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ǁǁǁ͘ƐĂŬƐŚŝĞĚƵĐĂƚŝŽŶ͘ĐŽŵ

S-Block Elements
Generally one question was asked every year from this topic. This is completely theoretical and little memory based. Last minute revision generally helps. The general trends in the properties of compounds of S-block have to be emphasized. i.e. The stability, action of heat , basic nature and solubility of oxides, hydroxides, halides, carbonates, bicarbonates and sulphates. Sodium Oxide (Na2O): Preparation: (i) It is obtained by burning sodium at 180°C in a limited supply of air or oxygen and distilling off the excess of sodium in vacuum. 180° 2Na + O2   → Na2O (ii) By heating sodium peroxide, nitrate or nitrate with sodium. Na2O2 + 2Na  → 2Na2O 2NaNO3 + 10Na  → 6Na2O + N2 → 4Na2O + N2 2NaNO2 + 6Na  Properties : (i) It is white amorphous mass. (ii) It decomposes at 400°C into sodium peroxide and sodium 400° C 2Na2O  → Na2O2 + 2Na (iii) It dissolves violently in water, yielding caustic soda. → 2NaOH Na2O + H2O  Sodium Peroxides (Na2O2): Preparation: It is formed by heating the metal in excess of air or oxygen at 300°, which is free from moisture and CO2. 2Na + O2  → Na2O2 Properties: (i) It is a pale yellow solid, becoming white in air from the formation of a film of NaOH and Na2CO3. (ii) In cold water (~0°C) produces H2O2 but at room temperature produces O2. In ice-cold mineral acids also produces H2O2. Na2O2 + 2H2O  → 2NaOH + H2O2
25 C 2Na2O2 + 2H2O  → 4NaOH + O2
0

(iii)

(iv)

→ Na2SO4 + H2O2 Na2O2 + H2SO4  It reacts with CO2, giving sodium carbonate and oxygen and hence its use for purifying air in a confined space e.g. submarine, ill-ventilated room, 2Na2O2 + 2CO2  → 2Na2CO3 + O2 It is an oxidising agent and oxidises charcoal, CO, NH3, SO2.

→ 2Na2CO3 + 2Na [deposition of metallic Na] 3Na2O2 + 2C  CO + Na2O2  → Na2CO3 → Na2SO4 SO2 + Na2O2  2NH3 + 3Na2O2  → 6NaOH + N2 It contains peroxide ion [–O–O–]–2

(v)

ǁǁǁ͘ƐĂŬƐŚŝĞĚƵĐĂƚŝŽŶ͘ĐŽŵ

(ii) It emits intense light (lime light). NH3  white red yellow KO2 reacts with H2O and produces H2O2 and O2 both → 2KOH + H2O2 + O2 2KO2 + 2H2O  KO3 : −10° to −15° C KOH + O3 (ozonised oxygen)  → KO3 (Dry powdered) (orange solid) Calcium Oxide (CaO): It is commonly called as quick lime or lime and made by decomposing lime stone at a high temperature about 1000°C. ǁǁǁ͘ƐĂŬƐŚŝĞĚƵĐĂƚŝŽŶ͘ĐŽŵ . when heated in oxygen-hydrogen flame. → CaSiO3 CaO + SiO2  (iv) CaO + CO2  → CaCO3 It combines with water to produce slaked lime. Red KO2 Bright Yellow and KO3 Orange Solid Preparation: Heating 6K2O + N2 (i) 2KNO3 + 10K → Heating K2O → K2O (White) (Yellow) → 2KOH K2O + H2O  (ii) (iii) Controlled 2K + O2  → K2O2 [Props: Similar with Na2O2] air at 300° C Passage of O2 through a blue solution of K in liquid NH3 yields oxides K2O2 (white).g. deliquescent. Sodium Hydroxides: Preparation: (i) Caustication of Na2CO3 (Gossage's method): Na2CO3 + Ca(OH)2  → 2NaOH + CaCO3¯ (suspension) Since the Ksp (CaCO3) < Ksp (Ca(OH)2). (ii) It is stable towards heat. Colours: White White K2O3. (iii) It is an basic oxide and combines with some acidic oxide e. → CaO + CO2 + 42000 cal CaCO3  Properties: (i) It is white amorphous powder of m. 2570°C. highly corrosive solid. K2O3 (red) and KO2 (deep yellow) i.p. (iii) It's aqueous solution alkaline in nature and soapy in touch. Properties: (i) It is white crystalline. K2O2. the reaction shifts towards right. CaO + H2O  → Ca(OH)2 Magnesium Peroxide (MgO2) and Calcium Peroxide (CaO2): These are obtained by passing H2O2 in a suspension of Mg(OH)2 and Ca(OH)2.e O2 → K2O2  → K2O3  → KO2 K in liq.ǁǁǁ͘ƐĂŬƐŚŝĞĚƵĐĂƚŝŽŶ͘ĐŽŵ Oxides of Potassium: K2O.

