You are on page 1of 8

TECHNIQUE

Arranging For Strings: Part 2
The second part of our string-arranging series ventures into more dramatic musical territory, and explains how to manipulate orchestral string articulations when creating MIDI arrangements.
DAVE STEWART

L

other common performance styles and discuss how to incorporate them into a strings arrangement.

ast month, we looked at an extract from a string arrangement I wrote for a song called ‘Truenorth’ by the UK band No-man (www.soundonsound. com/sos/jun12/articles/string-theory-pt1. htm). The example I chose was a fairly simple, restrained and supportive affair based on chord pads. This is something strings do supremely well, as evidenced by countless pop ballads down the years, but it’s only one facet of what they can bring to a track. This month, I’ll look at

Further North
Before moving on to more histrionic examples, I’d like to dwell on ‘Truenorth’ a little longer, to demonstrate how strings can add subtle rhythmic and harmonic enhancement to a quiet, lyrical composition. This long-form song features a flute solo played over a rolling 16th-note acoustic guitar part. The guitarist (Steven Wilson) had also overdubbed an African hand-drum part, so there was already

a fair amount of rhythmic action going on; however, I felt the strings could add something in that department, so I wrote the arrangement in diagram 1. These accented staccato punctuations add drama without upstaging the main event (Theo Travis’ flute solo). All the stabs are played staccatissimo (ie. very short), and though notated as eighth notes for convenience, their actual duration is more like a 16th note. By way of contrast, the quarter notes in bars 8-16 are played full length with no accents. The difference between them and the short stabs is thus very pronounced (akin to the

144

July 2012 / w w w . s o u n d o n s o u n d . c o m

marked in blue) lies a tone below the playable range of the viola.) To ratchet up the angst in this music. being the go-to orchestral delivery for fast. Bb. Cmaj7. four bars of which are shown in diagram 2. contrasting with the long. as you can probably tell by now. often with an intermittent flattened sixth interval thrown in to add an air of mystery and anxiety. Much of the cinematic music in this vein that one hears nowadays is played and. The players attack the melodies with enormous gusto. Sustaining those notes over the bass line of A. s o u n d o n s o u n d . constructed from alternating tone and semitone intervals. the acoustic guitar chords (played in an arpeggiated style) maintain an open high E and B string throughout the changes. Like the whole-tone scale. and that disparity gives the rhythm a lift and a lilt. exploiting the mild dissonance of juxtaposed tones and semitones. where the stabs on the first beat of each bar are replaced by longer notes and the staccato accents become a little quieter. I used string samples from Spitfire Audio’s Albion. the ear assumes a major key. Why not use violins for the upper part? Well. I used it myself recently in a short trailer-style piece. key) of a piece of music is all a question of context and expectation. The four string parts were scored for (from top down) eight first violins. six second violins. E and F#. I based my short piece round the harmonically ambiguous scale of G.) Anxious to give that particular cliché a wide berth. Db. difference between the open and closed hits of a drummer’s hi-hat). since the latter pitch (marked in red) is the lowest note on the violin. C and F adds an interesting harmonic dimension to what would otherwise be a rather plain sequence. and have always enjoyed the wonderful string-orchestra styles associated with those genres. I’d have given the upper part to violas and the lower part to the cellos. unaccented quarter notes in bars 8-16. each of which can lay equal claim to being the ‘home key’. ostinatos (repeated motifs of equal-length notes). as its lowest pitch (the B flat in bar four. sinuous feel and (to Western ears) exotic atmosphere to the music. this four-bar extract would be most effectively orchestrated by assigning the top line to violas and the lower part to cellos. and their trademark style of sliding between notes adds a fabulous. Play the first Am9 chord on a keyboard to see what I mean — its C and B semitone interval has a nice bitter-sweet ring to it! A small refinement occurs in the second eight bars. at this point in the song. at which point the same four notes take on a diminished feel. This particular technique doesn’t seem to occur much in w w w . at around 6:20. requiring a more supportive and less rhythmically pointed string arrangement. Eb. my personal preference is to avoid the expected and try not to make the context too obvious! Hooray For Bollywood Like many people. I felt the violas would sound tonally stronger playing the low As and Gs. Diagram 2: Staccatissimo strings ostinatos are commonly used as a tension-building device in action film cues. of course. This undermines the tonality further: on hearing the first four notes of the top line played over an F#. A. four violas and four cellos. This delivery is highly effective in rhythmic had I scored it for live players. And. although the notes technically fall within the violin’s range. For this arrangement. I’m very fond of Indian film and pop music. thereby creating the opportunity for much enjoyable jangling. I wrote a bass line that fluctuates unpredictably between F# and G.Diagram 1: This 16-bar extract from No-man’s ‘Truenorth’ string arrangement occurs halfway through the song. and their accented eighth notes are played staccatissimo (very short). I tried to increase the exoticism by using close voicings in the string parts. Can you work out what the four major triads are? (The answer’s at the end of the article. c o m / July 2012 145 . the flute solo finishes and the vocal re-enters. tension-building action film cues. this scale has no fixed tonal centre — it actually contains four major triads. C. which can only be played on its open bottom string. the guitar chords are Aadd2. the lower part could only be played by cellos. but in a minor key. with the B occasionally changing to a C. but that’s subverted as soon as the bass note moves up to G. Establishing the ‘tonal centre’ (ie. The chord names shown apply to the strings parts. If played by live players. (You know the kind of thing — a repeated E-minor arpeggio of E-G-B-G. Tension Builder The staccatissimo strings style is commonly used for music of a less subtle nature. on account of the identical set of intervals that arises from their root note. As you can see from the diagram. Fmaj7#4 and Cmaj7 over E. That’s because.

