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# ǁǁǁ͘ƐĂŬƐŚŝĞĚƵĐĂƚŝŽŶ͘ĐŽŵ

Atomic Structure Questions were not asked regularly from this chapter. In the last four years of objective pattern matching type questions asked in 2006 & 2008. Areas to be focused are Bohr’s model & hydrogen spectrum, quantum numbers and electronic configuration Mostly formula based problems come from this chapter. Committing mistakes can be over come by use of appropriate formula in the right format and use of all physical quantities in same units(SI units) Expressions for radius, energy and velocity of electron moving in nth orbit of hydrogen atom (or hydrogen like species)
  h2 n2 r = n2  2 = 0.529 × Å  2 Z  4π m(Ze / 4πε0 ) 2 1  2π2m(Ze 2 / 4πε0 )  Z2 –12 E=− 2   = – 21.8 × 10 × 2 erg per atom 2 n  h n  2 2 Z Z = – 13.6 × 2 eV per atom = – 313.6 × 2 Kcal per mol n n Z 2π(Ze2 / 4πε0 ) ν= = 2.18 × 108 × cm/sec. nh n

The expression of spectral transitions is ∆E = Z2 Rhhc  
1 1 − 2 2   n1 n2 
2

where RH, known as Rydberg constant, RH =

2π2m(e 2 / 4πε0 ) = 1.09678 × 10 7 m−1 h3 c

Hydrogen Spectra The lines in the series were related to one another and could be represented in a single formula
1  1  1 = RH  2 − 2  m  λ n

λ is the corresponding wavelength, RH is a constant (Rydberg constant), n and m are whole numbers related to the series as follows: Lyman series n=1 m = 2, 3, 4 … Balmer series n=2 m = 3, 4, 5 … Paschen series n=3 m = 4, 5, 6 … Brackett series n=4 m = 5, 6, 7 … Pfund series n=5 m = 6, 7, 8 … Heisenberg’s Uncertainity Principle: According to this principle “it is not possible to determine precisely both the position and the momentum (or velocity) of a microscopic moving particle”. Mathematical expression is ∆x ×∆p ≥ De Broglie’s Equation: According to de Broglie’s theory electron has a dual character, both as a material particle and as a wave. Wavelength (λ) of a particle of mass m, moving with velocity V is expressed as h h h (h = Planck’s constant) (or) λ = (or ) λ = Ek=Kinetic energy, V=Potential λ = mV 2mEk 2meV difference
h 4π

ǁǁǁ͘ƐĂŬƐŚŝĞĚƵĐĂƚŝŽŶ͘ĐŽŵ

respectively Z .  2 8π m   Nodes: Number of radial / spherical nodes = n – l – 1. p.2. h = Planck’s constant E = total energy of electron.E Schrodinger Wave Equation: The behaviour of an electron inside an atom can be expressed through Schrodinger Wave Equation. hν = hνo + K. For s. Nodal plane: Number of nodal plane for a sub shell = l ǁǁǁ͘ƐĂŬƐŚŝĞĚƵĐĂƚŝŽŶ͘ĐŽŵ .1. so. ∂ 2 ψ ∂ 2 ψ ∂ 2 ψ 8π 2 m + + + 2 [E − V] ψ = 0 ∂x 2 ∂y 2 ∂z 2 h Ψ= wave function.sub – shells of orbitals. ∇2ψ + V = potential energy of electron.ǁǁǁ͘ƐĂŬƐŚŝĞĚƵĐĂƚŝŽŶ͘ĐŽŵ Orbital Angular Momentum of Electron: L= ( + 1) h 2π = azimuthal Q. = 0. θ ≠ 0 s(s + 1) h 2π n(n − 1) 2 Spin angular momentum of electron. ∇ 2 is Laplacian Operator h2 ∇ 2ψ + Eψ − V ψ = 0 . Ls = Number of possible spectral lines that may be emitted by a sample of one electron system (atom or ion) containing all or some speeds excited to nth energy level = Number of revolutions per second made by an electron in nth orbit = Photoelectric Effect: Vn =n 2πrn Electrons come out as soon as a beam of light falls on the surface of the metal if the frequency of incident light is greater than threshold frequency.N. 8π 2 m   h2 V − ∇ 2  ψ = Eψ. d.Component of orbital angular momentum of an electron in an orbital is given by  h  L = m   2π  Where m = – to + including zero (only integral value) If θ be the angle between Z – axis and angular momentum vector then L2 = L cosθ Or m  h   =  2π  ( + 1) h Cosθ 2π Or m = Since m ≠ ( + 1) cosθ ( + 1) . f -----------. 8π 2 m (E − V)ψ = 0 : h2 m = mass of electron. More is the number of nodes more is the energy of orbital.3 ---------.

84 cm For an electron in a hydrogen atom the wave function.5 RH (C) 8 RH 2.175 cm (D) 3.0 x 104 cm s–1 accurate up to 0. The uncertainty in the position of electron moving with a velocity of 3. The difference between nth and (n + 1)th Bohr’s radius of H-atom is equal to its (n – 1)th Bohr’s radius.011% will be (A) 1.92 cm (B) 7. (D) 8 9 RH 3. The value of n is (A) 1 (B) 2 (C) 3 (D) 4 Uncertainty in position and momentum are equal. − r (A) e 6. The wave number of radiation emitted during the transition of electron in between two levels of Li2+ ion whose principal quantum numbers sum is 4 and difference is 2 is: (B) 4 RH (A) 3. o 1 h 2m π (D) 1 h m 2π 5. where ao is the Bohr’s radius. Then uncertainty in velocity is (A) 1 h/π m (B) 1 h/π m (C) 4.68 cm (C) 0. ψ is proportional to e a .ǁǁǁ͘ƐĂŬƐŚŝĞĚƵĐĂƚŝŽŶ͘ĐŽŵ Model Questions 1. then the magnitude of orbital angular   momentum can be (A) 2 h / 2π (B) 3 h / 2 π (C) 6 h / 2π (D) Both A and C 1 C 2 D 3 C 4 C 5 D 6 D ǁǁǁ͘ƐĂŬƐŚŝĞĚƵĐĂƚŝŽŶ͘ĐŽŵ . (B) e2 (C) 1 e2 (D) zero h  If Z-component of orbital angular momentum is   2π  . What is the ratio of probability of finding the electron at the nucleus to the probability of finding it at ao.