→ MgO + H2O Mg(OH)2  (ii) It is slightly soluble in water imparting alkalinity.g. (d) As a reagent KOH is less frequently used but in absorption of CO2. Cl etc. Sodium Carbonate: Preparation: (i) Leblanc Process: Mild heating NaHSO4 + HCl NaCl + H2SO4 (conc.e. CO2 + 2NaOH  → Na2CO3 + H2O → 2NaAlO2 + H2O Al2O3 + 2NaOH  Aluminium and Zn metal gives H2 from NaOH (v) (vi) (vii) 2Al + 2NaOH + 2H2O  → 3H2 + 2NaAlO2 Several non metals such as P.ǁǁǁ͘ƐĂŬƐŚŝĞĚƵĐĂƚŝŽŶ͘ĐŽŵ (iv) NH4Cl + NaOH  → NaCl + NH3. 4P + 3NaOH + 3H2O  → PH3 + 3NaH2PO2 (Disproportionation reaction) Potassium Hydroxide: Properties: Same as NaOH (a) It is stronger base compared to NaOH. NaOH is sparingly soluble but KOH is highly soluble.+ H2O FeCl3 + 3NaOH  → Fe(OH)3 ¯ + 3NaCl Brown ppt → Zn(OH)2 ¯ + 2NaCl ZnCl2 + 2NaOH  Zn(OH)2 ¯ + 2NaOH  → Na2ZnO2 + 2H2O [Same with AlCl3.g. PbCl2] soluble Acidic and amphoteric oxides gets dissolved easily e. (c) In alcohol. SnCl2. Because KHCO3 formed is soluble whereas NaHCO3 is insoluble and may therefore choke the tubes of apparatus used. (iii) It dissolves in NH4Cl solution Mg(OH)2 + 2NH4Cl  → MgCl2 + 2NH4OH Thus.) → Strong heating → Na2SO4 + HCl NaCl + NaHSO4  (Salt Cake) Na2SO4 + 4C  → Na2S + 4CO(ii) → Na2CO3 + CaS Na2S + CaCO3  Solvay Process: NH3 + H2O + CO2  → NH4HCO3 NaCl + NH4HCO3  → NaHCO3 + NH4Cl 150 C 2NaHCO3  → Na2CO3 + H2O + CO2 0 ǁǁǁ͘ƐĂŬƐŚŝĞĚƵĐĂƚŝŽŶ͘ĐŽŵ . S. (b) Solubility in water is more compared to NaOH. yield a hydride instead of hydrogen. Mg(OH)2 is not precipitated from a solution of Mg+2 ions by NH4OH in presence of excess of NH4Cl. Magnesium Hydroxide: (i) It can be dried at temperature upto 100°C only otherwise it breaks into its oxide at higher temperature. KOH is preferably used compared to NaOH.

