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Kingdom Fungi

Why Study?
Are microorganisms Can cause human disease (directly or by toxins) Can affect plants we eat
Wheat rust is a fungus The famous potato famine in Ireland was caused by a fungus
(Almost instantly destroyed the primary food source for the majority of the population. Approximately one million people died during the 5 years of the famine.)

(Unicellular)

(Multicellular)

Are Useful
Metabolic activities, particularly yeasts, are used in many industrial fermentation processes (beer, wine, cheese, bread) Used in other products – Citric acid in Coke is produced by Aspergillus Used to produce Antibiotics and other drugs
Penicillium Streptomycium Cephalosporin Cyclosporin

Mycology = Study of Fungus

Mycosis = A fungal disease

DIFFERENCES BETWEEN FUNGI AND BACTERIA
CHARACTERISTIC Cell Wall Classification BACTERIA Peptidoglycan Prokaryotes (“pre-nucleus” or no nucleus) Yes Variable growth Variable Variable Unicellular Some bacteria can make own food Chitin Eukaryotes (true nuclei) Yes Grows well Tolerate less moisture (although like humidity) Non motile Unicellular/Multicellular Heterotrophs/chemoheterotrophs (Obtain nutrients by adsorbing dissolved
organic material through cell wall and plasma membrane)

FUNGI

Exoenzyme Acidic conditions Moisture Motility # of cells Nutrition

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powdery coating Yeasts Widely used in the food industry Yeasts – asexual reproduction 2 . and bark as a white. salt) Molds – Aerobic Yeast .Facultative anaerobe Morphology Asexual (mitotic) Sexual (Meiotic) Larger Reproduction More Complex Tolerate wide range Grow in a wide variety of environmental conditions Soil Water Fruits Jelly Refrigerator Humidity Dry climate Variable Aerobic & Anaerobic Metabolism & Morphology Asexual (Binary fission) Smaller Survival Less Complex Mostly mesophiles Function Decomposition of organic matter Recycle nutrients Capable of ingesting complex carbohydrates such as lignin (composed of wood) that bacteria cannot use for nutrients Can grow on walls. etc Yeasts Non-filamentous Unicellular Widely distributed in nature Frequently found on fruits. shoe leather. & old newspaper. leaves.CHARACTERISTIC Organelles Osmotic Pressure Oxygen Requirements Primary identification Reproduction Size Spores Structural Complexity Temperature No BACTERIA FUNGI Yes – Specialized structures with specific functions Tolerate higher osmotic pressure (sugar.

Yeasts Pseudohypha – occurs when buds fail to detach themselves resulting in a short chain Yeasts – Sexual reproduction by spore formation Budding Yeast Pseudohypha Candida albicans Common pathogenic yeast Candidiasis refers to a Candida infection Moniliasis – another name for Candidiasis Features & Descriptive Terms Used to Classify fungus and fungal growth Morphology Thallus Mycelium Haustorium Hyphal Organization Sexual Spores Asexual Spores Mucocutaneous candidiasis Dimorphism Monilial intertrigo Oral candidiasis = thrush Thallus – Macroscopic mold colony Mycelia – Mass of strands forming the thallus Haustorium .A rootlike attachment in parasitic plants including fungi that penetrates and obtains food from the host Hypha – Strand of a mycelia (Hypha = singular / Hyphae = pleural) Vegetative Hyphae – grows in or on surface of growth medium Reproductive Hyphae / Aerial Hyphae – Originates from vegetative hyphae and produce spores Septate Hyphae – Hyphal strand composed of individual cells by a crosswalk or septum Coenocytic Hyphae (non septate) – Mass of cytoplasm with multiple nuclei 3 .

Actually have mold before you see it (vegetative hyphae) Vegetative Hyphae Septate Hyphae Sexual Spores Asexual spores Ascospores Basidiospores Sporangiospores Conidiospores Oospores Zygospores Chlamydiospores Zoospores 4 .Type of hyphae Septate – Hyphal strand composed of individual cells by a crosswalk or septum Coenocytic (Non-septate) – Hypha lack septum. Composed of a mass of cytoplasm with multiple nuclei Reproductive or aerial hyphae The mold you see on bread is reproductive hyphae with spores.

Histoplasma capsulatum 4 major fungal phyla Ascomycota Basidiomycota Is a Unicellular yeast at 370C Is a filamentous mold/hypha at 250C Omycota Zygomycota Zygomycota Conjugation Fungi/Produce Zygospores Zygomycota “Conjugation Fungi” Saprophytic Molds Coenocytic hypha Zygospores (sexual spore formation) Sporangiospores (asexual spore formation) Examples Rhizopus Mucor Ascomycota Sac Fungi/Produce Ascospores 5 .Dimorphism – difference in structure among the same species Fungal dimorphism refers to the ability of some fungi to exhibit different characteristics when grown at different temperatures Example.

