 62 77 – 73 85 99 – 72 – 100 100 100 89 93 97 39 54 68 – 92 98 1 1 1 0 0 0 23 28 36 100 100 100 6 15 23 19 16 12 – 49 45 4 13 25 100 100 100 99 99 99 49 60 77 – 18 25 10 22 31 – 84 84 – 11 12 0 0 1 – – – 76 68 71 74 22 33 – 51 73 97 – 29 – – 60 – 89 93 97 0 1 1 – 50 22 – 64 – – 15 7 43 43 43 0 0 0 56 62 67 39 39 40 – 24 36 21 28 40 0 0 0 1 1 1 26 19 9 – 32 29 72 68 64 – 15 15 – 38 48 36 38 39 – – – 24 20 20 19 40 44 – 22 12 2 – 43 – – 40 – 0 0 0 39 53 67 – 42 76 – 35 – – 56 52 7 8 11 0 0 0 29 18 8 32 33 35 – 6 0 18 18 17 0 0 0 0 0 0 25 20 13 – 14 2 16 9 5 1 1 1 – 42 38 37 33 30 10 7 3 0 0 0 10 9 7 36 21 – 26 14 1 – 8 – 0 0 0 11 7 3 38 28 18 – 8 2 – – – – 29 41 27 21 10 0 0 0 9 5 2 10 12 13 – 21 19 57 41 18 0 0 0 0 0 0 – 1 1 – 36 44 2 1 0 – – – – 9 2 27 29 30 – – – 0 0 0 2 – – 2 2 – 1 1 0 – 20 – 0 0 0 – – – 23 18 14 – 0 0 – 70 – – 22 29 83 86 91 100 100 100 67 80 91 65 62 58 – 89 92 39 52 71 100 100 100 100 100 100 86 87 90 – 61 64 86 92 96 100 100 100 – 54 69 49 55 61 90 93 97 100 100 100 88 91 94 81 90 – 85 93 100 – 83 – 100 100 100 90 94 98 43 58 72 – 97 98 11 13 – 0 4 20 56 62 69 99 99 99 12 21 29 34 31 26 – 76 68 18 26 35 100 100 100 100 100 100 71 77 85 – 34 40 29 39 48 – 91 91 – 14 21 4 5 6 – – – 75 69 73 76 61 70 – 75 87 98 – 53 – – 75 – 90 94 97 1 3 4 – 78 66 – 57 – – 18 9 27 24 22 1 1 1 55 59 62 31 31 32 – 13 24 21 26 36 0 0 0 0 0 0 15 10 5 – 27 24 57 53 48 – 9 9 – 40 48 45 50 55 – – – 25 19 18 18 20 20 – 10 6 2 – 30 – – 25 – 0 0 1 42 55 68 – 19 32 – 30 – – 57 44 4 5 5 0 0 0 26 16 7 27 29 33 – 4 2 15 15 14 0 0 0 0 0 0 14 13 10 – 11 2 13 7 4 0 0 0 – 38 30 32 26 22 10 7 3 0 0 0 10 9 6 18 9 – 15 7 0 – 6 – 0 0 0 10 6 2 36 26 16 – 3 2 Surface Water – – – – 21 27 13 9 4 0 0 0 7 4 2 8 9 9 – 7 6 46 33 15 0 0 0 0 0 0 – 0 0 – 28 34 1 1 0 0 0 0 – 8 1 19 19 17 – – – 0 0 0 2 – – 1 1 – 0 0 0 – 11 – 0 0 0 – – – 21 16 12 – 0 0 – 16 22 14 27 14 18 36 6 8 30 12 19 5 29 26 0 8 9 – 28 – 63 10 40 NA* 53 Statistical table .USE of DRINKING WAtER SoURCES (percentage of population) Urban Country.

