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THANDALAM – 602 105.

DEPARTMENT OF EEE

LAB MANUAL

CLASS

SEMESTER

SUBJECT CODE

SUBJECT

**: III YEAR EEE
**

: V SEM (JUNE 2009)

: EC1314

: INTEGRATED CIRCUITS LAB

PREPARED BY

Mrs. J.KAVITHA

AP/EEE

1

EC1314

INTEGRATED

CIRCUITS

LABORATORY

2

SYLLABUS

EC 1314

INTEGRATED CIRCUITS LABORATORY

0 0 3

100

AIM:

To study various digital & linear integrated circuits used in simple system

configuration.

LIST OF EXPERIMENTS:

1. Study of Basic Digital IC’s.

Verification of truth table for AND, OR, EXOR, NOT, NOR, NAND, JK FF, RS

FF, D FF)

2. Implementation of Boolean Functions, Adder/ Subtractor circuits.

3.a). Code converters, Parity generator and parity checking, Excess 3, 2s Complement,

Binary to gray code using suitable IC’s .

b) Encoders and Decoders: Decimal and Implementation of 4-bit shift registers in

SISO,SIPO,PISO,PIPO modes using suitable IC’s.

4. Counters: Design and implementation of 4-bit modulo counters as synchronous

and asynchronous types using FF IC’s and specific counter IC.

5. Shift Registers: Design and implementation of 4-bit shift registers in SISO, SIPO,

PISO, PIPO modes using suitable IC’s.

6. Multiplex/ De-multiplex : Study of 4:1; 8:1 multiplexer and Study of 1:4; 1:8

demultiplexer

7. Timer IC application.

Study of NE/SE 555 timer in Astable, Monostable operation.

8. Application of Op-Amp-I

Slew rate verifications, inverting and non-inverting amplifier, Adder, comparator,

Integrator and Differentiator.

9. Study of Analog to Digital Converter and Digital to Analog Converter: Verification

of A/D conversion using dedicated IC’s.

10. Study of VCO and PLL ICs

i. Voltage to frequency characteristics of NE/ SE 566 IC.

ii. Frequency multiplication using NE/SE 565 PLL IC.

P = 45 Total = 45

3

DETAILED SYLLABUS

1.

**Study of Basic Digital IC’s.
**

(Verification of truth table for AND, OR, EXOR, NOT, NOR, NAND, JK

FF, RS FF, D FF)

Aim

To test of ICs by using verification of truth table of basic ICs.

Exercise

1.

Breadboard connection of ICs with truth table verification using LED’s.

**2. Implementation of Boolean Functions, Adder/ Subtractor circuits.
**

[Minimization using K-map and implementing the same in POS, SOP from

Using basic gates]

Aim

Minimization of functions using K-map implementation and combination

Circuit.

Exercise

1. Realization of functions using SOP, POS, form.

2. Addition, Subtraction of at least 3 bit binary number using basic gate IC’ s.

3a)

Code converters, Parity generator and parity checking, Excess 3, 2s

Complement,

Binary to gray code using suitable IC’s .

Aim

Realizing code conversion of numbers of different bar.

Exercise

3b)

1

**Conversion Binary to Grey, Grey to Binary;
**

1’s. 2’s complement of numbers addition, subtraction,

2.

Parity checking of numbers using Gates and with dedicated IC’s

**Encoders and Decoders: Decimal and Implementation of 4-bit shift registers in
**

SISO, SIPO, PISO, PIPO modes using suitable IC’s.

Exercise

1.

2.

**Decimal to binary Conversion using dedicated IC’s.
**

BCD – 7 Segment display decoder using dedicated decoder IC& display.

4

4.

**Counters: Design and implementation of 4-bit modulo counters as synchronous
**

and asynchronous types using FF IC’s and specific counter IC

Aim

Design and implementation of 4 bit modulo counters.

Exercise

1.

2.

5.

**Using flip-flop for up-down count synchronous count.
**

Realization of counter function using dedicated ICs.

Shift Registers

Design and implementation of 4-bit shift registers in SISO, SIPO, PISO, PIPO

modes using suitable IC’s.

Aim

Design and implementation of shift register.

Exercise

6.

1.

**Shift Register function realization of the above using dedicated IC’s
**

For SISO, SIPO, PISO, PIPO, modes of atleast 3 bit binary word.

2.

Realization of the above using dedicated IC’s.

Multiplex/ De-multiplex

Study of 4:1; 8:1 multiplexer and Study of 1:4; 1:8 demultiplexer

Aim

To demonstrate the addressing way of data channel selection for multiplex

De-multiplex operation.

Exercise

1.

2.

7.

**Realization of mux-demux functions using direct IC’s.
**

Realization of mux-demux using dedicated IC’s for 4:1, 8:1, and vice

versa.

**Timer IC application. Study of NE/SE 555 timer in Astable, Monostable
**

operation.

Aim

To design a multi vibrator circuit for square wave and pulse generation.

5

Exercise

1.

**Realization of Astable multivibrator & monostable multivibrator circuit
**

using Timer IC.

Variation of R, C, to vary the frequency, duty cycle for signal generator.

2.

8.

Application of Op-Amp-I

Slew rate verifications, inverting and non-inverting amplifier,

Adder, comparator, Integrator and Differentiator.

Aim

Design and Realization of Op-Amp application.

Exercise

1.

2.

3.

9.

**Verification of Op-Amp IC characteristics.
**

Op-Amp IC application for simple arithmetic circuit.

Op-Amp IC application for voltage comparator wave generator and wave

shifting circuits.

**Study of Analog to Digital Converter and Digital to Analog Converter:
**

Verification

of A/D conversion using dedicated IC’s.

Aim

Realization of circuit for digital conversions.

Exercise

1.

**Design of circuit for analog to digital signal conversion using dedicated
**

IC’s.

Realization of circuit using dedicated IC for digital analog conversion.

2.

10.

