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Controlling factors in water Chemistry

V.Subramanian School of Envt.Sc,JNU and Institute of Envt.Sc,Amity university subra42@gmail.com

Solar eruptions

Solar eclipse, gauhati. Sept 26,2012.

/day Adult Active Adult Needs 3 lit.Human Body : Water Needs Water Content Inactive Adult Needs 2 lit./day ./day 80% Fetus / Embryo 75% New Born 70% Brain 85% Loss 2 lit.

Water Distribution in Human Body 13% 15% 13% 15% 13% 16% 15% Brain Lungs Kidney Blood Heart Liver Muscles .

Daily water loss Hum an Body : Daily Water Loss Sole of Feet Breathing Perspiration Urine 250 ml 900 ml 450 ml 1300 ml .

Total – 2650 cc. Solid foods – 750 cc. . Stool – 2650 cc.Our personal water balance Water loss Skin – 550 cc. Water Intake Liquids – 1500 cc. Produced in the body – 400 cc. Total – 2650 cc. Urine – 1550 cc. Lungs – 440 cc.

Water Chemistry Weathering Rock Type Hydro Factors Secondary Anthropogenic Land use Change Climate Rainfall Regional Scale Urban inputs Soil Cover Major Parameter Local / Regional Variability Industrial Episodic / Regular Events Resources Exploitation Nutrients Fractionation Estuary Ocean Common Linkage Metals .

River Behavior Meanders Cut-offs Ecological Flow Flood and Sediments Delta Formation First order impacts • Sediment transport Second order impacts • Channel geomorphology • Primary production • Channel structure Third order impacts • Fish and invertebrate communities • Spawning / scouring in water courses • Water quality & temperature • Transfer of energy • Pollutants River Behavior and Impacts .

4. . Example: Hg+ Non-steady state Residence time Lower.Factors Controlling dissolved parameters in water 1. 3. Example: Rare gases? Prolonged non-equilibrium Imbalance in residence time Example: Landslide/Volcanic Eruptions 2. Input = Output Stable gradient Input > Output Accumulation Input < Output Depletion/Erosion Episodic Input/Output Residual Dis-equilibrium in both Chemical (quality) and physical (quantity) processes Steady state Residence time Constant Example: ClNon-steady state Residence time Higher.

Three phases of water .

5) H2CO3 = HCO3.+ H+ [HCO3-] [H+] / [H2CO3] k=5.Water and Air interaction • • • • • • • • • • H2O(l) + CO2(g) = H2CO3(l) 1/[PCO2] k= 10(-3.(10-7) HCO3. [OH-] k=10 (-14) .(10-11) HOH(l) + HOH(l) = H3O+ + OH[H3O+] [OH-] k= 10(-1) HHO= H+ + OH[H+].= CO3-2 + H+ [CO3-2] [H+] / [HCO3-] k=5.

Size-charge of elements .

Radius-charge for ions in water( based on Pauling) .

Temperature 2.Pressure 3.Flocculation 4.Density 8.Dilution-concentration .Turbulance/Flow velocity 7.Reaction Time 6.Physical factors in Water Chemistry • • • • • • • • 1.Particle Size effect 5.

Density-Temperature plot for water .

Unusual saline ground water in Turkey .

Float in Dead Sea ! Website for this image • float in The Dead Sea? bible-ministry. 6KB •More sizes •Search by image •Similar images Type: JPG Images may be subject to copyright. .com Did you know you can •Full-size image •350 × 230 (Same sizex larger).

Chemical factors in water chemistry • • • • • • • • • Dissolution Precipitation Complexation Colloids Oxidation-reduction Chelation Dilution Pollution Absorption-Desorption .

Dissolved and solid carbon in water .

Basic rock-water reaction 2CO2 + 3H2O + CaSiO3 → Ca++ + 2HCO3.+ H4SiO4.Zn+2 etc CO2 + H2O + CaCO3 → Ca++ + 2HCO3or 2CO2 + 2H2O + CaMg(CO3)2 → Ca++ + Mg++ + 4HCO3- . Ca++ might also be substituted by Mg++. Where. Fe+2.

HS-1) All sulphides are insoluble. • Sulphides (S-2. .Solubility factors • Radical Soslubility • Nitrates (NO3-). • Hydroxides (OH-) All hydroxides are insoluble. • -----------------------------------------------------------------• Carbonates (CO3-2) All carbonates are insoluble.chlorides All nitrates and chlorides are soluble • Sulphates (SO4-2) Many sulphates are soluble.

1 0.0 10.1 1.0 1: 1 Alkalinity meq/L .10 Himalyan Rivers Peninsular Rivers (Ca+Mg) meq/L 1 0.

Correlation of Alkalinity against total Ca + Mg .

Carbonate saturation in river water 10000 Saturation line Other Rivers G-B river system 1000 Kerala Rivers 100 100 1000 Alkalinity micro.eq/l 10000 .

Gibbs diagram of water chemistry Total dissolved solids Na / (Na + Ca) .