841 6.685 24.776 27.195.831 593.032 521.459 8.694 141.874 62.139 6.627 71.118 856.358 4.512 57.136.201 1.872.082 66.733 1.588 669.445 147 185 240 19.907 1.625 1.323 119.424.478 206.780 6.415 127.214 58.047 5.348 28.758 87.386 5.244.665 1.723 24.809 3.218 1.USE of SANItAtIoN FACILItIES (percentage of population) Country.980 67.515 24.294 77.369 20.496 310.038 44.195.033 7.948 17.469 12.089 10.319 3.361 523.704.347.985 1.000) Unimproved Other Unimproved Open Defecation Improved Improved Rural Unimproved Other Unimproved Open Defecation Improved National Unimproved Other Unimproved Open Defecation 0 0 0 0 0 0 8 11 12 0 0 0 – – – 5 3 0 0 0 0 – 2 1 10 9 – 39 21 4 – – – 44 32 22 25 22 18 33 29 27 36 32 25 18 9 4 7 3 1 67 53 41 31 22 15 8 6 3 13 13 13 18 10 4 0 0 0 32 25 19 0 0 0 25 20 15 Proportion of the 2010 population that gained access since 1995 (%) Shared Shared Shared United Arab Emirates United Kingdom United Republic of Tanzania United States United States Virgin Islands Uruguay Uzbekistan Vanuatu Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic of) Viet Nam Western Sahara Yemen Zambia Zimbabwe 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1.286.509 12.339 282.943 443.100. Area or Territory Year Percentage Urban Population Population (x 1.149.905.619 79 80 84 78 79 80 19 22 26 75 79 82 88 93 95 89 91 92 40 37 36 19 22 26 84 90 93 20 24 30 86 84 82 21 26 32 39 35 36 29 34 38 28 33 37 49 51 54 29 38 49 26 29 32 32 38 42 61 64 67 24 24 23 70 75 80 48 45 45 35 40 45 71 73 75 43 46 51 98 98 98 100 100 100 10 15 20 100 100 100 – – – 95 97 100 95 97 100 – 54 64 89 93 – 63 78 94 – – – 70 82 93 61 59 57 54 53 52 43 43 43 91 93 94 53 64 76 57 61 64 68 74 82 96 93 94 85 84 84 80 83 84 96 93 96 65 69 73 97 96 96 76 77 79 2 2 2 0 0 0 10 15 20 – – – – – – 0 0 0 – – – – 28 33 – – – 4 4 5 – – – 1 2 2 25 24 24 45 45 44 28 29 31 6 6 6 15 20 24 16 17 18 9 9 10 2 6 6 – – – 6 6 7 3 5 4 13 15 17 3 4 3 10 11 13 0 0 0 0 0 0 78 68 58 0 0 0 – – – 1 1 0 5 3 0 – 18 3 7 2 – 10 8 1 – – – 23 12 3 12 15 17 0 1 2 19 19 18 1 0 0 29 15 0 3 5 8 10 7 1 2 1 0 12 13 13 7 7 8 1 2 0 12 9 6 0 0 1 8 7 5 