2. sort out click track. After a few choruses. ring a fixer and check the players’ availability. 8. phrasing was an important consideration: string players usually play all the notes of a phrase under one continuous bow movement. violas and cellos in three parallel octaves. followed by a short gap as they lift the bow prior to starting the next phrase. ‘Bollywood’-style strings lead line from Porcupine Tree’s ‘Sleep Together’. ask for a demo of the song. Once you’ve nailed that. some acts work abroad a lot of the time. a song from their album Fear of a Blank Planet. studio.) 7. the European classical tradition. the bass and drums eventually come back in. you can’t book musicians for a three-hour session and expect them to record two and a half hours of material! 4. As you can see in diagram 3. check backing track balance. In the end.) 13. 16. strong sound which was very effective in this setting. Make a spreadsheet budget and send it to the band’s management and/or paymaster. Send a demo of the arrangement to the band for comments. at the 6:20 mark. Availabilities of all parties need to be checked well in advance.TECHNIQUE H O W TO A R R a N G E F O R S t R I N G s : Pa Rt 2 Diagram 3: A soaring. heavy rock style with a thundering. Book the players. the players instinctively knew what to do. I was therefore pleased to be able to employ it in my string arrangement for Porcupine Tree’s ‘Sleep Together’. Make sure the stems and copyist’s parts arrive at the studio in good time for the session. In order to further accentuate the Bollywood flavour. The three-octave unison created a big. but for me it’s a highly appealing performance style with great applications in pop and rock. because as soon as they read the words ‘Bollywood Chorus’ on their parts. (I usually send a mix and a strings-only version. as. s o u n d o n s o u n d . agonisingly tense build-up begins. the second and third phrases start on the second eighth-note of the bar rather than the downbeat. slow. such notational issues proved largely academic. Phrases are notated by placing curved lines over groups of notes. 9. Bollywood-style lead line to be played in unison by the 22 string players. so you can hear exactly what’s being played on the track. Ask the band to send you a demo of any ideas they have for the strings — I usually ask for a MIDI file as well as a strings-only audio file. Estimate how long it will take you to write and demo the arrangement. arranger. and decide how much you’ll charge for the arrangement. send a score. Once the arrangement is approved. etc. and two octaves down by four cellos. played in a slowish. session fixer fees (a fixer will give you this info over the phone). The melody (which features portamento pitch slides between many of its notes) is played by violins. Decide how many players are required and how long it will take to record them. the guitars are unleashed and the band explodes into the final choruses. Here’s a suggested start-to-finish procedure for creating and recording a real string arrangement: 1.. Before committing to the work. and the last bar is made up of a triumphal high note followed by two fast descending phrases. 5. but since some notes are played without a slide and others feature a grace note instead. send a second demo incorporating the requested changes. studio and copyist. the flattened second and sharp fourth) over the A chord. so wrote a soaring. 15. The important bit: write the arrangement. Check the availability of copyist. Check the copyist’s work well before the day of the session. we were transported from cold. so you need to plan well ahead. The most important thing is to create a string arrangement that works well for the track. called for something unusual and attention-grabbing. 3. session fixer and players all require paying (the biggest single cost usually being the players). and co-ordinating dates can be a nightmare: successful musicians are busy. The copyist advised against “overloading the parts” with too many instructions. you can proceed with confidence! 146 July 2012 / w w w . Check the current session rates. 11. The chorus of ‘Sleep Together’ is based on the simple yet original chord sequence of D. studio. copyist’s fees and studio rates. ‘portamento’) between most notes. From the moment their bows hit the strings. (It’s advisable to plan at least six weeks ahead. The same stems can be used as a backing track for the strings session. drizzly Order Of Play String arrangers are expected to be a one-stop shop for recording strings. Diagram 3 shows the first four bars of this tune. John Bonham-esque backbeat. 6. These gaps (analogous to the breaths a singer or wind player takes between lines) give shape to the music. the music subsides and a long. and the logistics are complex: the copyist. it can take almost an hour to put out parts. As always. 10. I used the notes of Bb and D# (respectively. Although a little daunting on the face of it. most of these are merely logistical tasks which can be solved by sensible forward planning. Ask the band’s producer to send you stems (submixes of drums. c o m . and some purists might even consider it vulgar. including vocals. though it’s not a technique I’d recommend for general purposes. I thought long and hard about how best to notate the melody. bearing in mind that there are restrictions: for example. MIDI file and audio demo to the copyist. favourite engineer (if you have one) and members of the band or their team (including producer) who would like to attend the session. and finally. Eb (two beats each) and one bar of A. to my (admittedly uneducated) ears. I felt I had no alternative but to notate each slide individually. six seconds). featuring the characteristic ‘Indian strings’ pitch slides (in other words. 14. Even if everything is technically perfect. and imagine the kind of string arrangement you think it needs. and there’s usually at least one band member who’d like to attend the session. If necessary. I felt that this climactic moment. that particular combination of scale intervals has a distinctly Indian ring to it! This lead line was scored for 14 violins (eight firsts. 12. guitars. vocals.) of the song. and doubled an octave lower by four violas. arguably the high point of the whole track. Typos often creep in.. bass. Once the budget is approved.