TR– Tributaries.CO2 consumption rate due to silicate weathering .CO2 plot MB.CO2 consumption rate due to chemical weathering. CW.Godavari river.Main branch. SW.

Atm and Soil derived alkalinity in rivers .

00 500000 0 B (I) G P) I( M BGK N G L) I( M C T Basin Area (km2) pCO2 -1.00 Basin Area 1500000 1000000 -2.00 .00 s FR W River Basins pCO2 (mEq/L) 0.Basin Area vs pCO2 2000000 1.00 -4.00 -3.

00 0.50 1.50 2.CO2 consumption rates (106 mol km-2 y-1) in Silicate weathering for major world rivers 2.00 Na rm ad a Ta pti Me G B M A Ma S L ck o an ge rahm issis m az ck e t Law ena on s si n zi ap u ng r en e ce tra pp i River Basins .50 0.00 CO2 (sil) 1.

r water chemistry of India .

Ganges river water .

Average ground water chemistry in India ( mg/l) .

Lake water in India .

6215 -1.5 -2 R2 = 0.5 0 1 -1 -3 -2 2 -3 -3.5 .m/l 0 -1 -0.atm y = 1.5 Log pCO2.1.Calculated HCO3 for various pCO2 scenario Log m HCO3.5 -4 -4.9949 -2.0029x .

Long term impact on water quality? pCO2 and Deforestation increasing CO2 consumed in Weathering ? Deforestation increasing .

Model indicating Water.Society and Global change and Socirty an .

let us look into some issues on water quantitatively since quality and quantity are inseparable! .Quality depends on quantity also Now.

Framework for Analysis of the Fresh Water Environment .

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Drivers for monsoon rain • El Nino is an oscillation of the oceanatmosphere system in the tropical Pacific having important consequences for weather around the globe. . during which the cold pool in the eastern Pacific intensifies and the trade winds strength. • La Nina is the name for the cold phase of ENSO.

2012 ( 1 June.1600 1400 1200 1000 Delhi 800 Kolkata Total RF (mm) 600 Shillong Chennai Trivandrum 400 200 Mumbai 0 Delhi Kolkata Shillong Chennai Trivandrum Mumbai Monsoon.30 September) .

The unpredictable rain! .

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Monsoon rainfall .

Monsoon 2013 till sept 10 • • .

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5 litres 1 Kg rice 3000-5000 litres 1 Kg banana 2000 litres 1Kg of meat 15000 litres .Virtual water demand • • • • 1 kg wheat 1500 litres Daily drinking water we need 2.

Example of virtual water Product Unit of measurement water consumption in liter tomato 1 piece 13 Al metal can 1 piece 25 tea 1 cup 35 potato chips 1 bag (200 g) 185 paper 1 kg 750 bananas 1 kg 2000 cotton shirt 1 piece 2000 egg 1 kg 4500 rice 1 kg 5000 jeans 1 piece 8000 computer 1 piece 30000 car 1 piece 380000 .

Source of ganges waterSource of Source of Ganges waterGanges water .

Water use through centuries 300 250 200 150 100 50 0 1900 1940 1950 1960 1970 (Year) Irrigated Area Water Use 1980 1990 1995 2000 2000 1800 Irrigated Area (Million Ha) 1600 1400 1200 1000 800 600 400 200 0 Water use (Km3/yr) .

Water for agriculture Water use for Major Crops in Asia (Average production rates) 1200 1000 Water Use(mm) 800 600 400 200 0 Grain Sorghum Sunflower Wheat Sugarcane Peanut Beans Cotton Barley Corn Crop Sugar beets Potato Tomatoes Rice .

from where? .Water for irrigation.

Urban water demand
Per Capita Water Supply in Selected Metros
350
307

300
258 262 242 227 208 200 207 170 156 253

274

250

Litre/ day

200 150
114

100 50 0

76

Ahmedabad

Mumbai

Delhi

Chennai

Calcutta

Karachi

Kanpur

Nagpur

Jaipur

Pune

Bangalore

Hyderadabad

City

Lucknow

Bangkok

Mumbai 2005: 2000 mm in 24 hrs

Endowments of water infrastructure…..
US and Australia have ~5000 m3/cap; China has 2,400; India has 130 m3/cap

India 130

Water and energy Water for Energy Generation and industry Petroleum extraction. 10-40 litre/Mwh Gas power plant 30000-75000 Coal gasification 900 Coal power plant 23000 litre/Mwh Nuclear power plant 94600-227100 Biofuel power plant upto 27900000 litre/Mwh .

Dams in Tibet .

Water in air .

Water from air ! .

Water droplets on mars lander .

Artificial recharge of water Artificial Recharge of water .

9 km Achankoil .LINK PROJECT MICRO SCALE Pamba Vaipar River Basin 150x106 m3 Tunnel .

Ken-Betwa Link? .

Water resources developmentcase from M.P. .

(mil.6 2 .Super Link! Parameter units Bramaputra Cauvery Area (mill.km2) 18 10 Water needed( mill.ha) 53 2 Cultivated.m) 3.ha.

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Man and animal :all need water in some form.virtual or real ! .