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 2 2 0 0 0 – – – 4 2 0 0 0 0 – 0 0 4 5 – 23 10 0 – – – 6 4 2 2 2 2 1 1 2 10 9 8 2 1 0 3 1 0 24 17 10 13 10 7 0 0 0 3 3 3 7 4 1 0 0 0 10 7 4 0 0 0 6 5 3 95 95 95 100 100 100 6 7 7 99 99 99 – – – 83 90 99 76 87 100 – 38 54 45 54 – 30 49 68 – – – 12 24 34 37 40 43 35 34 32 19 21 23 55 72 85 16 36 57 12 20 30 36 49 60 55 60 67 45 44 46 38 49 60 86 86 95 21 32 43 91 91 93 29 38 47 5 5 5 0 0 0 4 4 4 – – – – – – 1 1 1 – – – – 10 15 – – – 2 3 4 – – – 1 2 3 7 8 8 18 17 16 9 10 12 4 5 6 4 9 14 3 5 6 5 7 10 2 4 5 – – – 3 5 6 1 2 2 4 7 9 3 3 3 4 7 9 0 0 0 0 0 0 80 76 73 1 1 1 – – – 1 1 0 24 13 0 – 50 29 14 6 – 25 23 22 – – – 33 32 32 16 19 22 0 5 10 26 27 30 8 5 0 71 50 27 2 8 9 20 15 9 24 20 19 39 40 38 14 16 17 12 11 3 31 24 17 6 6 4 28 22 16 0 0 0 0 0 0 10 13 16 – – – – – – 15 8 0 0 0 0 – 2 2 41 40 – 43 25 6 – – – 54 42 31 40 33 27 47 44 42 46 42 35 33 18 9 9 5 2 83 67 55 39 29 21 19 16 9 16 16 16 45 30 17 1 1 0 44 37 31 0 0 0 39 33 28 97 97 98 100 100 100 7 9 10 100 100 100 – – – 94 96 100 84 91 100 – 41 57 82 89 – 37 56 76 – – – 24 39 53 46 47 48 41 40 40 26 28 30 72 83 90 27 47 66 24 32 41 46 58 69 80 81 85 55 54 55 68 75 80 91 90 96 36 47 56 95 95 95 49 56 63 3 3 2 0 0 0 5 6 8 – – – – – – 0 0 0 – – – – 14 20 – – – 2 3 4 – – – 1 2 3 14 14 14 26 26 27 14 16 19 5 6 6 7 13 19 6 8 10 6 8 10 2 5 5 – – – 5 6 7 2 3 3 7 10 13 4 3 3 6 9 11 0 0 0 0 0 0 80 74 70 0 0 0 – – – 1 1 0 16 9 0 – 43 22 8 2 – 22 20 16 – – – 31 27 22 15 17 20 0 5 6 24 24 26 5 2 0 59 37 14 3 7 8 17 12 6 10 8 7 32 33 32 9 9 9 7 7 1 25 18 12 1 2 2 20 15 11 67 7 5 14 – 10 29 31 – 37 – 33 16 2 Sub-Saharan Africa Northern Africa Eastern Asia PRogRess on DRinking WateR and Sanitation > 2012 Update 12 28 33 19 26 30 16 21 17 23 6 20 Southern Asia South-Eastern Asia Western Asia Oceania Latin American & the Caribbean Caucasus and Central Asia Developing regions Developed regions World 54 .146 445.102 78.429 590.202 13.036 25.233 1. Regional and Global Estimates on Water & Sanitation Urban Country.848 221 315 531 11.092 161.093 9.216.053 7.502 4.841 253.860 10.109 3.571 515.628.978 165.460.479 34.637 1.384 103 109 109 3.