you’ll find them placed at the top end. Although the graphics vary. s o u n d o n s o u n d . Keyswitching allows you to switch instantly between different articulations. When working with orchestral samples. Diagram 4 shows the keyswitch displays of three leading orchestral strings libraries. To make this possible. c o m / July 2012 147 . with the creative and intelligent use of samples. Articulation Switching Whereas successful acts can command a budget to hire live string players for their albums. Islington to the humid. w w w . sultry climes of Mumbai. the principle remains the same: a key outside of the instruments’ playing range is used to switch between articulations. the temperature in the control room rising by a few degrees as a little bit of India was grafted onto the music of an English rock band. enabling you to make instant changes on the fly. emulating the sudden changes in tone colour and dynamics one associates with a real orchestral performance. one of the keys to creating a successful MIDI arrangement is instant switching between performance styles (aka ‘articulations’) in real time.0. most musicians aren’t in that privileged position. Keyswitches are usually located at the low end of the keyboard below the instruments’ playing zone. However. most sample libraries now utilise a technique called ‘keyswitching’. Cinematic Strings 2. but sometimes (notably in the case of low-pitched instruments such as double basses and contrabassoons). and keyswitch notes are often depicted in a distinctive colour on the sample player’s on-screen keyboard. Audiobro LA Scoring Strings 2. it’s possible to bridge the gap between real and sampled strings.0 and East West Quantum Leap Hollywood Strings.Diagram 4: The keyswitch displays of (from L-R).

