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# One-Way Chi-Square Goodness of Fit Test: SPSS©

Suppose we wish to test the null hypothesis that Karl Wuensch gives equal num ers of !"s# \$"s# C"s# %"s# and F"s as final grades in his undergraduate statistics classes& The o served frequencies are' !' (# \$' )*# C' +,# %' -,# F' -,& The data are entered into S.SS li/e this'

%o not enter the values of the categorical varia le as alphanumeric data& 0f you so# S.SS will refuse to do the analysis& Code the categories numerically and then la el those values li/e this'

1ow tell S.SS to weight the cases y Count& Clic/ %ata# Weight Cases# Weight Cases \$y Count&

OK& Clic/ !naly2e# 1onparametric Tests# Chi-square& Scoot Grade into the Test 3aria le 4ist& \$y default S.SS will use all categories and will test the hypothesis that the counts are# in the population# uniformly distri uted across categories&

Copyright ),,+# Karl 4& Wuensch - !ll rights reserved&

&..&.. Test Statistics Chi-Squarea df !symp& Sig& Grade (+&(. )* ( -.&. * &..&.&. --.# you would do so y specifying the lowest and highest category values to e tested in the ?67pected 8ange@ o7& .&.-& 0f you wanted to restrict the range of the categories tested 9for e7ample# testing the hypothesis that \$"s# C"s# and %"s are equally li/ely. p > &. )... 5.&.. ). 8esidual --. = (+&(. ). --*&.:. 67pected 1 ). ). have e7pected frequencies less than +& The minimum e7pected cell frequency is ).&.&.. -.OK& Grade F % C \$ ! Total O served 1 -. *&.& We re<ect the hypothesis that the counts are uniformly distri uted across the categories# χ)9*# N = -. a& . +. cells 9&.

# ). A* ) 5 Total Category % C \$ 8esidual --A&...# *.& Suppose you wish to test the null hypothesis that Karl Wuensch gives twice as many C"s as \$"s# twice as many \$"s as !"s# <ust as many %"s as \$"s# and <ust as many F"s as !"s and the o served frequencies are as efore& Cnder this null hypothesis# given a total N of -.# the e7pected frequencies are' -. +. Test Statistics Chi-Squarea df !symp& Sig& Grade )B&*)B ) &.OK& Frequencies Grade O served 1 67pected 1 -. have e7pected frequencies less than +& The minimum e7pected cell frequency is )A&.. ))&. )A&. )A&. cells 9&.& 0 enter these e7pected frequencies in the ?67pected 3alues@ o7' OK& .# ).:. )* )A&. -*&.# and -. a& .

&.&. ). *&. have e7pected frequencies less than +& The minimum e7pected cell frequency is -. -.&.lease note that there are a lot of 0nternet stats programs that will do such a chisquare goodness of fit test& For e7ample# you could use the program at 3assar' .&.. = B&B. 8esidual &. -.. ). Test Statistics Chi-Squarea df !symp& Sig& Grade B&B.. *.*) a& .&. -.:.&.. --. p = &. )* ( -. -*&.&.& We re<ect the stated hypothesis# # χ)9*# N = -. * &.Grade F % C \$ ! Total O served 1 -.&. +. cells 9&.*)& . 67pected 1 -.

+# Karl 4& Wuensch ..some continue to use my online lessons when they go on to doctoral programs Copyright ).!ll rights reserved& .8eturn to my S.SS 4essons page Dore 4essons on the \$inomial and Chi-Square %istri utions 4etters From Former Students -.