You are on page 1of 10

ENVIRONMENTS OF DEPOSITION

Where do we get sediments deposited and what kind of sediment gets deposited? The o! of a sedimentar" petro#ogist is to esta!#ish the pa#eogeograph" and pro$enan%e of the materia#&

TERRESTRI'() *#a%ia# Eo#ian (a%+strine '##+$ia# fans F#+$ia# TR'NSITION'() De#ta ,oasta# !a"s -est+aries and #agoons. /ea%h and !arrier is#and Tida# M'RINE) ,ar!onate p#atforms S#ope and rise Deep o%eani% T+r!idit"0si#i%#asti% she#$es

T+r!idit" %+rrents and graded !edding .Something m+st !e %hanged< to %a+se a sma## hiat+s in sediment deposition7 e&g& %hange in %+rrent $e#o%it"7 %hange in %+rrent dire%tion7 %hange from eo#ian to f#+$ia# or %hange in orientation -!ea%h to ri$er. In the #ong r+n7 what do m+ds te## +s a!o+t pro$enan%e55a%t+a##" $er" #itt#e& In terms of en$ironment of deposition $er" #itt#e& Wh"? The" te## +s $er" #itt#e !e%a+se the" are made +p of 8+art97 %a#%ite7 minor fe#dspar and ph"##osi#i%ates& The t"pe of ph"##osi#i%ate fo+nd is dependent +pon #atit+de -%#imate.3S TE(( 4S '/O4T T1ESE ENVIRONMENTS? M4DS) the" %an !e marine or non5marine sha##ow or deep aerated or stagnant E6amp#e) 't#anti% O%ean -+sed o$erheads.7 howe$er that is !asi%a##" a## the information "o+ %an get& The" %an !e fine#" #aminated7 !+t the" don:t show dire%tiona# str+%t+res or man" str+%t+res that indi%ate an en$ironment of deposition& Fine5grained materia# %annot !e easi#" ro+nded7 and th+s7 we don:t know m+%h histor" of the sediment and %annot determine the pro$enan%e& S'NDSTONES) /edding p#anes .'N SEDIMENT'R2 RO.& Bedding) #a"ering e6pressed as $erti%a# differen%es in aspe%ts s+%h as %o#or7 grain si9e7 %omposition7 et%& res+#ting from $ariation with time in the %onditions of deposition or sediment so+r%e& -Massi$e7 thi%k7 medi+m7 thin !eds= #aminations.W1'T .

ommon#" repeated in se8+en%e& Mat+rit") Te6t+ra# and Minera#ogi%a# There are two kinds of mat+rit" in sediments7 te6t+ra# and minera#ogi%a#& Te6t+ra# is defined !" the sorting -grain si9e. as a res+#t of high5energ" %+rrent -ri$er or wa$es. to main !edding p#anes7 and tr+n%ated at top !" ne6t s+%%eeding %ross5#aminated !ed& Deposited !" %+rrents that %hanged dire%tion fre8+ent#"& Dip dire%tion of #amination points down %+rrent& & .T+r!idit" %+rrents are %oherent mi6t+res of gra$e#7 sand7 m+d and water that mo$e down s#ope from sha##ow depths in #akes or in the sea toward the !asin f#oor& The %oarser materia# deposits first7 and then fines +pwards& Th+s indi$id+a# graded !eds %an !e tra%ed #atera##" in the fie#d for se$era# ki#ometers in %ross5se%tions of an%ient s+!marine fans& Graded bedding) %oarsest grains at !ottom7 grad+a##" fining +pward to top of !ed& From p+#se of sediment s+pp#ied !" %+rrent of de%reasing %ompeten%e& . and ro+ndness of the sediment= minera#ogi%a# mat+rit" is defined !" the 8+art9 %ontent& ' ro%k that is %omposed of we##5ro+nded 8+art9 grains of a restri%ted grain si9e is %onsidered to !e $er" mat+re& ' ro%k7 s+%h as a gre"wa%ke7 whi%h is %omposed of m+d7 si#t and sand si9ed materia# wo+#d !e te6t+ra##" immat+re& If it %ontained #ithi% %#asts and few 8+art9 grains it wo+#d !e minera#ogi%a##" immat+re& Dire%tiona# indi%ators Str+%t+res in ro%ks that indi%ate the dire%tion of %+rrent f#ow in%#+de the fo##owing) Pebble imbrication ) dis%oid pe!!#es oriented at an ang#e to !edding in a %ong#omerate ->#eaning on ea%h other>.& Cross-bedding) thin !eds or #aminations7 deposited at an ang#e -ang#e of repose.

ripp#es) ro+nded !ottoms7 sharper7 s"mmetri%a# %rests) from os%i##ating wa$es in sha##ow water& . ripp#es) steeper on one side than the other showing dire%tion of %+rrent f#ow 's"mmetri%a# ripp#es wi## show %+rrent dire%tion) S"mmetri%a# ripp#es show "o+nging dire%tion) .+rrent -as"mmetri%.Ripples Short5wa$e#ength wa$es or ripp#es in a !edding p#ane res+#ting from %+rrent deposition& Os%i##ation -s"mmetri%a#.