soundonsound. com/sos/apr10/articles/ lascoringstrings. com/sos/dec08/articles/ sampleshop.com WWwww.de WWwww. All contain multisampled.com WWwww.soundonsound.com/sos/jun12/ articles/cinematic-strings-2.soundonsound.htm East West Quantum Leap: Symphonic Orchestra Play Edition WWwww.soundonsound. MIDI control change (CC) commands.soundonsound.at WWwww.sonivoxmi.htm WWwww.com WWwww. com/sos/aug09/articles/ symphonicorchestra.soundonsound.co.com You will also find professional-quality string ensembles in the following full-orchestra sample collections that we’ve reviewed: Project SAM: Symphobia and Symphobia II WWwww.soundonsound.soundonsound. com/sos/sep10/articles/ ewql-hollywood-strings.asp Vienna Symphonic Library: Orchestral Strings I + II.soundsonline. In diagram 5 you’ll see a very simple Vienna Instruments keyswitch operation between staccato and sustained violin ensemble articulations (as utilised in the ‘Truenorth’ string arrangement above).soundonsound. CC Rider Keyswitches have their drawbacks: being common-or-garden MIDI notes (albeit silent ones). For product demos and details of their contents. Software for this proprietary player is provided free with every VSL library.audiobro.htm Cinematic Strings: Cinematic Strings 1 +2 WWwww.com WWwww. cello and double-bass sections. velocity or even playing speed (ie.projectsam.bestservice. you’ll still need samples to demo it so the band can hear what they’re paying for! The following libraries (listed in order of their Sound On Sound review dates) represent the cream of the crop of stand-alone orchestral string collections recorded within the last 10 years and available in current sampler formats. which is essential if you want to make your keyswitch articulations identical across different libraries.0 review elsewhere in this issue) East West Quantum Leap: Hollywood Strings (Now also available in the budget Gold Edition. and you can switch between the cells via keyswitches.com/sos/dec10/ articles/project-sam-symphobia-2. This applies equally when writing for real players — even if you’re capable of imagining the whole arrangement in your head without the aid of any audio back-up. visit the company web sites and/or follow the links to read the SOS reviews. as opposed to the speed/velocity of a key press).com WWwww.TECHNIQUE H O W TO A R R a N G E F O R S t R I N G s : Pa Rt 2 Diagram 5: A simple Vienna Instruments keyswitch between staccato and sustained violin ensemble articulations. com/sos/oct11/articles/ spitfire-audio-albion. you’ll need your sampled strings to sound convincing. the elapsed time interval between notes.htm Audiobro: LA Scoring Strings WWwww.htm WWwww.htm Kirk Hunter Studios: Concert Strings II WWwww.soundonsound. Some manufacturers allow you to create your own keyswitch setups by assigning individual patches to a keyswitch note of your choice. A ‘matrix’ (roughly equivalent to a Kontakt ‘multi’) holds up to 144 ‘cells’ containing single or layered articulations. com/sos/nov02/articles/ sonicimplants. using the low note of C1 to select the staccatos and C#1 to select the sustains. Whether you’re writing for real players or creating a MIDI orchestration.htm Spitfire Audio: Albion WWwww.htm WWwww. c o m . One of the most flexible articulation switching systems was designed for the Vienna Symphonic Library’s Vienna Instruments sample player by Christian Teuscher.vsl.spitfireaudio.com WWwww. These keyswitch notes are user-definable: you can change them to whatever pitches fit your requirements. (LASS Version 2.soundonsound. com/sos/may10/articles/ cinematicstrings. while others provide pre-programmed ‘keyswitch patches’ combining all the articulations for a particular instrument or section in a single patch.soundsonline.htm (original version).com/ sos/jul06/articles/vslvienna. while C#1 selects the sustains. The low note of C1 selects the staccato articulation. viola.com WWwww. requiring a major tidying-up job before a score or part can be printed out. pitch wheel.com Audio Impressions: 70 DVZ Strings WWwww.kirkhunterstudios.soundonsound.htm 148 July 2012 / w w w . An Which Orchestral Strings Library? Samples are an essential part of an arranger’s toolkit. with each articulation pre-assigned its own switch.htm Best Service: Peter Siedlaczek String Essentials WWwww. they will appear in your score as extraneous pitches. Apologies to any libraries we’ve inadvertently omitted! Sonivox (formerly Sonic Implants): Symphonic String Collection WWwww.cinematicstrings. Appassionata Strings I + II WWwww.) WWwww. full-sized violin. multi-dynamic. com/sos/may07/articles/ sampleshop_0507. s o u n d o n s o u n d .audioimpressions. In some libraries you can alter these default keyswitch pitches. com/sos/jul06/articles/ sampleshop_0706.

