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Chemical Equilibrium
This one of the small chapters. Questions were not asked regularly Focus on: (i)Factors affecting equilibrium constant and related problems (ii)Applications of Lechatlier’s Pricciple Relation between Kp and Kc Kp = Kc (RT)∆n ∆n = moles of gaseous product - moles of gaseous reactants. Factors Affecting Equilibrium Constant: 1. Methods of representing the equation. 2NH3, Kc N2 + 3H2 Now for the reaction 12 N2 + 3 2 H2 NH3, Kc′ ∴ Kc′ = K c
2. Van’t Hoff Reaction Isotherm Van’t Hoff reaction isotherm is ∆ = ∆ ˜ +  •—  Where ∆G and ∆G° be the free energy change and standard state free energy change respectively and Q is reaction quotient. For equilibrium ∆ = Ŗ hence Q=K Thus ∆ ° = − •— or ∆ ° = −ŘǯřŖř  •˜ Temperature Dependence of Equilibrium Constant.
∆ ° = − •— ™

Differentiating with respect to temp. at constant. pressure we get log
K2 ∆H  T2 − T1  =   K 1 2.303R  T1 T2 

Dependence of Degree of Dissociation on Density Measurement: Consider the reaction PCl5(g) PCl3(g) + Cl2(g) Initial moles: a 0 0 a(1–α) aα aα Since, total mass is constant M ×
M a(1 + α ) = m a M D Or 1+α = D = V.D of undissociated PCl5 = m d
1 n

d = V.D. of gaseous mix, at equilibrium Reaction Quotient (Qc) :
It is an expression that has the same form as the equilibrium constant expression, but all concentration values are not necessarily those at equilibrium aA+bB cC+dD

Qc =

[C] [D] [A ] [B]
c a



i) If Qc > Kc, backward reaction takes place ii) If Qc < Kc, forward reaction takes place. iii) If Qc = Kc, the reaction mixture is at equilibrium


4 atm C 2 3. reaction will take place in a direction in which volume decrease so that the product of pressure and volume remains constant. iii) If volume is decreased. reaction should be carried out at high pressure and vice-versa. iv) If the concentration of any one of the species of the reaction is increased. 1. ii) If the pressure is increased. of moles at equilibrium shows an increase. % of B reacted is (A) 10% (B) 20% (C) 40% (D) 60% 1 D 2.32 but when heated to 230oC. reaction will proceed in a direction in which heat is evolved so that temperature remains constant. The molecular mass of PCl5 is 208. then reaction takes place in that direction in which concentration gets decreased. It is heated to 600K when 20% by mass of it dissociates as: AB5(g)  → AB(g) + 2B2(g).2 atm (B) 2. If 1. Model Questions 2C + D.8 atm (C) 1.8% (B) 46% (C) 64% (D) 68% D 3 ǁǁǁ͘ƐĂŬƐŚŝĞĚƵĐĂƚŝŽŶ͘ĐŽŵ . In the following hypothetical reaction A + 3B at equilibrium moles of B and C are equal. it is reduced to 124. It only increases the total pressure but does not alter the partial pressure of various species. ii) At Constant Pressure: The addition of an inert gas at constant pressure will favour the direction of reaction where total no.4 atm (C) 2. Addition of an Inert Gas at Constant Volume or Constant Pressure i) At Constant Volume: The addition of an inert gas at constant volume has no effect. reaction will proceed in a direction in which heat is absorbed and if the temperature is lowered.ǁǁǁ͘ƐĂŬƐŚŝĞĚƵĐĂƚŝŽŶ͘ĐŽŵ Le-Chatelier’s Principle .0 mole of AB5(g) is placed in a closed container under one atmosphere at 300K. The extent of dissociation of PCl5 at this temperature will be (A) 6. initial moles of A is twice that of B.Conclusions: i) If the temperature is raised. The resultant pressure is (A) 1.