Area or Territory Year Total Improved Improved Other Improved Piped on Premises Unimproved Unimproved Total Improved Improved Other Improved Piped on Premises Rural Unimproved Unimproved Total Improved National Improved Piped on Premises Other Improved Unimproved Unimproved Proportion of the 2010 population that gained access since 1995 (%) Country. A dash (-) represents data not available at the time of publication.USE of DRINKING WAtER SoURCES (percentage of population) Urban Country. 55 Statistical table . Regional and Global Estimates on Water & Sanitation Surface Water Surface Water United Arab Emirates United Kingdom United Republic of Tanzania United States United States Virgin Islands Uruguay Uzbekistan Vanuatu Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic of) Viet Nam Western Sahara Yemen Zambia Zimbabwe 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 1990 2000 2010 100 100 100 100 100 100 94 86 79 100 100 100 – – – 98 99 100 97 98 98 94 96 98 93 94 – 88 94 99 – – – 96 83 72 89 88 87 99 99 98 83 82 83 94 94 95 97 98 98 90 93 96 91 92 94 96 96 96 93 93 93 95 96 98 96 97 97 93 94 95 100 100 100 95 96 96 – 80 – 100 100 100 35 28 22 97 97 97 – – – 94 96 98 86 86 85 79 65 52 87 89 – 44 51 59 – – – 84 77 71 49 42 36 96 89 82 43 39 34 86 89 91 92 93 95 53 52 51 41 46 53 92 93 94 72 72 71 87 90 92 85 84 85 72 72 73 97 97 97 81 80 80 – 20 – 0 0 0 59 58 57 3 3 3 – – – 4 3 2 11 12 13 15 31 46 6 5 – 44 43 40 – – – 12 6 1 40 46 51 3 10 16 40 43 49 8 5 4 5 5 3 37 41 45 50 46 41 4 3 2 21 21 22 8 6 6 11 13 12 21 22 22 3 3 3 14 16 16 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 11 18 0 0 0 – – – 2 1 0 1 1 1 6 4 2 7 5 – 5 2 1 – – – 3 16 27 10 11 11 1 1 2 14 15 14 6 6 5 2 1 2 9 7 4 7 6 6 4 3 4 3 4 6 4 3 2 3 2 2 6 5 5 0 0 0 4 3 4 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 3 3 0 0 0 – – – – 0 0 2 1 1 – 0 0 – 1 – 7 4 0 – – – 1 1 1 1 1 2 0 0 0 3 3 3 0 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 2 2 0 0 1 0 4 3 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 100 100 100 100 100 100 46 45 44 94 94 94 – – – 79 88 100 85 83 81 55 71 87 71 74 – 49 71 93 – – – 59 52 47 23 36 46 71 70 69 36 42 49 80 84 89 56 70 85 66 77 88 62 72 83 68 72 76 42 44 42 64 73 81 80 76 80 59 69 79 94 95 97 62 72 81 – 70 – 98 98 98 1 2 3 46 46 46 – – – 50 73 – 37 32 26 27 22 17 44 50 – 0 4 8 – – – 12 20 26 1 1 1 8 6 4 4 4 5 32 51 73 12 29 46 8 11 13 5 10 13 43 53 65 11 12 10 37 50 61 31 29 28 11 19 24 69 72 74 18 24 29 – 30 – 2 2 2 45 43 41 48 48 48 – – – 29 15 – 48 51 55 28 49 70 27 24 – 49 67 85 – – – 47 32 21 22 35 45 63 64 65 32 38 44 48 33 16 44 41 39 58 66 75 57 62 70 25 19 11 31 32 32 27 23 20 49 47 52 48 50 55 25 23 23 44 48 52 0 0 0 0 0 0 29 32 36 6 6 6 – – – 21 11 0 8 11 14 45 21 5 29 10 – 32 16 2 – – – 34 41 47 45 37 32 17 20 22 31 32 32 17 12 6 34 24 13 29 20 10 29 19 13 29 21 19 14 14 19 15 14 13 14 12 9 29 22 15 6 5 3 28 20 14 0 0 0 0 0 0 25 23 20 – – – – – – – 1 0 7 6 5 – 8 8 – 16 – 19 13 5 – – – 7 7 6 32 27 22 12 10 9 33 26 19 3 4 5 10 6 2 5 3 2 9 9 4 3 7 5 44 42 39 21 13 6 6 12 11 12 9 6 0 0 0 10 8 5 100 100 