select one of the entries. trailer and game music) is comparatively recent. Though the lack of fancy performance styles could be a problem if you want to recreate a full orchestral score.soundonsound. you could switch between (say) six articulations using the values CC23 10. as shown in diagram 6. followed by a CC24 value of between 21 and 31 to access the third cell down.at/en/211/261/314/183. Every MIDI CC number has 128 possible values. and that some older libraries’ staccatos tend to be longer and less urgent-sounding For composers who don’t require a full-on.TECHNIQUE H O W TO A R R a N G E F O R S t R I N G s : Pa Rt 2 alternative switching method that avoids this hassle is to use MIDI CC commands rather than keyswitches for articulation switching. you’ll need two different articulations: staccatissimo and sustained vibrato. the complete instrumentation and flexible sections of this easy-to-use. examples of the table can be found online. so once you’d selected CC23 as your controller. and contains only one mic position and 16-bit samples. it’s worth considering that the trend for very short staccatissimos (as used extensively in contemporary film.htm page is set up to correctly respond to these commands! Diagram 7 shows the Vienna Instruments player programmed to receive CC commands as the articulation switch controller: ‘H-span’ and ‘V-span’ refer to the horizontal and vertical axes of the matrix grid. I often use CC23. Then open up your sequencer’s event list. thus offering a more affordable alternative to the full 24-bit Platinum version. copy and paste Diagram 6: A MIDI CC1 (modulation) event can be edited to a new number of your choice (in this example.com WWwww. CC23 70. WWwww. but you can add individual CC commands after the event by inserting them in the MIDI ‘event list’. WWwww. CC23 90. I can recommend: Garritan: Garritan Personal Orchestra 4 (2GB) Although not as sumptuous or lush-sounding as the top-end libraries. Note that the numeral ‘6’ shown refers to the MIDI channel. and CC110 — always assuming that (a) the sample library in question supports this particular switching method. CC23 30.soundonsound.garritan. these slimmed-down volumes (which offer upgrade paths to the full libraries) maintain the high sound quality of the originals and can deliver very good musical results: Vienna Symphonic Library: Vienna Special Edition (80GB) This contains a full orchestra of instruments and sections presented in cut-down form.vsl WWwww.soundsonline. which will generate a string of CC1 (modulation) numbers. The supplementary SE Plus volume introduces more of the atmospheric articulations media composers require. it is possible to create custom CC commands without owning a dedicated MIDI controller: simply hit ‘record’ on your sequencer and perform a quick up-and-down move on your keyboard’s mod wheel. and the samples you need to play them: to accurately emulate the contrasting short-long deliveries in ‘Truenorth’ (shown in diagram 1) with samples. but it can be any of the ‘undefined’ numbers in the MIDI Control Change table.htm WWwww. Hollywood-style sound. though still featuring VSL’s excellent legatos and portamentos. or whatever your sequencer program calls its itemised display of MIDI data entries.vsl. but. ‘controller display’. I specified CC23 as the horizontal controller and CC24 as the vertical.com/sos/oct07/articles/sampleshop_1007. but believe me. s o u n d o n s o u n d . 23). that sounds pretty bogus: the attack of a short staccato note is completely different from that of a sustain.htm 150 July 2012 / w w w . and (b) its articulation switching Budget Measures Budget versions of some all-in-one orchestral libraries offer a more affordable solution to those whose income stream doesn’t quite measure up to their professional aspirations. take care to avoid pre-defined numbers such as CC7 (volume). c o m .com/sos/aug09/articles/ symphonicorchestra. The value of the CC (currently shown as 127) can be altered to any one of 128 numbers. so selecting the highlighted ‘14 Violins portamento’ articulation. and has no relevance to the CC number or value. requires a CC23 value of between 32 and 41 (which selects the fourth cell from the left). placing it just before the point where you want the articulation switch to occur. so you’ll need good versions of both. It sounds complicated. Having altered the CC number. Not every library supports this method.com/Symphonic-Orchestra WWwww. TV. While every half-decent string library contains these articulations. You might think you can get away with just using sustained notes and playing them long and short. once you latch on to the concept.com/sos/oct08/articles/sampleshop_1008.soundonsound. WWwww. modestly-priced set are a great educational asset for would-be orchestrators. the edited CC command to the desired location in your arrangement. CC11 (expression) and CC64 (sustain pedal). When re-numbering CCs in this way.com/sos/jun10/articles/personalorchestra4. while the two rows of numbers on the right represent each CC zone’s numerical thresholds.htm East West Quantum Leap: Symphonic Orchestra Play Edition (Silver) (11GB) This library focuses on essential instruments and articulations. CC23 50. Although it’s a bit of a faff. it’s actually pretty simple! Spoiled For Choice? A final word on this month’s musical extracts. and edit the controller number from CC1 to a new number of your choice.soundonsound.co. as shown in the diagram. If your sequencer can’t display this. and to do it in real time requires a MIDI controller capable of generating user-definable CC data.

