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This question paper consists of 2 printed pages, each of which is identified by the Code Number PREN109201

© UNIVERSITY OF LEEDS School of Process, Environmental and Materials Engineering May/June 2007 Examinations

Time allowed: 2 hours Answer three questions, one question from each Section PLEASE SHOW ALL WORKINGS IN ANSWERS TO NUMERICAL QUESTIONS. SECTION A 1 (a) Give concise definitions of the following: (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (b) fire point; flash point; ignition temperature; auto-ignition temperature.

[50 marks]

Outline the pattern of Energy Consumption in the UK industrial and transport sectors. [25 marks] Explain the significance of the calorific value of a fuel. Methane (CH4) has a gross calorific value of 890 MJ/kmol. Calculate the net calorific value (MJ/kmol) given that the Latent heat of H2O = 2442 kJ/kg. [25 marks] SECTION B




Explain the significance of the ‘Proximate Analysis’ and ‘Ultimate Analysis’ of a solid fuel. Show clearly, with examples, how the important physical and chemical properties, which characterise a coal, vary from low to high rank coals. Outline the properties of gaseous fuels that are significant in combustion. Describe the essential features of premixed air blast burners and nozzle mixing burners for industrial gas heating. Turn over



PREN109201 3 Answer two of the following.5 m high. Explain the basic principles of: (i) Power generation from the wind. [55 marks] (b) END 2 . fully involved in fire. that should be learned from the accident. [45 marks] With reference to the above series of events.67 x 10-8 w/(m2 K4)) [65 marks] (b) 5 (a) Describe the events that led to the initiation and escalation of the Piper Alpha disaster. Which is the dominant heat transfer mechanism in large fires? [35 marks] A room. draw technical and management lessons relating to safety. Taking the temperature of the room to be 900oC and the emissivity equal to 0. (a) Discuss the significance and pattern of gaseous pollutant emissions from energy sources. (ii) the incident radiation intensity (W/m2) at a point 4m away.9 calculate: (i) the amount of radiation emitted. List some of the standard fuel testing methods which are used to specify the properties of commercial fuel oils. (ii) Nuclear power generation. is this building at a safe separation distance? (Take the Stefan Boltzman constant as 5. Illustrate your answers with diagrams or graphs as appropriate. If this point was part of a neighbouring building. directly opposite the window. (b) (c) SECTION C 4 (a) Briefly describe the different modes of heat transfer and give examples of how each mode may contribute to the spreading of fire. is emitting radiation to the outside through a window 1 m wide and 1. Outline briefly the basis of two of the tests you have listed and state the significance and application of the results that may be obtained.