100 100 100 100 55 54 53 99 99 99 – – – 96 98 100 90 89 87 62 76 90 90 92 – 57 77 95 – – – 67 60 55 49 54 61 79 80 80 49 55 61 87 89 92 68 81 91 72 82 90 71 80 88 85 87 89 55 55 54 85 91 94 88 85 87 70 79 86 98 98 99 76 83 89 – 78 – 100 100 100 7 8 8 84 85 85 – – – 89 94 98 57 52 47 37 31 26 80 85 – 9 16 23 – – – 27 35 40 20 15 13 34 34 34 15 15 16 58 70 83 35 53 70 20 23 25 16 24 30 72 78 84 26 26 24 73 80 86 56 53 53 32 40 46 89 90 92 45 50 54 – 22 – 0 0 0 48 46 45 15 14 14 – – – 7 4 – 33 37 40 25 45 64 10 7 – 48 61 72 – – – 40 25 15 29 39 48 45 46 46 34 40 45 29 19 9 33 28 21 52 59 65 55 56 58 13 9 5 29 29 30 12 11 8 32 32 34 38 39 40 9 8 7 31 33 35 0 0 0 0 0 0 24 27 31 1 1 1 – – – 4 2 0 5 7 9 38 18 4 10 5 – 26 12 2 – – – 27 35 41 31 28 24 12 13 14 27 27 26 11 9 6 25 15 8 24 15 9 22 14 9 14 10 9 11 12 15 8 5 5 9 8 6 22 15 11 2 2 1 18 12 8 Surface Water 0 0 0 0 0 0 21 19 16 – – – – – – – 0 0 5 4 4 – 6 6 – 3 – 17 11 3 – – – 6 5 4 20 18 15 9 7 6 24 18 13 2 2 2 7 4 1 4 3 1 7 6 3 1 3 2 34 33 31 7 4 1 3 7 7 8 6 3 0 0 0 6 5 3 69 7 16 14 – 8 12 41 – 38 – 15 26 6 Sub-Saharan Africa Northern Africa Eastern Asia Southern Asia South-Eastern Asia Western Asia Oceania Latin American & the Caribbean Caucasus and Central Asia Developing regions Developed regions World 26 23 24 31 26 29 13 22 11 26 6 23 ‘NA’ represents data not applicable. * Shown as NA for countries with a declining population over the period 1990-2010 † The drinking water estimates for Bangladesh have been adjusted for arsenic contamination levels based on national surveys conducted and approved by the government.

1990-2010 2 9 19 33 44 39 29 4 13 29 5 10 14 6 11 9 34 10 2 6 13 21 13 15 39 49 52 27 20 3 5 3 5 17 6 16 29 10 12 6 15 28 10 5 14 29 20 32 PRogRess on DRinking WateR and Sanitation > 2012 Update Coverage (%) 25 48 55 44 52 31 14 19 70 58 75 44 61 46 31 37 28 12 2010 1990 2010 1990 2010 1990 2010 1990 43 32 65 57 44 32 31 32 73 48 24 11 2010 1990 29 18 4 1990 5 11 10 5 13 8 13 2010 1990 2010 1990 2010 1990 2010 1990 2010 1990 2010 Sub-Saharan Africa Oceania South-Eastern Asia Southern Asia Caucasus and Central Asia Eastern Asia Latin America & the Caribbean Western Asia Northern Africa Developing regions World ■ Piped on PRemises FIGURE 41 ■ OtheR ImpRoved ■ UnimpRoved ■ suRface wateR Trends in rural drinking water coverage by developing regions.Annex: Trends in Urban and Rural Water & Sanitation Coverage by Developing Regions 1 6 2 7 6 1 9 4 1 3 11 21 22 41 40 Coverage (%) 49 95 94 50 37 45 1 2 12 1 2 5 1 4 8 1 4 4 4 2 6 8 5 4 6 5 1 4 14 21 22 3 14 3 14 4 3 2 3 2 6 4 16 85 72 71 53 43 34 41 53 51 85 92 87 92 92 86 91 81 72 73 80 1990 2010 1990 2010 1990 2010 1990 2010 1990 2010 1990 2010 1990 2010 1990 2010 1990 2010 1990 2010 1990 2010 Sub-Saharan Africa Oceania South-Eastern Asia Southern Asia Caucasus and Central Asia Eastern Asia Latin America & the Caribbean Western Asia Northern Africa Developing regions World ■ Piped on PRemises FIGURE 40 ■ OtheR ImpRoved ■ UnimpRoved ■ suRface wateR Trends in urban drinking water coverage by developing regions. 1990-2010 56 .

