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torque and shaft power as a result of momentum changes in the fluid that flows through them. For the fluid to provide worthwhile momentum change there must be a significant pressure difference between inlet and outlet. There are numerous types of turbine from the elementary example used in a dental drill to the large multi-stage turbines used in generating stations which may develop as much as 1000MW. Sources of pressurized gas include previously compressed (and possibly heated) gas - as in a gas turbine, or in the turbine of a turbocharger for an I.C. engine. Steam generated in high pressure nuclear or fossil fueled boilers is extensively used in turbine driven alternators for the electrical power industry. The turbine used in this experiment is classified as a “simple, single stage, axial flow, impulse turbine”. • • • • “Simple” indicates an elementary turbine without complications such as velocity compounding. “Single stage” means that the expansion of the fluid turbine inlet pressure to the exhaust pressure takes place within one stator and its corresponding rotor. “Axial flow” indicates that the fluid enters and leaves the rotor at the same radius without significant radial components in its velocity. “Impulse” means that the fluid pressure drop (and consequent increase of velocity) takes place in the stator -i.e. in the nozzles. The fluid therefore passes through the rotor at an almost constant pressure, having only its velocity changed.

Objective: The aim of the experiment is to show the determination of the isentropic efficiency of an impulse turbine and application of the First Law of Thermodynamics to a simple open system undergoing a steady flow process.

Experimental setup: .

and the dissipation of available energy is clearly seen. Actual Enthalpy Change Isentropic Enthalpy Change (1) The ratio. Kinetic energy rejected from the rotor and then dissipated by the friction. Shaft Work (2) Isentropic Enthalpy Change This will usually be a little different than the "Internal Efficiency " due to the effect of heat transfer and.Theory: Determination of Isentropic Efficiency Due to irreversibilities in a real turbine. • • • • • The dissipation of available energy in a turbine is mainly due to: Fluid friction in the rotor. Strictly this should be called the “Internal Isentropic Efficiency “ since it is based on the enthalpies of the fluid at the inlet and exhaust. the actual work transfer will be less than in an ideal machine and consequently the specific enthalpy at exit (2) will be higher than the isentropic enthalpy (2') as shown in the figure. is called the “Isentropic Efficiency “ of the turbine. Friction between rotor and fluid. possibly. The end states in the real turbine will be as indicated. Fluid friction in the rotor passages. Practically the more interesting figure is the “External Isentropic Efficiency “ which is. Fluid leakage through the face seal. bearing factor. .

The pressure. Applying the First Law in the form of the Steady Flow Equation.Cp.ω (3) (4) ∆H = m .(h2-h1) + PS or (6) q = ∆h + w .h1 + ( U22 .U21)/2 + w q = (h2 + U22 /2) .0145 m .kg-1. so that the U2 /2 term may be neglected.( h1 + U21 /2) + w Usually the velocities in the inlet and outlet pipes are similar. and q = h2 .The "Shaft Power " and the "Isentropic Enthalpy Change Rate " can be found from respectively. T.K-1 and T2' can be found by the isentropic gas relation.r. Thus. a work transfer w and a heat transfer q take place.h1 + w Q = m .004 kj. specific enthalpies and velocities at inlet and exhaust are p1 h1 U1 and p2 h2 U2 respectively. and Cp = 1.ω=F. and are low relative to the velocities within the turbine. or q = h2 .P(1-γ)/γ = Constant (5) Application of the First Law of Thermodynamics The diagram represents a turbine through which unit mass of fluid flows under steady flow conditions.( T1 -T2') where r=0. While unit mass of a fluid flows. Ps= M.

2. take 4 recordings.Experimental Procedure: The experimental procedure is as follows: 1. Repeat step 2 for rpms 8000. Calculation and Results: • Find the isentropic efficiency of this turbine for different rpms you have reached but find it four times from the readings that you have taken. • Find the magnitude and direction of the heat transfer by applying the first law for each four rpm values.m-2) T1 (C°) T2 (C°) m (g/s) *: will be repeated 4 times for each rpm. 10000 & 12000. Mr. Show your results in tabulated form. of the variables in the table below for error analysis. Tahir Turgut is responsible for this experiment. . • Plot the angular speed vs. synchronously. efficiency graph. For this section of the experiment. Adjust the inlet pressure to 50 kN. wait for steadiness. • • The typical observations are as follows: (To) Ambient Temperature (Po) Atmospheric Pressure P (KN/m2) 50 50 50 50 n (rpm) * 6000 8000 10000 12000 F(N) (C°) (kN. Discussion and Conclusion: Discuss about. • The curve you have plotted • Isentropic efficiency (magnitude) • Results from the application of the first law Note: Pay attention to the units during the calculations. students are required to show all the calculations and assumptions made neatly.m-2 and set turbine to 6000 rpm.