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This question paper consists of 4 printed pages, each of which is identified by the Code Number PEME108001

© UNIVERSITY OF LEEDS School of Process, Environmental and Materials Engineering January 2011 Examinations

Time allowed: 3 hours Answer five questions, one question from each section and one other question PLEASE SHOW ALL WORKINGS IN ANSWERS TO NUMERICAL QUESTIONS. SECTION A – Resources 1 With the aid of diagrams and/or flow-sheets, discuss TWO of the following: (a) (b) (c) 2 particle classification using hydrocyclones mineral separation by froth flotation techniques purification of leach liquors by ion-exchange.

[10 marks each]

Review the commercial production and industrial utilisation of TWO of the following commodities: (a) aluminium (b) zinc (c) salt [10 marks each]

SECTION B – Materials Processing 3 (a) For each of FOUR of the articles listed on the following page, select a suitable material from which to produce it and justify your selection in terms of the performance required and the properties of the material. You should be specific in your choice (e.g. aluminium alloy rather than metal, polyethylene rather than polymer, etc.) and may not choose the same material for more than one article. [1 mark each part]

Continued over


(viii) A mooring line for a container ship. in what form and why is there this restriction? [4 marks] What are the strengths and weaknesses of the class relative to the other classes (in terms. [3 marks] Continued over 2 . Comment on the potential for recycling this waste and any problems inherent in this. You may not choose the same principal processing route for more than one article. Forming. (vi) The drive shaft for a wind turbine. (vii) A radiator for a domestic central heating system. (ii) The road wheel of an automobile. (iv) The case for a laptop computer. of the materials which may be processed. indicate the major sources of waste. (b) Draw a flowsheet to represent ONE possible route for the production of each article from your chosen material in its primary form. Fabrication. Take care to include all necessary stages and justify your choice of processing route. (i) (c) 4 (a) What types of materials are suitable for processing by your chosen class. for example. [12 marks] (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (b) (c) Casting (and moulding). [3 marks each part] On your flowsheet. (iii) A cup for a cappuccino. the form of products which may be produced and the properties of the final component)? [4 marks] SECTION C – Chemical Processes 5 Optimisation of the process chemistry and the associated technology are key factors for developing and manufacturing fine chemical products.PEME108001 The pressure vessel of a road tanker to transport liquified petroleum gas. (v) A container for a carbonated beverage. [1 mark each part] Discuss the general features. (a) Defining all terms and with the aid of any key equations outline the main process-related factors that will influence the rate of a chemical reaction. Powder processing. the capabilities and the limitations of ONE of the following classes of processes for the production of engineering components: illustrate your answer with reference to one specific technique taken from that class.

a major accident took place at the Hoffman la Roche plant at Givandan near the Italian town of Seveso. [8 marks] In the summer of 1976. highlight the efficiency of the process and provide the chemical equations for any of the reactions involved. [4 marks] Chemical processes can be operated batch wise or continuously. Explain what happened. types of chemical reactions. highlighting their relation to reaction kinetics. [3 marks] Describe the basic principles underpinning the SN1 and SN2 reaction mechanisms. defining the following terms: a unit operation. a process. Describe the essential differences between these two types of processes with respect to the following headings: basic chemical and materials properties. why it happened and the lessons to be learned from this accident.PEME108001 (b) Write down the balanced chemical equation representing the Haber-Bosch process for the production of ammonia from elemental hydrogen and nitrogen and explain. a process plant. for the complete and incomplete combustion of butane (C4H10) in air. how the physical chemistry associated with this reaction’s chemical equilibrium and reaction kinetics can be optimised in practice to produce a viable economic process. process equipment. [5 marks] Describe the challenges that a chemical engineer faces in scaling up a chemical reaction from the laboratory bench to enable it to be operated at full manufacturing scale on a typical process plant. process economics. [3 marks] Describe the patented commercial process for the manufacture of aspirin including recycling of any reaction side products. using whole-number molecular ratios. [8 marks] SECTION D – Energy and Fuels (b) (c) (d) 7 (a) (b) List the undesirable consequences of incomplete combustion of a gaseous fuel. What is the associated stoichiometric ratio? [6 marks] Continued over 3 . [6 marks] (c) (d) 6 Process engineering enables the transfer of process chemistry into a practical manufacturing operation. (a) With the aid of an appropriate diagram explain what is meant by a process flow diagram. techniques for isolation and separation. [4 marks] Write balanced chemical equations. In this.

What are the main advantages and disadvantages of using solar energy? [10 marks] Explain the principles of generating electricity from wind energy using a horizontal-axis upwind-rotor wind turbine. the adiabatic flame temperature of methane burning in pure oxygen is 3000 K. [10 marks] Explain the principles of generating electricity from solar energy using gridconnected photovoltaic panels. Illustrate your answers with an appropriate diagram or graph. What are the main advantages and disadvantages of using wind energy? [10 marks] END (c) 4 . and 100% oxygen. Discuss the origin of the features and trends in your graphs.PEME108001 (c) At the stoichiometric ratio. for methane (CH4) burning in oxygen-nitrogen mixes of 20% oxygen. Sketch graphs of adiabatic flame temperature as a function of (oxidant/fuel) stoichiometry. [10 marks] 8 Answer TWO of the following. (a) (b) Discuss trends in UK final-energy consumption by major fuel types over the last 40 years. 60% oxygen.