1990-2010 2 33 21 35 46 55 9 39 Coverage (%) 83 30 26 9 6 9 2 3 12 1990 30 19 12 36 23 60 45 46 38 60 55 55 16 5 3 85 67 4 57 20 10 38 6 14 39 16 16 17 6 45 17 8 4 24 19 9 19 27 9 9 1 12 1 31 44 39 3 2 28 5 71 14 95 86 31 16 17 28 9 4 4 43 21 29 47 9 2 2010 1990 2010 1990 2010 1990 2010 1990 2010 1990 2010 1990 2010 1990 2010 1990 2010 1990 2010 1990 2010 Southern Asia Sub-Saharan South-Eastern Africa Asia Oceania Latin America & the Caribbean Northern Africa Western Asia Eastern Asia Caucasus and Central Asia Developing regions World ■ IMPROVED FIGURE 43 ■ SHARED ■ UnimpRoved ■ open Defecation AnneX Trends in rural sanitation coverage by developing regions.3 10 24 8 3 18 16 Coverage (%) 28 31 19 18 10 9 10 8 13 7 1 10 12 3 7 13 7 6 1 8 7 2 1 6 2 6 2 6 3 29 24 1 3 4 4 10 12 17 13 10 6 6 8 3 5 13 15 82 57 64 43 43 68 85 91 84 80 84 94 96 94 76 96 96 73 65 76 79 53 1990 2010 1990 2010 1990 2010 1990 2010 1990 2010 1990 2010 1990 2010 1990 2010 1990 2010 1990 2010 1990 2010 Southern Asia Sub-Saharan South-Eastern Africa Asia Oceania Latin America & the Caribbean Northern Africa Western Asia Eastern Asia Caucasus and Central Asia Developing regions World ■ IMPROVED FIGURE 42 ■ SHARED ■ UnimpRoved ■ open Defecation Trends in urban sanitation coverage by developing regions. 1990-2010 57 .

Libya. Grenada. Spain. Cyprus. Guyana. Chad. Tunisia. Portugal. Trinidad and Tobago. Liechtenstein. Bermuda. Seychelles. Mauritius. Chile. Faeroe Islands. Netherlands. Finland. Cuba. Comoros. Lesotho. Japan. France. Argentina. Uruguay. Israel. Honduras. Guinea-Bissau. Dominican Republic. Sudan. United States of America Algeria. Russian Federation. Montserrat. Lithuania. Uganda. Bolivia (Plurinational State of). Poland. Guatemala. South Africa. Australia. Gabon. Ireland. Bulgaria. Czech Republic. Norway. Falkland Islands (Malvinas). Niger. Mexico. Burundi. Côte d’Ivoire. Belgium. Benin. Democratic Republic of the Congo. Botswana. Western Sahara ■ SuB-SaHaRan AfRICa Angola. Ecuador. Aruba. Luxembourg. Slovenia. Austria. New Zealand. Haiti. Sierra Leone. Barbados. The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia. British Virgin Islands. Republic of Moldova. Ukraine. Liberia. Colombia. Estonia. United Republic of Tanzania. Mayotte. Togo. Sao Tome and Principe. Gambia. Belize. Cape Verde. Denmark. Egypt. Montenegro. Saint Lucia.Millennium Development Goals: Regional Groupings ■ NoRtheRn AfRica ■ Sub-SahaRan AfRica ■ Latin AmeRica & the CaRibbean ■ EasteRn Asia ■ SoutheRn Asia ■ South-EasteRn Asia Developed Regions PRogRess on DRinking WateR and Sanitation > 2012 Update ■ WesteRn Asia ■ Oceania ■ Caucasus and CentRal Asia ■ Developed CountRies ■ Not applicable Developing Regions ■ NORtHERn AfRICa ■ LatIn AmERICa & tHE CaRIBBEan Albania. Kenya. Romania. Martinique. Jamaica. Germany. Cayman Islands. Switzerland. Zimbabwe Anguilla. United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. Namibia. Congo. Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic of) 58 . French Guiana. Rwanda. Canada. Paraguay. Greece. Greenland. Italy. Senegal. Nicaragua. Bahamas. Nigeria. Serbia. Monaco. Croatia. Guinea. Mauritania. Antigua and Barbuda. Andorra. Costa Rica. Mozambique. San Marino. Malta. United States Virgin Islands. Mali. Sweden. Morocco. Suriname. Madagascar. Belarus. Saint Vincent and the Grenadines. Ghana. Turks and Caicos Islands. Peru. Djibouti. Ethiopia. Swaziland. Eritrea. Netherlands Antilles. Equatorial Guinea. Latvia. Burkina Faso. Guadeloupe. Somalia. Channel Islands. Iceland. Panama. Puerto Rico. Malawi. Dominica. Cameroon. Slovakia. Central African Republic. Saint Kitts and Nevis. Réunion. Hungary. El Salvador. Brazil. Bosnia and Herzegovina. Zambia. Isle of Man.

Gambia. Saudi Arabia. Fiji. Kyrgyzstan. Qatar. Malawi. Guam. Cambodia. Liberia. French Polynesia. Lao People’s Democratic Republic. Turkmenistan. Georgia. Azerbaijan. Zambia Millennium Development Goals: Regional GRoupings Brunei Darussalam. Togo. Philippines. Kazakhstan. Yemen. India. Senegal. Mozambique. Lao People’s Democratic Republic. Myanmar. Uzbekistan ■ EastERn AsIa Bahrain. Tuvalu. Jordan. Timor-Leste. Pakistan. Comoros. Tajikistan. Sudan. Mongolia. Mauritania. Burundi. Samoa. Timor-Leste. Somalia. Myanmar. Mali. Bhutan. Equatorial Guinea. Guinea-Bissau. Iran (Islamic Republic of). Sierra Leone. Bangladesh. Indonesia. Republic of Korea ■ SOutHERn AsIa Afghanistan. Marshall Islands. United Arab Emirates. Palau. Burkina Faso. Niue. Tonga. Benin. Malaysia. Thailand. Cambodia. Nepal. Madagascar. Lebanon. Kiribati. Solomon Islands. Ethiopia. Kiribati. United Republic of Tanzania. Rwanda. 59 . Eritrea.■ CauCasus anD CEntRal AsIa ■ WEstERn AsIa Armenia. Tuvalu. Turkey. Kuwait. Viet Nam Afghanistan. Micronesia (Federated States of). Samoa. Guinea. Singapore. Oman. Bangladesh. Bhutan. New Caledonia. Central African Republic. Vanuatu. Nauru. Haiti. Iraq. Syrian Arab Republic. Angola. Cook Islands. Tokelau. Papua New Guinea. Sao Tome and Principe. Sri Lanka ■ SOutH-EastERn AsIa American Samoa. Solomon Islands. Northern Mariana Islands. Nepal. Djibouti. Maldives. Vanuatu ■ LEast DEVElOPED COuntRIEs Democratic Republic of the Congo. Chad. Lesotho. Occupied Palestinian Territory. Uganda. Democratic People’s Republic of Korea. Yemen ■ OCEanIa China. Niger.