Ascomycota “Sac Fungi” Septate Hyphae Ascospores = Sexual spore formation Conidiospores = Asexual spore formation Examples Alternaria Aspergillus Fusarium Penicillium Sordaria Basidiomyocta Club fungi/produce basidiospores Basidiomycota “Fleshy Fungi” “Club Fungi” Mushrooms Septate hyphae Basidiospores = Sexual spore formation Fragmentation = Asexual spore formation Examples Oomycota Water molds/produce oospores & motile zoospores Coprinus 6 .

MEA Differences between molds & bacteria on agar plates Mold on an agar plate Bacteria on an agar plate 7 .Oomycota “Water Molds” Aquatic habitat Coenocytic hyphae Oogonia with oospores = sexual spore formation Zoospores = asexual spore formation (motile/have flagella) Examples Saprolegnia CLASSIFICATION (Named by sexual reproduction) Phylum Example Location or Description “Sac Fungi” SPORES Sexual spore Formation Ascospores Produced in a sac or ascus called a perithecium Hyphal Organization Septate Asexual spore formation Conidiospores – Budding – identical to parents Ascomycota (Molds & some yeasts = Saccharomyces ) Bacidiomycota (Macroscopic species) Oomycota Alternaria Aspergillus Fusarium Penicillium Sordaria Coprinus “Fleshy Fungi” “Club fungi” (Mushrooms) Aquatic habitats “Water Molds” Septate Bacidiospores produced in club shaped cap called basidium Formed by fusion of 2 hyphae = oogonia with oospores inside Zygospores formed by fusion of 2 hyphae with mixing of DNA Fragmentation Saprolegnia Coenocytic Zoospores (Motile / have flagella) Sporangiospores Formed in a sporangium (spore sac) which is on the end of a sporangiophore) Zygomycota Mucor Rhizopus Saphrophytic Molds “Conjugation Fungi” Coenocytic Non Classified .Physarium polycephalium Also known as “slime mold” Feeds by phagocytosis / and “cytoplasmic streaming” Has properties like an amoeba half amoeba/half mold Observation Techniques PLATE GROWTH (of Penicillium notatum) WET MOUNT (of Saccharomyces cerrevisiae) AGAR BLOCK/Slide culture SPORE PRINT (of a gill fungus) Media used to isolate yeast and other fungi Sabouraud agar – simple nutrients of glucose and peptone and a low pH which inhibits the growth of most other organisms Potato Dextrose Agar – PDA Malt Extract Agar .

beer Microscopic Saccharomyces cerevisiae Microscopic Fusarium Microscopic Mucor Microscopic Sordaria Microscopic Aspergillus 8 .Saccharomyces cerevisiae – on agar Yeast used in making bread. wine.

Itraconazole Amphotericin B (fungazone) Histoplasma capsulatum – A Dimorphic fungus 9 . Lives in soil and spreads mainly along tree roots by shoestring-like threads called rhizomorphs Only surface evidence are its fruiting bodies. Up to 8.Histoplasmosis Nystatin.. a fungus! Scientific name Armillaria ostoyae Located in the Malheur National Forest in eastern Oregon.Microscopic Penicillium Microscopic Alternaria Microscopic Rhizopus What’s the largest thing in the world? It's. Carpets nearly 10 square kilometers (an area equivalent to about 1.600 football fields). known commonly as honey mushrooms... Miconazole Ketoconazole.500 years old Causes large production losses due to root disease Compounds used in treating superficial and systemic fungal infections Superficial = at or near surface Systemic – deep seated infections Systemic Mycosis ..

and usually spreading to the lungs.Blastomycosis Systemic mycosis .Coccidioidomycosis Systemic mycosis . Pneumocystis carnii pneumonia is the 2nd most common opportunistic infection of AIDS patients (Most common = tuberculosis) Superficial subcutaneous mycosis – typically results from fungus entering tissue via a wound. bones.Systemic mycosis . Superficial subcutaneous mycosis Candidiasis – Candida albicans Sporotrichosis – Sporothrix schenckii More oral thrush 10 .Aspergillosis Coccidioides immitis – also called San Joaquin Valley Fever Aspergillus spp – similar infections are also caused by Rhizopus & Mucor Systemic mycosis . and skin.pneumocystis Pneumocystis carnii Blastomyces dermatitidis originating as a respiratory infection.

Produced by Aspergillus flavus Wood Lamp (UV) causes superficial fungal infections to fluoresce 11 .Superficial Cutaneous Mycosis Caused by dermatophytes (dermatomycosis) Stachybotrys Has toxic spores that cause a multitude of symptoms including cognitive impairment and pulmonary hemorrhage Can grow in walls of homes Tinea capitis or “Ringworm of scalp” Tinea unguim or “Nail infection” Tinea pedis or “Athlete’s Foot” Tinea cruris or “Jock Itch” Tinea corpora or “Ringworm of the body” Tinea barbae or “Barber’s Itch” A culture of Stachybotrys chartarum on PDA Diseases/Conditions associated with the mycotoxins Ergot Poisoning – Produces hallucinations and gangrene. associated with infected rye Diagnosis Aflatoxin – Carcinogen associated with peanuts and grains.