**Study of VCO and PLL IC’s
**

i). Voltage to frequency characteristics of NE/ SE 566 IC.

ii). Frequency multiplication using NE/SE 565 PLL IC.

Aim

Demonstration of circuit for communication application

Exercise

1.

2.

**To realize V/F conversion using dedicated IC’s vary the frequency of the
**

generated signal.

To realize PLL IC based circuit for frequency multiplier, divider.

6

.

CYCLE – I

7

LIST OF EXPERIMENTS

CYCLE I :

1. Applications of Op-Amp - I.

( Inverting and Non – Inverting Amplifier)

2. Applications of Op-Amp – II.

( Differentiator and Integrator)

3. Timer IC Applications – I.

( Astable Multivibrator)

4. Timer IC Applications – II.

( Monostable Multivibrator)

5. Study of basic Digital ICs.

6. Implementation of Boolean functions.

7. Implementation of Half Adder & Full Adder.

8

Expt. No.1

APPLICATIONS OF OP-AMP - I

( INVERTING AND NON – INVERTING AMPLIFIER)

1. a. INVERTING AMPLIFIER

AIM:

To design an Inverting Amplifier for the given specifications using Op-Amp IC 741.

APPARATUS REQUIRED:

S.No

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

**Name of the Apparatus
**

Function Generator

CRO

Dual RPS

Op-Amp

Bread Board

Resistors

Connecting wires and probes

Range

Quantity

1

1

1

1

1

3 MHz

30 MHz

0 – 30 V

IC 741

As required

As required

THEORY:

The input signal Vi is applied to the inverting input terminal through R 1 and the noninverting input terminal of the op-amp is grounded. The output voltage V o is fed back

to the inverting input terminal through the R f - R1 network, where Rf is the feedback

resistor. The output voltage is given as,

Vo = - ACL Vi

Here the negative sign indicates that the output voltage is 180

input signal.

0

out of phase with the

PROCEDURE:

1. Connections are given as per the circuit diagram.

2. + Vcc and - Vcc supply is given to the power supply terminal of the Op-Amp IC.

3. By adjusting the amplitude and frequency knobs of the function generator,

appropriate input voltage is applied to the inverting input terminal of the OpAmp.

4. The output voltage is obtained in the CRO and the input and output voltage

waveforms are plotted in a graph sheet.

PIN DIAGRAM:

9

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM OF INVERTING AMPLIFIER:

DESIGN:

We know for an inverting Amplifier ACL = RF / R1

Assume R1 ( approx. 10 KΩ ) and find Rf

Hence Vo = - ACL Vi

OBSERVATIONS:

S.No

1.

2.

Input

Amplitude

( No. of div x Volts per div )

Time period

( No. of div x Time per div )

10

Output

Practical

Theoretical

MODEL GRAPH:

RESULT:

The design and testing of the inverting amplifier is done and the input and output

waveforms were drawn.

**1. b. NON - INVERTING AMPLIFIER
**

11

AIM:

To design a Non-Inverting Amplifier for the given specifications using Op-Amp IC 741.

APPARATUS REQUIRED:

S.No

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

**Name of the Apparatus
**

Function Generator

CRO

Dual RPS

Op-Amp

Bread Board

Resistors

Connecting wires and probes

Range

3 MHz

30 MHz

0 – 30 V

IC 741

Quantity

1

1

1

1

1

As required

As required

THEORY:

The input signal Vi is applied to the non - inverting input terminal of the op-amp. This

circuit amplifies the signal without inverting the input signal. It is also called negative

feedback system since the output is feedback to the inverting input terminals. The

differential voltage Vd at the inverting input terminal of the op-amp is zero ideally and

the output voltage is given as,

Vo = ACL Vi

Here the output voltage is in phase with the input signal.

PROCEDURE:

1. Connections are given as per the circuit diagram.

2. + Vcc and - Vcc supply is given to the power supply terminal of the Op-Amp IC.

3. By adjusting the amplitude and frequency knobs of the function generator,

appropriate input voltage is applied to the non - inverting input terminal of the

Op-Amp.

4. The output voltage is obtained in the CRO and the input and output voltage

waveforms are plotted in a graph sheet.

PIN DIAGRAM:

12

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM OF NON INVERITNG AMPLIFIER:

DESIGN:

We know for a Non-inverting Amplifier ACL = 1 + ( RF / R1)

Assume R1 ( approx. 10 KΩ ) and find Rf

Hence Vo = ACL Vi

OBSERVATIONS:

S.No

1.

2.

Input

Amplitude

( No. of div x Volts per div )

Time period

( No. of div x Time per div )

13

Output

Practical

Theoretical

MODEL GRAPH:

RESULT:

The design and testing of the Non-inverting amplifier is done and the input and output

waveforms were drawn.

Expt. No.2

APPLICATIONS OF OP-AMP - II

14

**(DIFFERENTIATOR AND INTEGRATOR)
**

2. a. DIFFERENTIATOR

AIM:

To design a Differentiator circuit for the given specifications using Op-Amp IC 741.

APPARATUS REQUIRED:

S.No

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

**Name of the Apparatus
**

Function Generator

CRO

Dual RPS

Op-Amp

Bread Board

Resistors

Capacitors

Connecting wires and probes

Range

3 MHz

30 MHz

0 – 30 V

IC 741

Quantity

1

1

1

1

1

As required

THEORY:

The differentiator circuit performs the mathematical operation of differentiation; that

is, the output waveform is the derivative of the input waveform. The differentiator may

be constructed from a basic inverting amplifier if an input resistor R 1 is replaced by a

capacitor C1 . The expression for the output voltage is given as,

Vo = - Rf C1 ( dVi /dt )

Here the negative sign indicates that the output voltage is 180 0 out of phase with the

input signal. A resistor Rcomp = Rf is normally connected to the non-inverting input

terminal of the op-amp to compensate for the input bias current. A workable

differentiator can be designed by implementing the following steps:

1. Select fa equal to the highest frequency of the input signal to be differentiated.

Then, assuming a value of C1 < 1 µF, calculate the value of Rf.