Potassium bicarbonate: Preparation: Prepared by Le-Blanc process and can’t be prepared by solvey process due to its more solubility. CaCO3 + H2O + CO2  → Ca(HCO3)2 Sodium bicarbonates: Preparation: By absorption of CO2 in Na2CO3 solution. It is called as Epsom salt.e. Calcium Carbonate: It occurs in nature as marble. → CaCO3 + 2NH4Cl CaCl2 + (NH4)2CO3  Properties: (i) It dissociates above 1000°C as follows: → CaO + CO2 CaCO3  (ii) It dissolves in water containing CO2 forming Ca(HCO3)2 but is precipitated from the solution by boiling. chalk. Na2CO3 + H2O + CO2  → 2NaHCO3 (iii) It dissolved in acid with effervescence of CO2 and causticised by lime to give caustic soda. H2SO4. 7H2O. MgSO4.7H2O ǁǁǁ͘ƐĂŬƐŚŝĞĚƵĐĂƚŝŽŶ͘ĐŽŵ . it can be prepared but by solvay process it cannot be prepared because KHCO3 is soluble in water. calcite etc. by precipitating with NH3 and then adding (NH4)2CO3 to the solution. m. MgSO4. (ii) It is also obtained by dissolving magnesite in hot dil. is 900°C but a mixture of Na2CO3 and K2CO3 melts at 712°C. It is prepared by dissolving marble or limestone in HCl and removing iron and aluminium present. It is more alkaline and more soluble in water compared to NaHCO3. Magnesium Sulphate: Preparation: (i) It is obtained by dissolving kieserite. (iii) (iv) MgCO3 + H2SO4  → MgSO4 + H2O + CO2 or by dissolving dolomite (CaCO3. ZnSO4. 7H2O. coral. i. It is isomorphous with FeSO4.p. limestone. H2SO4 and removing the insoluble CaSO4 by filtration. which does not decompose on heating but melts at 852°C. H2O in boiling water and then crystallising the solution as a hepta hydrate. Properties: It resembles with Na2CO3. → 2NaHCO3 Na2CO3 + H2O + CO2  Uses: It is used in medicine and as baking powder. (ii) Na2CO3 absorbs CO2 yielding sparingly soluble sodium bicarbonate which can be calcined at 250° to get pure sodium carbonate. Na2CO3 + HCl  → 2NaCl + H2O + CO2 → 2NaOH + CaCO3 Na2CO3 + Ca(OH)2  Potassium Carbonate: By leblance process. MgCO3) in hot dil.ǁǁǁ͘ƐĂŬƐŚŝĞĚƵĐĂƚŝŽŶ͘ĐŽŵ Properties: (i) Anhydrous Na2CO3 is called as soda ash.

ǁǁǁ͘ƐĂŬƐŚŝĞĚƵĐĂƚŝŽŶ͘ĐŽŵ Calcium Sulphate: It occurs as anhydrite CaSO4 and as the dihydrate CaSO4. Nitrogen. gypsum. Properties: (i) (ii) (iii) an.CaSO4 (Dead burnt. − H 2O − H 2O Gypsum 1200 C (Plaster of paris) 2000 C P-Block Elements This is one of the most important topics in inorganic chemistry Analysis of previous year’s papers reveals that questions were asked more frequently on the chemistry of Boron. alabaster or satin-spar. Plaster paris is used in mould making due to its porous body. (i) Occurrence and isolation (ii) Preparation and structures of hydrides (iii) Preparation. Plaster) Solubility of CaSO4 at first increases upto a certain point and then decreases with rise of temperature. stability orders. Properties and structures of oxides (iv) Acidic nature. 2H2O. hydrolysis and structures of halides The general chemistry of halogens has to be revised once. heating effect and structures of oxyacids (v) Preparation. Phosphorus and Sulphur. ǁǁǁ͘ƐĂŬƐŚŝĞĚƵĐĂƚŝŽŶ͘ĐŽŵ . About these non metals the following areas are to be emphasized. Silicon.