!eing dragged a#ong fresh#" deposited m+d and #ater infi##ed with %oarser5grained materia#7 th+s %a+sing a groo$e %ast& The" are a#so fo+nd on the !ottom of !eds& The" "ie#d the trend of the %+rrent dire%tion7 e&g& east west !+t not the a%t+a# dire%tion& Parting Lineation .Sole marks such as flute casts and groove casts F#+te %asts are as"mmetri%a# str+%t+res fo+nd on the !ottom of !eds and therefore are %a##ed so#e marks& The" are s%oop #ike str+%t+res %a+sed !" erosion of fresh#" deposited m+d on an +nderwater s#ope -t+r!idit" %+rrent.& The #ong dire%tion is in the %+rrent dire%tion& *roo$e %asts are %a+sed !" sediment -ro%ks or sti%ks.

On the a!o$e samp#e7 there appears to !e a #ineation in a northeast dire%tion %a+sed !" the a#ignment of grains d+ring deposition& This represents the trend of the %+rrent when the sediment was #aid down& Water depth Water depth %an !e estimated !" #ooking at the tra%e fossi#s -i%hnofossi#s. in ro%ks& These in%#+de the tra%ks7 trai#s7 and !+rrows of !ottom dwe##ing organisms& In the tida# 9one7 the" !+rrow deep7 howe$er7 in the deep water the" tend to sta" on the s+rfa%e -i&e&0on the !edding p#anes that we see now.& Pro%esses of sedimentation and diagenesis #ea$e ph"si%a# e$iden%e in the res+#ting deposit of man" aspe%ts of these pro%esses 5 rate7 energ"7 %hemi%a# %onditions7 in$o#$ement of organisms7 %onstan%" or $aria!i#it"7 t"pe of depositiona# agent7 et%& /e#ow are des%riptions of some of the most important and %ommon sedimentar" str+%t+res and a !rief statement a!o+t their origin& .

& Tra%e fossi#s are re%ords of #ife and e$ents that took p#a%e in situ d+ring or soon after the deposition of the sediment& The" often o%%+r where no !od" fossi#s ha$e !een preser$ed7 for e6amp#e in non5marine red !eds7 or where organisms were entire#" soft5!odied& -See a!o$e. vugs) ho##ow7 %r"sta#5#ined %a$ities& gro+ndwaters& . Geodes.r"sta#s deposited !" per%o#ating Impacted boulders) /o+#ders that show impa%t sites d+e to other !o+#ders or %o!!#es hitting them& This o%%+rs in a stream en$ironment& Load casts7 f#ame str+%t+res) +pward pro e%tions from the top of one !ed into the !ase of the ne6t7 res+#ting from the e6%ess weight of a s+dden p+#se of new sediment onto a soft7 +n%onso#idated7 water5sat+rated s+rfa%e& ud cracks) po#"gona# shrinkage %ra%ks in a m+dd" #a"er res+#ting from .Bioturbation) E$iden%e of #i$ing organisms ha$ing mo$ed thro+gh sediment -tra%e fossi#.

pisolites) ro+nd or ro+ndish parti%#es !+i#t +p !" %hemi%a# a%%retion in #a"ers on some n+%#e+s5forming parti%#e= e6%ept for piso#ites formed in resid+a# soi# -as in !a+6ite. sediment of ne6t #a"er a!o$e& !odules.7 re8+ire energeti% wa$e a%tion in re#ati$e#" sha##ow water& Septarian !odule ) In some %on%retions in m+dstones7 parti%+#ar#" those with a %ar!onate %ement7 the %entra# parts of %on%retions show a pattern or irreg+#ar #enti%+#ar %ra%ks fi##ed with %oarse %a#%ite %r"sta#s& These are septarian nod+#es and the %ra%king ref#e%ts a s"naeresis5t"pe %ontra%tion d+e to the dewatering of a ge#5#ike mass of %#a" minera#s& .desi%%ation= fi##ed in with %oarser -+s+a##". concretions) %oherent #+mps formed diageneti%a##" or on sediment s+rfa%e !" %hemi%a# pre%ipitation7 rep#a%ement& "olites.

St#lolites) agged7 dark p#anes ro+gh#" para##e# to !edding within #imestone& .on%entration of organi% materia# as a res+#t of partia# disso#+tion of the #imestone after !+ria#& $entifact) F#at5sided %#asts with two7 three or fo+r fa%ets7 the smooth s+rfa%es of whi%h ma" !e pitted7 f#+ted and po#ished7 are known as $entifa%ts7 i&e& wind5 fashioned7 sand5!#asted o! e%ts& .