2. Choose fb = 20 fa and calculate the values of R1 and Cf so that R1C1 = Rf Cf.

The differentiator is most commonly used in waveshaping circuits to detect high

frequency components in an input signal and also as a rate–of–change detector in FM

modulators.

PIN DIAGRAM:

15

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM OF DIFFERENTIATOR:

DESIGN :

[ To design a differentiator circuit to differentiate an input signal that varies in

frequency from 10 Hz to about 1 KHz. If a sine wave of 1 V peak at 1000Hz is applied

to the differentiator , draw its output waveform.]

Given fa = 1 KHz

We know the frequency at which the gain is 0 dB, fa = 1 / (2π Rf C1)

Let us assume C1 = 0.1 µF ; then

Rf = _________

Since fb = 20 fa , fb = 20 KHz

We know that the gain limiting frequency fb = 1 / (2π R1 C1)

Hence R1 = _________

Also since R1C1 = Rf Cf ; Cf = _________

16

**Given Vp = 1 V and f = 1000 Hz, the input voltage is Vi = Vp sin ωt
**

We know ω = 2πf

Hence Vo = - Rf C1 ( dVi /dt )

= - 0.94 cos ωt

PROCEDURE:

1. Connections are given as per the circuit diagram.

2. + Vcc and - Vcc supply is given to the power supply terminal of the Op-Amp IC.

3. By adjusting the amplitude and frequency knobs of the function generator,

appropriate input voltage is applied to the inverting input terminal of the OpAmp.

4. The output voltage is obtained in the CRO and the input and output voltage

waveforms are plotted in a graph sheet.

OBSERVATIONS:

S.No

1.

2.

Input

Output

Amplitude

( No. of div x Volts per div )

Time period

( No. of div x Time per div )

MODEL GRAPH:

RESULT:

The design of the Differentiator circuit was done and the input and output waveforms

were obtained.

2. b. INTEGRATOR

17

AIM:

To design an Integrator circuit for the given specifications using Op-Amp IC 741.

APPARATUS REQUIRED:

S.No

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

**Name of the Apparatus
**

Function Generator

CRO

Dual RPS

Op-Amp

Bread Board

Resistors

Capacitors

Connecting wires and probes

Range

3 MHz

30 MHz

0 – 30 V

IC 741

Quantity

1

1

1

1

1

As required

THEORY:

A circuit in which the output voltage waveform is the integral of the input voltage

waveform is the integrator. Such a circuit is obtained by using a basic inverting

amplifier configuration if the feedback resistor Rf is replaced by a capacitor Cf . The

expression for the output voltage is given as,

Vo = - (1/Rf C1 ) ∫ Vi dt

Here the negative sign indicates that the output voltage is 180 0 out of phase with the

input signal. Normally between fa and fb the circuit acts as an integrator. Generally,

the value of fa < fb . The input signal will be integrated properly if the Time period T of

the signal is larger than or equal to Rf Cf . That is,

T ≥ Rf Cf

The integrator is most commonly used in analog computers and ADC and signal-wave

shaping circuits.

PIN DIAGRAM:

18

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM OF INTEGRATOR:

DESIGN:

[ To obtain the output of an Integrator circuit with component values R 1Cf = 0.1ms , Rf

= 10 R1 and Cf = 0.01 µF and also if 1 V peak square wave at 1000Hz is applied as

input.]

We know the frequency at which the gain is 0 dB, fb = 1 / (2π R1 Cf)

Therefore fb = _____

Since fb = 10 fa , and also the gain limiting frequency fa = 1 / (2π Rf Cf)

We get , R1 = _______ and hence Rf = __________

PROCEDURE:

19

**1. Connections are given as per the circuit diagram.
**

2. + Vcc and - Vcc supply is given to the power supply terminal of the Op-Amp IC.

3. By adjusting the amplitude and frequency knobs of the function generator,

appropriate input voltage is applied to the inverting input terminal of the OpAmp.

4. The output voltage is obtained in the CRO and the input and output voltage

waveforms are plotted in a graph sheet.

OBSERVATIONS:

S.No

1.

2.

Input

Output

Amplitude

( No. of div x Volts per div )

Time period

( No. of div x Time per div )

MODEL GRAPH:

RESULT:

The design of the Integrator circuit was done and the input and output waveforms were

obtained.

Expt. No.3

TIMER IC APPLICATIONS - I

20

( ASTABLE MULTIVIBRATOR)

AIM:

To design an Astable multivibrator circuit for the given specifications using 555 Timer

IC.

APPARATUS REQUIRED:

S.No

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

**Name of the Apparatus
**

Function Generator

CRO

Dual RPS

Timer IC

Bread Board

Resistors

Capacitors

Connecting wires and probes

Range

3 MHz

30 MHz

0 – 30 V

IC 555

Quantity

1

1

1

1

1

As required

THEORY:

An Astable multivibrator, often called a free-running multivibrator, is a rectangularwave-generating circuit. This circuit do not require an external trigger to change the

state of the output. The time during which the output is either high or low is

determined by two resistors and a capacitor, which are connected externally to the 555

timer. The time during which the capacitor charges from 1/3 V cc to 2/3 Vcc is equal to

the time the output is high and is given by,

tc = 0.69 (R1 + R2) C

Similarly the time during which the capacitor discharges from 2/3 V cc to 1/3 Vcc is equal

to the time the output is low and is given by,

td = 0.69 (R2) C

Thus the total time period of the output waveform is,

T = tc + td = 0.69 (R1 + 2 R2) C

The term duty cycle is often used in conjunction with the astable multivibrator. The

duty cycle is the ratio of the time t c during which the output is high to the total time

period T. It is generally expressed in percentage. In equation form,

% duty cycle = [( R1 + R2) / (R1 + 2 R2)] x 100

PIN DIAGRAM:

21

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM OF ASTABLE MULTIVIBRATOR

DESIGN:

22

**[ To design an astable multivibrator with 65% duty cycle at 4 KHz frequency, assume
**

C= 0.01 µF]

Given f= 4 KHz,

Therefore, Total time period, T = 1/f = ____________

We know, duty cycle = tc / T

Therefore, tc = -----------------------and td = ____________

We also know for an astable multivibrator

td = 0.69 (R2) C

Therefore, R2 = _____________

tc = 0.69 (R1 + R2) C

Therefore, R1 = _____________

PROCEDURE:

1. Connections are given as per the circuit diagram.

2. + 5V supply is given to the + Vcc terminal of the timer IC.