The JMP is affiliated with UN-Water and presents the results of the global monitoring of progress towards MDG 7 target C: to halve. energy) and management options in different settings and situation (inter alia. human resource base. More Information on UN-Water Reports at www. They provide a strategic outlook on the critical importance of investments in water for human and economic development at country level. Monitoring draws on the findings of household surveys and censuses usually supported by national statistics bureaus in accordance with international criteria. together.unwater. in the context of urbanization. individually. natural disasters. industry. Global Analysis and Assessment of Sanitation and Drinking-Water (GLAAS) is produced every two years by the World Health Organization (WHO) on behalf of UN-Water. A similar status report was produced in 2008 for UNCSD. and impacts of global climate change). the proportion of the population without sustainable access to safe drinking water and basic sanitation.org/documents. Management and Use of Water Resources is produced by UN-Water for the Rio+20 Summit (UNCSD 2012). UN-Water monitors and reports on the state. ✓ Strategic outlook ✓ State. PERIodIC REpoRtS: World Water Development Report (WWDR) is coordinated by the World Water Assessment Programme (WWAP) on behalf of UN-Water and published every three years. It provides a global update on the policy frameworks. agriculture. trends in use of the resource base in the various sectors (inter alia. It also includes regional assessments. and international and national finance streams in support of sanitation and drinking water. UN-Water Country Briefs pilot project.UN-Water is the United Nations inter-agency coordination mechanism for all freshwater related issues. by 2015. It provides a global strategic outlook on the state of freshwater resources. provide a more in-depth analysis of specific issues or geographic areas. utilization and management of the world’s freshwater resources and on the situation of sanitation through a series of interconnected and complementary publications that. IN tHE YEARS 2012-2013 UN-WAtER ALSo pUbLISHES: ✓ Status and trends ✓ Water supply and sanitation ✓ Global ✓ Regional and national assessments ✓ Biennial (since 1990) 2012 2013 UN-Water Report on Integrated Approaches in the Development. institutional arrangements. UN-Water fosters greater cooperation and information sharing among UN entities and relevant stakeholders.html . uses and management of water resources ✓ Global ✓ Regional assessments ✓ Triennial (4th edition) ✓ Strategic outlook ✓ Water supply and sanitation ✓ Global ✓ Regional assessments ✓ Biennial (since 2008) The progress report of the WHO/UNICEF Joint Monitoring Programme for Water Supply and Sanitation (JMP) is produced every two years. provide a comprehensive picture and. Established in 2003. The report assesses the status and progress of the management of water resources in UN Member States and reports on the outcomes and impacts of improved water resources management. It is a substantive input into the activities of Sanitation and Water for All (SWA).

The world is unlikely to meet the MDG sanitation target by 2015. n The number of people resorting to open defecation globally has decreased by 271 million since 1990. 63 per cent of the population use improved sanitation facilities. Switzerland . compared to only 3 in 10 people in rural areas. n Four out of 10 people without access to improved drinking water live in sub-Saharan Africa.1 billion people – 15 per cent of the global population. Despite this enormous accomplishment. 1. n In urban areas. Still. n An estimated 2.5 billion people are still without improved sanitation.8 billion people have gained access to improved sanitation. While coverage of improved water supply sources is 90 per cent or more in Latin America and the Caribbean. it is only 61 per cent in sub-Saharan Africa. Northern Africa and large parts of Asia. 8 out of 10 people use an improved sanitation facility. n In sub-Saharan Africa. open defection is practised by 1. However. almost three quarters of them live in rural areas. Eight out of 10 people living in urban areas have piped water connections on their premises.The MDG drinking water target has been reached. Since 1990. the number of people without improved sanitation in urban areas has grown by 183 million since 1990. n Globally. NY 10017 USA World Health Organization Avenue Appia 20 1211 Geneva 27. 780 million people remain unserved. almost 90 per cent of the population in the richest quintile use improved drinking water sources. compared to only 35 per cent of people in the poorest quintile. United Nations Children’s Fund 3 UN Plaza New York. during a time of rapid urbanization. n An estimated 89 per cent of the global population now use improved drinking water sources. n The number of people in rural areas using unimproved water sources is five times greater than in urban areas. compared to only half of the rural population.