while I continue to give you my personal take on the big subject of arranging for strings. ‘Sleep Together’ (Wilson) is from the 2007 album Fear of a Blank Planet by Porcupine Tree www. by comparison. it’s not practical to completely rewrite a string arrangement and scribble out new parts for 30 players in the tight time-frame allotted to an average string-recording session! Those days have long gone.). G. but it would be a mistake to prioritise the former over the latter. C#. as ever. In Conclusion If we go back in time to the 1970s. as well as on your budget. now almost standard in string collections. and so on) are also possible. it would be too late to do anything about it — because although you can make micro-changes on 152 July 2012 / w w w . at the same time as keeping a firm hand on the technical chaos that can ensue when working with MIDI and samples. (Quiz answer: the four major triads that can be constructed on the scale of G. Eb. along with links to their SOS reviews. The choice of which orchestral strings library to buy is a big question. C. When fully expanded. and our in-depth SOS reviews aim to throw further light on the subject! To help give you an overview. dynamic modulation and impressive-sounding samples is arguably not much of an achievement if the music being played is bog-standard and boring.TECHNIQUE H O W TO A R R a N G E F O R S t R I N G s : Pa Rt 2 keyswitches. E. Their minor variants (A. c o m . string arrangers (then considered a star turn almost on a par with the producer) would simply write out their scores by hand.uk. is to keep focused on the music and try to be imaginative and exploratory in your musical ideas. Eb major (Eb. so any libraries released before that date will inevitably lack realism in that particular department. Another important consideration is that the realistic ‘performance legatos’ and portamentos. Knowing how to lash together a sonically convincing MIDI orchestration bristling with ‘Truenorth’ (Bowness / Wilson) is from the 2008 album Schoolyard Ghosts by No-man www.no-man. A. s o u n d o n s o u n d . in the ‘Which Orchestral Strings Library?’ box. Db). C. Db. C major (C. pass them to a copyist and proceed straight to the studio. Diagram 7: As well as responding to keyswitches. where the recording artists (if they bothered to show up) would hear the arrangement for the first time. Next month. and depends largely on what style(s) of music you want to create. The two shown here are from Spitfire Audio Albion and Audiobro LA Scoring Strings. G). Today’s string arranger needs technological know-how as well as musical chops. the day.co. Listening to the manufacturers’ product demos should give you some useful pointers. I’ll be joined by the gifted composer and arranger David Hearn.porcupinetree. Bb. playing speed (etc. who’ll serve up some useful masterclass tips. the VI matrix holds up to 144 articulation cells arranged in a 12 x 12 grid — for the purposes of legibility we’ve shown just 42 of them! In this example. If the artists didn’t like what they heard. CC23 controls the horizontal position on the grid while CC24 controls the vertical axis. E and F# are A major (A. E). didn’t reach their current exalted state until the advent of the pioneering Vienna Symphonic Library back in 2002. The moral. Bb. making this a very adaptable scale indeed!) Diagram 8: Some string libraries contain rhythm tools for the automatic creation of ostinatos.com. E. Thanks to the composers for permission to use extracts. I hope some of what I’ve written will be of help for both of those endeavours. I’ve listed the most prominent orchestral strings libraries of the last ten years. Bb) and Gb major (Gb. the Vienna Instruments player can be set up to receive CC commands as the articulation controller.

Mary J Blige. Trafalgar Way. July 2012 edition follow us on Twitter find us on Facebook go to the SOS YouTube channel visit the SOS forum Subscribe and Save Money! Visit our subscriptions page at www. “ Bob Clearmountain.” Jack Joseph Puig. I can always depend on Sound On Sound for complete. United Kingdom Email: subscribe@soundonsound. All rights reserved. The Rolling Stones. is expressly forbidden without the prior written consent of the Publishers. Great care has been taken to ensure accuracy in the preparation of this article but neither Sound On Sound Limited nor the publishers can be held responsible for its contents. in-depth recording and mixing articles.  . Black Eyed Peas) The World’s Best Recording Technology Magazine This article was originally published in Sound On Sound magazine. INXS) “As a professional I admire Sound On Sound as one of the most trusted and credible sources of inspiration and information.com Tel: +44 (0) 1954 789888 Fax: +44 (0) 1954 789895 All contents copyright © SOS Publications Group and/or its licensors. The views expressed are those of the contributors and not necessarily those of the publishers. producer.com/app Sound On Sound. The contents of this article are subject to worldwide copyright protection and reproduction in whole or part. engineer. unbiased reviews of the latest pro-audio gear. Media House.Mix with the best! “Besides the excellent interviews and fascinating. mixer. Paul McCartney. U2.soundonsound.soundonsound.com/subscribe for more information on the Sound On Sound App go to: www. Grammy Award winner (Bruce Springsteen. 1985-2012. CB23 8SQ. Bar Hill. producer and mixer. Cambridge. Grammy Award winner (Rolling Stones. whether mechanical or electronic.