3. At pin 3 the output waveform is observed with the help of a CRO

4. At pin 6 the capacitor voltage is obtained in the CRO and the V 0 and Vc voltage

waveforms are plotted in a graph sheet.

OBSERVATIONS:

Amplitude

( No. of div x

Volts per div )

S.No

Time period

( No. of div x

Time per div )

tc

1.

Output Voltage , Vo

2.

Capacitor voltage , Vc

23

td

MODEL GRAPH:

RESULT:

The design of the Astable multivibrator circuit was done and the output voltage and

capacitor voltage waveforms were obtained.

24

Expt. No.4

TIMER IC APPLICATIONS -II

( MONOSTABLE MULTIVIBRATOR)

AIM:

To design a monostable multivibrator for the given specifications using 555 Timer IC.

APPARATUS REQUIRED:

S.No

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

**Name of the Apparatus
**

Function Generator

CRO

Dual RPS

Timer IC

Bread Board

Resistors

Capacitors

Connecting wires and probes

Range

3 MHz, Analog

30 MHz

0 – 30 V

IC 555

Quantity

1

1

1

1

1

As required

THEORY:

A monostable multivibrator often called a one-shot multivibrator is a pulse generating

circuit in which the duration of the pulse is determined by the RC network connected

externally to the 555 timer. In a stable or stand-by state the output of the circuit is

approximately zero or at logic low level. When an external trigger pulse is applied, the

output is forced to go high (approx. V cc). The time during which the output remains

high is given by,

tp = 1.1 R1 C

At the end of the timing interval, the output automatically reverts back to its logic low

state. The output stays low until a trigger pulse is applied again. Then the cycle repeats.

Thus the monostable state has only one stable state hence the name monostable.

25

PIN DIAGRAM:

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM OF MONOSTABLE MULTIVIBRATOR:

26

DESIGN:

[ To design a monostable multivibrator with tp = 0.616 ms , assume C = 0.01 µF ]

Given tp = 0.616 ms = 1.1 R1 C

Therefore, R1 = _____________

PROCEDURE:

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

**Connections are given as per the circuit diagram.
**

+ 5V supply is given to the + Vcc terminal of the timer IC.

A negative trigger pulse of 5V, 2 KHz is applied to pin 2 of the 555 IC

At pin 3 the output waveform is observed with the help of a CRO

At pin 6 the capacitor voltage is obtained in the CRO and the V 0 and Vc voltage

waveforms are plotted in a graph sheet.

OBSERVATIONS:

Amplitude

( No. of div x

Volts per div )

S.No

Time period

( No. of div x

Time per div )

ton

1.

Trigger input

2.

Output Voltage , Vo

3.

Capacitor voltage , Vc

27

toff

MODEL GRAPH:

RESULT:

The design of the Monostable multivibrator circuit was done and the input and output

waveforms were obtained.

28

Expt. No.5

STUDY OF BASIC DIGITAL ICS

AIM:

To verify the truth table of basic digital ICs of AND, OR, NOT, NAND, NOR, EX-OR

gates.

APPARATUS REQUIRED:

S.No

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

**Name of the Apparatus
**

Digital IC trainer kit

AND gate

OR gate

NOT gate

NAND gate

NOR gate

EX-OR gate

Connecting wires

Range

IC 7408

IC 7432

IC 7404

IC 7400

IC 7402

IC 7486

As required

Quantity

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

THEORY:

a. AND gate:

An AND gate is the physical realization of logical multiplication operation. It is

an electronic circuit which generates an output signal of ‘1’ only if all the input

signals are ‘1’.

b. OR gate:

An OR gate is the physical realization of the logical addition operation. It is an

electronic circuit which generates an output signal of ‘1’ if any of the input

signal is ‘1’.

c. NOT gate:

A NOT gate is the physical realization of the complementation operation. It is

an electronic circuit which generates an output signal which is the reverse of the

input signal. A NOT gate is also known as an inverter because it inverts the

input.

29

AND GATE

LOGIC DIAGRAM:

PIN DIAGRAM OF IC 7408 :

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

TRUTH TABLE:

S.No

1.

2.

3.

4.

INPUT

A

0

0

1

1

OUTPUT

Y=A.B

0

0

0

1

B

0

1

0

1

30

OR GATE

LOGIC DIAGRAM:

PIN DIAGRAM OF IC 7432 :

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

TRUTH TABLE:

S.No

1.

2.

3.

4.

INPUT

A

0

0

1

1

OUTPUT

Y=A+B

0

1

1

1

B

0

1

0

1

31

NOT GATE

LOGIC DIAGRAM:

PIN DIAGRAM OF IC 7404 :

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

TRUTH TABLE:

S.No

1.

2.

INPUT

A

0

1

OUTPUT

Y = A’

1

0

32

NAND GATE

LOGIC DIAGRAM:

PIN DIAGRAM OF IC 7400 :

CIRCUIT DIARAM:

TRUTH TABLE:

S.No

1.

2.

3.

4.

INPUT

A

0

0

1

1

OUTPUT

Y = (A . B)’

1

1

1

0

B

0

1

0

1

33

NOR GATE

LOGIC DIAGRAM:

PIN DIAGRAM OF IC 7402 :

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

TRUTH TABLE:

S.No

1.

2.

3.

4.

INPUT

A

0

0

1

1

OUTPUT

Y = (A + B)’

1

0

0

0

B

0

1

0

1

34

EX-OR GATE

LOGIC DIAGRAM

PIN DIAGRAM OF IC 7486 :

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

TRUTH TABLE:

S.No

1.

2.

3.

4.

INPUT

A

0

0

1

1

OUTPUT

Y=A

B

0

1

1

0

B

0

1

0

1

35

d. NAND gate:

A NAND gate is a complemented AND gate. The output of the NAND gate will

be ‘0’ if all the input signals are ‘1’ and will be ‘1’ if any one of the input signal

is ‘0’.

e. NOR gate:

A NOR gate is a complemented OR gate. The output of the OR gate will be ‘1’ if

all the inputs are ‘0’ and will be ‘0’ if any one of the input signal is ‘1’.

f. EX-OR gate:

An Ex-OR gate performs the following Boolean function,

A

B = ( A . B’ ) + ( A’ . B )

**It is similar to OR gate but excludes the combination of both A and B being
**

equal to one. The exclusive OR is a function that give an output signal ‘0’ when

the two input signals are equal either ‘0’ or ‘1’.

PROCEDURE:

1. Connections are given as per the circuit diagram

2. For all the ICs 7th pin is grounded and 14th pin is given +5 V supply.

3. Apply the inputs and verify the truth table for all gates.

RESULT:

The truth table of all the basic digital ICs were verified.

36

Expt. No.6

IMPLEMENTATION OF BOOLEAN FUNCTIONS

AIM:

To design the logic circuit and verify the truth table of the given Boolean expression,

F (A,B,C,D) = Σ (0,1,2,5,8,9,10)

APPARATUS REQUIRED:

S.No

Name of the Apparatus

1.

Digital IC trainer kit

2.

AND gate

3.

OR gate

4.

NOT gate

5.

NAND gate

6.

NOR gate

7.

EX-OR gate

8.

Connecting wires

Range

Quantity

1

IC 7408

IC 7432

IC 7404

IC 7400

IC 7402

IC 7486

As required

DESIGN:

Given , F (A,B,C,D) = Σ (0,1,2,5,8,9,10)

The output function F has four input variables hence a four variable Karnaugh Map is

used to obtain a simplified expression for the output as shown,

**From the K-Map,
**

F = B’ C’ + D’ B’ + A’ C’ D

Since we are using only two input logic gates the above expression can be re-written as,

F = C’ (B’ + A’ D) + D’ B’

Now the logic circuit for the above equation can be drawn.

37

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

TRUTH TABLE:

S.No

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

10.

11.

12.

13.

14.

15.

16.

A

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

INPUT

B C

0

0

0

0

0

1

0

1

1

0

1

0

1

1

1

1

0

0

0

0

0

1

0

1

1

0

1

0

1

1

1

1

D

0

1

0

1

0

1

0

1

0

1

0

1

0

1

0

1

OUTPUT

F=D’B’+C’(B’+A’D)

1

1

1

0

0

1

0

0

1

1

1

0

0

0

0

0

38

PROCEDURE:

1. Connections are given as per the circuit diagram

2. For all the ICs 7th pin is grounded and 14th pin is given +5 V supply.

3. Apply the inputs and verify the truth table for the given Boolean expression.

RESULT:

The truth table of the given Boolean expression was verified.

39

Expt. No. 8

IMPLEMENTATION OF HALF ADDER & FULL ADDER

AIM:

To design and verify the truth table of the Half Adder & Full Adder circuits.

APPARATUS REQUIRED:

S.No

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

**Name of the Apparatus
**

Digital IC trainer kit

AND gate

OR gate

NOT gate

EX-OR gate

Connecting wires

Range

Quantity

1

IC 7408

IC 7432

IC 7404

IC 7486

As required

THEORY:

The most basic arithmetic operation is the addition of two binary digits. There are four

possible elementary operations, namely,

0+0=0

0+1=1

1+0=1

1 + 1 = 102

The first three operations produce a sum of whose length is one digit, but when the last

operation is performed the sum is two digits. The higher significant bit of this result is

called a carry and lower significant bit is called the sum.

HALF ADDER:

A combinational circuit which performs the addition of two bits is called half adder.

The input variables designate the augend and the addend bit, whereas the output

variables produce the sum and carry bits.

FULL ADDER:

A combinational circuit which performs the arithmetic sum of three input bits is called

full adder. The three input bits include two significant bits and a previous carry bit. A

full adder circuit can be implemented with two half adders and one OR gate.

HALF ADDER

40

TRUTH TABLE:

INPUT

S.No

A

0

0

1

1

1.

2.

3.

4.

OUTPUT

B

0

1

0

1

S

0

1

1

0

C

0

0

0

1

DESIGN:

From the truth table the expression for sum and carry bits of the output can be

obtained as,

Sum, S = A

B

Carry, C = A . B

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

FULL ADDER

TRUTH TABLE:

S.No

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

A

0

0

0

0

1

1

1

1

INPUT

B

0

0

1

1

0

0

1

1

OUTPUT

SUM

CARRY

0

0

1

0

1

0

0

1

1

0

0

1

0

1

1

1

C

0

1

0

1

0

1

0

1

41

DESIGN:

From the truth table the expression for sum and carry bits of the output can be

obtained as,

SUM = A’B’C + A’BC’ + AB’C’ + ABC

CARRY = A’BC + AB’C + ABC’ +ABC

Using Karnaugh maps the reduced expression for the output bits can be obtained as,

SUM

**SUM = A’B’C + A’BC’ + AB’C’ + ABC = A
**

CARRY

CARRY = AB + AC + BC

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

42

B

C

PROCEDURE:

1. Connections are given as per the circuit diagrams.

2. For all the ICs 7th pin is grounded and 14th pin is given +5 V supply.

3. Apply the inputs and verify the truth table for the half adder and full adder

circuits.

RESULT:

The design of the half adder and full adder circuits was done and their truth tables

were verified.

43

CYCLE – II

44

LIST OF EXPERIMENTS

CYCLE II :

8. Implementation of Half Subtractor & Full Subtractor.

9. Code converters.

10. Parity Generator & Checker.

11. Multiplexer / Demultiplexer

12. Study of Flip-Flops.

13. Asynchronous Decade counter

14. Shift Register.

45

Expt. No. 8

**IMPLEMENTATION OF HALF SUBTRACTOR &
**

FULL SUBTRACTOR

AIM:

To design and verify the truth table of the Half Subtractor & Full Subtractor circuits.

APPARATUS REQUIRED:

S.No

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

**Name of the Apparatus
**

Digital IC trainer kit

AND gate

OR gate

NOT gate

EX-OR gate

Connecting wires

Range

Quantity

1

IC 7408

IC 7432

IC 7404

IC 7486

As required

THEORY:

The arithmetic operation, subtraction of two binary digits has four possible elementary

operations, namely,

0-0=0

0 - 1 = 1 with 1 borrow

1-0=1

1-1=0

In all operations, each subtrahend bit is subtracted from the minuend bit. In case of

the second operation the minuend bit is smaller than the subtrahend bit, hence 1 is

borrowed.

HALF SUBTRACTOR:

A combinational circuit which performs the subtraction of two bits is called half

subtractor. The input variables designate the minuend and the subtrahend bit, whereas

the output variables produce the difference and borrow bits.

FULL SUBTRACTOR:

A combinational circuit which performs the subtraction of three input bits is called full

subtractor. The three input bits include two significant bits and a previous borrow bit.

A full subtractor circuit can be implemented with two half subtractors and one OR

gate.

46

HALF SUBTRACTOR

TRUTH TABLE:

S.No

1.

2.

3.

4.

INPUT

A

0

0

1

1

OUTPUT

DIFF

BORR

0

0

1

1

1

0

0

0

B

0

1

0

1

DESIGN:

From the truth table the expression for difference and borrow bits of the output can be

obtained as,

Difference, DIFF = A

B

Borrow, BORR = A’ . B

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

47

FULL SUBTRACTOR

TRUTH TABLE:

S.No

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

A

0

0

0

0

1

1

1

1

INPUT

B

0

0

1

1

0

0

1

1

OUTPUT

DIFF

BORR

0

0

1

1

1

1

0

1

1

0

0

0

0

0

1

1

C

0

1

0

1

0

1

0

1

DESIGN:

From the truth table the expression for difference and borrow bits of the output can be

obtained as,

Difference, DIFF= A’B’C + A’BC’ + AB’C’ + ABC

Borrow, BORR = A’BC + AB’C + ABC’ +ABC

Using Karnaugh maps the reduced expression for the output bits can be obtained as,

DIFFERENCE

**DIFF = A’B’C + A’BC’ + AB’C’ + ABC = A
**

BORROW

BORR = A’B + A’C + BC

48

B

C

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

PROCEDURE:

1. Connections are given as per the circuit diagrams.

2. For all the ICs 7th pin is grounded and 14th pin is given +5 V supply.

3. Apply the inputs and verify the truth table for the half subtractor and full

subtractor circuits.

RESULT:

The design of the half subtractor and full subtractor circuits was done and their truth

tables were verified.

49

Expt. No. 9

CODE CONVERTERS

AIM:

To design and verify the truth table of a three bit binary to gray code converter.

APPARATUS REQUIRED:

S.No

1.

2.

3.

**Name of the Apparatus
**

Digital IC trainer kit

EX-OR gate

Connecting wires

Range

Quantity

1

IC 7486

As required

THEORY:

Code converter is a circuit that makes two systems compatible even though each uses

different binary codes. There is a wide variety of binary codes used in digital systems.

Some of these codes are Binary Coded Decimal, Gray code, Excess- 3 code , ASCII

code, etc.

A combinational circuit performs the transformation of a three bit binary to gray code

converter by means of logic gates. The input variables are binary bits named as A,B,C

with A as the MSB and C as the LSB. The Gray code output bits are termed as X,Y,Z

with X as the MSB and Z as the LSB.

The Gray code is also called as reflective code. The gray coded number corresponding

to the decimal number 2n – 1, for any n, differs from gray coded 0 (0000) in one bit

position only.

DESIGN:

TRUTH TABLE:

S.No

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

INPUT - BINARY

A

B

C

0

0

0

0

0

1

0

1

0

0

1

1

1

0

0

1

0

1

1

1

0

1

1

1

OUTPUT-GRAY

X

Y

Z

0

0

0

0

0

1

0

1

1

0

1

0

1

1

0

1

1

1

1

0

1

1

0

0

50

**From the truth table the expression for the output gray bits are,
**

X (A, B, C) = Σ (4, 5, 6, 7)

Y (A, B, C) = Σ (2, 3, 4, 5)

Z (A, B, C) = Σ (1, 2, 5, 6)

Hence obtain the reduced SOP expression using Karnaugh maps as follows,

For X:

X=A

For Y:

Y=A

B

Z=B

C

For Z:

51

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

3 BIT BINARY TO GRAY CODE CONVERTER

PROCEDURE:

1. Connections are given as per the circuit diagrams.

2. For all the ICs 7th pin is grounded and 14th pin is given +5 V supply.

3. Apply the inputs and verify the truth table for the three bit binary to gray code

converter.

RESULT:

The design of the three bit Binary to Gray code converter circuit was done and its truth

table was verified.

52

Expt. No. 10

PARITY GENERATOR & CHECKER

AIM:

To design and verify the truth table of a three bit Odd Parity generator and checker.

APPARATUS REQUIRED:

S.No

1.

2.

3.

4.

**Name of the Apparatus
**

Digital IC trainer kit

EX-OR gate

NOT gate

Connecting wires

Range

Quantity

1

IC 7486

IC 7404

As required

THEORY:

A parity bit is used for the purpose of detecting errors during transmission of binary

information. A parity bit is an extra bit included with a binary message to make the

number of 1’s either odd or even. The message including the parity bit is transmitted

and then checked at the receiving end for errors. An error is detected if the checked

parity does not correspond with the one transmitted. The circuit that generates the

parity bit in the transmitter is called a parity generator and the circuit that checks the

parity in the receiver is called a parity checker.

In even parity the added parity bit will make the total number of 1’s an even amount

and in odd parity the added parity bit will make the total number of 1’s an odd amount.

In a three bit odd parity generator the three bits in the message together with the parity

bit are transmitted to their destination, where they are applied to the parity checker

circuit. The parity checker circuit checks for possible errors in the transmission.

Since the information was transmitted with odd parity the four bits received must have

an odd number of 1’s. An error occurs during the transmission if the four bits received

have an even number of 1’s, indicating that one bit has changed during transmission.

The output of the parity checker is denoted by PEC (parity error check) and it will be

equal to 1 if an error occurs, i.e., if the four bits received has an even number of 1’s.

53

**ODD PARITY GENERATOR
**

TRUTH TABLE:

S.No

INPUT

( Three bit message)

A

0

0

0

0

1

1

1

1

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

B

0

0

1

1

0

0

1

1

OUTPUT

( Odd Parity bit)

C

0

1

0

1

0

1

0

1

P

1

0

0

1

0

1

1

0

**From the truth table the expression for the output parity bit is,
**

P( A, B, C) = Σ (0, 3, 5, 6)

Also written as,

P = A’B’C’ + A’BC + AB’C + ABC’ = (A

B

C) ‘

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

ODD PARITY GENERATOR

54

**ODD PARITY CHECKER
**

TRUTH TABLE:

S.No

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

10.

11.

12.

13.

14.

15.

16.

INPUT

( four bit message

Received )

A B C

P

0 0

0

0

0 0

0

1

0 0

1

0

0 0

1

1

0 1

0

0

0 1

0

1

0 1

1

0

0 1

1

1

1 0

0

0

1 0

0

1

1 0

1

0

1 0

1

1

1 1

0

0

1 1

0

1

1 1

1

0

1 1

1

1

OUTPUT

(Parity error

check)

X

1

0

0

1

0

1

1

0

0

1

1

0

1

0

0

1

**From the truth table the expression for the output parity checker bit is,
**

X (A, B, C, P) = Σ (0, 3, 5, 6, 9, 10, 12, 15)

The above expression is reduced as,

X = (A

B

C

P) ‘

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

ODD PARITY CHECKER

55

PROCEDURE:

1. Connections are given as per the circuit diagrams.

2. For all the ICs 7th pin is grounded and 14th pin is given +5 V supply.

3. Apply the inputs and verify the truth table for the Parity generator and checker.

RESULT:

The design of the three bit odd Parity generator and checker circuits was done and

their truth tables were verified.

56

Expt. No. 11

MULTIPLEXER & DEMULTIPLEXER

AIM:

To design and verify the truth table of a 4X1 Multiplexer & 1X4 Demultiplexer.

APPARATUS REQUIRED:

S.No

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

**Name of the Apparatus
**

Digital IC trainer kit

OR gate

NOT gate

AND gate ( three input )

Connecting wires

Range

Quantity

1

IC 7432

IC 7404

IC 7411

As required

THEORY:

Multiplexer is a digital switch which allows digital information from several sources to

be routed onto a single output line. The basic multiplexer has several data input lines

and a single output line. The selection of a particular input line is controlled by a set of

selection lines. Normally, there are 2 n input lines and n selector lines whose bit

combinations determine which input is selected. Therefore, multiplexer is ‘many into

one’ and it provides the digital equivalent of an analog selector switch.

A Demultiplexer is a circuit that receives information on a single line and transmits

this information on one of 2n possible output lines. The selection of specific output line

is controlled by the values of n selection lines.

DESIGN:

4 X 1 MULTIPLEXER

LOGIC SYMBOL:

57

TRUTH TABLE:

S.No

1.

2.

3.

4.

SELECTION

INPUT

S1

S2

0

0

0

1

1

0

1

1

OUTPUT

Y

I0

I1

I2

I3

PIN DIAGRAM OF IC 7411:

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

58

1X4 DEMULTIPLEXER

LOGIC SYMBOL:

TRUTH TABLE:

S.No

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

INPUT

S1 S2 Din

0 0

0

0 0

1

0 1

0

0 1

1

1 0

0

1 0

1

1 1

0

1 1

1

OUTPUT

Y0 Y1 Y2 Y3

0

0

0

0

1

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

1

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

1

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

1

59

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

PROCEDURE:

1. Connections are given as per the circuit diagrams.

2. For all the ICs 7th pin is grounded and 14th pin is given +5 V supply.

3. Apply the inputs and verify the truth table for the multiplexer & demultiplexer.

RESULT:

The design of the 4x1 Multiplexer and 1x4 Demultiplexer circuits was done and their

truth tables were verified.

60

Expt. No. 12

STUDY OF FLIP FLOPS

AIM:

To verify the characteristic table of RS, D, JK, and T Flip flops .

APPARATUS REQUIRED:

S.No

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

**Name of the Apparatus
**

Digital IC trainer kit

NOR gate

NOT gate

AND gate ( three input )

NAND gate

Connecting wires

Range

Quantity

1

IC 7402

IC 7404

IC 7411

IC 7400

As required

THEORY:

A Flip Flop is a sequential device that samples its input signals and changes its output

states only at times determined by clocking signal. Flip Flops may vary in the number

of inputs they possess and the manner in which the inputs affect the binary states.

RS FLIP FLOP:

The clocked RS flip flop consists of NAND gates and the output changes its state with

respect to the input on application of clock pulse. When the clock pulse is high the S

and R inputs reach the second level NAND gates in their complementary form. The

Flip Flop is reset when the R input high and S input is low. The Flip Flop is set when

the S input is high and R input is low. When both the inputs are high the output is in

an indeterminate state.

D FLIP FLOP:

To eliminate the undesirable condition of indeterminate state in the SR Flip Flop when

both inputs are high at the same time, in the D Flip Flop the inputs are never made

equal at the same time. This is obtained by making the two inputs complement of each

other.

JK FLIP FLOP:

The indeterminate state in the SR Flip-Flop is defined in the JK Flip Flop. JK inputs

behave like S and R inputs to set and reset the Flip Flop. The output Q is ANDed with

K input and the clock pulse, similarly the output Q’ is ANDed with J input and the

Clock pulse. When the clock pulse is zero both the AND gates are disabled and the Q

and Q’ output retain their previous values. When the clock pulse is high, the J and K

inputs reach the NOR gates. When both the inputs are high the output toggles

continuously. This is called Race around condition and this must be avoided.

61

T FLIP FLOP:

This is a modification of JK Flip Flop, obtained by connecting both inputs J and K

inputs together. T Flip Flop is also called Toggle Flip Flop.

RS FLIP FLOP

LOGIC SYMBOL:

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

CHARACTERISTIC TABLE:

CLOCK

PULSE

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

INPUT

S

0

0

0

0

1

1

1

1

R

0

0

1

1

0

0

1

1

PRESENT

STATE (Q)

0

1

0

1

0

1

0

1

D FLIP FLOP

62

NEXT

STATE(Q+1)

0

1

0

0

1

1

X

X

STATUS

LOGIC SYMBOL:

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

CHARACTERISTIC TABLE:

CLOCK

PULSE

1

2

3

4

INPUT

D

0

0

1

1

PRESENT

STATE (Q)

0

1

0

1

NEXT

STATE(Q+1)

0

0

1

1

**JK FLIP FLOP
**

63

STATUS

LOGIC SYMBOL:

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

CHARACTERISTIC TABLE:

CLOCK

PULSE

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

INPUT

J

0

0

0

0

1

1

1

1

K

0

0

1

1

0

0

1

1

PRESENT

STATE (Q)

0

1

0

1

0

1

0

1

T FLIP FLOP

64

NEXT

STATE(Q+1)

0

1

0

0

1

1

1

0

STATUS

LOGIC SYMBOL:

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

CHARACTERISTIC TABLE:

CLOCK

PULSE

1

2

3

4

INPUT

T

0

0

1

1

PRESENT

STATE (Q)

0

1

0

1

NEXT

STATE(Q+1)

0

0

1

0

65

STATUS

PROCEDURE:

1. Connections are given as per the circuit diagrams.

2. For all the ICs 7th pin is grounded and 14th pin is given +5 V supply.

3. Apply the inputs and observe the status of all the flip flops.

RESULT:

The Characteristic tables of RS, D, JK, T flip flops were verified.

Expt. No. 13

**ASYNCHRONOUS DECADE COUNTER
**

66

AIM:

To implement and verify the truth table of an asynchronous decade counter.

APPARATUS REQUIRED:

S.No

1.

2.

4.

5.

**Name of the Apparatus
**

Digital IC trainer kit

JK Flip Flop

NAND gate

Connecting wires

Range

IC 7473

IC 7400

Quantity

1

2

1

As required

THEORY:

Asynchronous decade counter is also called as ripple counter. In a ripple counter the

flip flop output transition serves as a source for triggering other flip flops. In other

words the clock pulse inputs of all the flip flops are triggered not by the incoming pulses

but rather by the transition that occurs in other flip flops. The term asynchronous

refers to the events that do not occur at the same time. With respect to the counter

operation, asynchronous means that the flip flop within the counter are not made to

change states at exactly the same time, they do not because the clock pulses are not

connected directly to the clock input of each flip flop in the counter.

PIN DIAGRAM OF IC 7473:

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

67

TRUTH TABLE:

S.No

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

CLOCK

PULSE

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

OUTPUT

D(MSB)

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

1

1

0

C

0

0

0

0

1

1

1

1

0

0

0

B

0

0

1

1

0

0

1

1

0

1

0

A(LSB)

0

1

0

1

0

1

0

1

0

0

0

PROCEDURE:

1. Connections are given as per the circuit diagrams.

2. Apply the input and verify the truth table of the counter.

RESULT:

The truth table of the Asynchronous decade counter was hence verified.

Expt. No. 14

**IMPLEMENTATION OF SHIFT REGISTERS
**

68

AIM:

To implement and verify the truth table of a serial in serial out shift register.

APPARATUS REQUIRED:

S.No

1.

2.

3.

**Name of the Apparatus
**

Digital IC trainer kit

D Flip Flop

Connecting wires

Range

IC 7474

Quantity

1

2

As required

THEORY:

A register capable of shifting its binary information either to the left or to the right is

called a shift register. The logical configuration of a shift register consists of a chain of

flip flops connected in cascade with the output of one flip flop connected to the input of

the next flip flop. All the flip flops receive a common clock pulse which causes the shift

from one stage to the next.

The Q output of a D flip flop is connected to the D input of the flip flop to the left. Each

clock pulse shifts the contents of the register one bit position to the right. The serial

input determines, what goes into the right most flip flop during the shift. The serial

output is taken from the output of the left most flip flop prior to the application of a

pulse. Although this register shifts its contents to its left, if we turn the page upside

down we find that the register shifts its contents to the right. Thus a unidirectional shift

register can function either as a shift right or a shift left register.

PIN DIAGRAM OF IC 7474:

69

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

TRUTH TABLE:

For a serial data input of 1101,

S.NO

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

CLOCK

PULSE

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

D1

1

1

0

1

X

X

X

X

INPUTS

D2

D3

X

X

1

X

1

1

0

1

1

0

X

1

X

X

X

X

D4

X

X

X

1

1

0

1

X

Q1

1

1

0

1

X

1

0

X

OUTPUTS

Q2

Q3

X

X

1

X

1

1

0

1

1

0

X

1

X

X

X

X

PROCEDURE:

1. Connections are given as per the circuit diagrams.

2. Apply the input and verify the truth table of the counter.

RESULT:

The truth table of a serial in serial out left shift register was hence verified.

70

Q4

X

X

X

1

1

0

1

X

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