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RESEARCHES FOR THE UTILISATION OF SOLID WASTES IN CFBC BOILERS Liviu Dragos, Mihu Girjoaba, Catalin Flueraru ICPET

-Cercetare S. ., !ucharest, "o#ania

Abstract The Romanian economic and energetic situation requires a large scale implementation of clean and efficient technologies for the utilization of different residues and wastes resulted in industry. The need of such technologies has become even more acute, since in January 199 the new environmental regulations will become operational. This is why, in our institute, the research focused lately on the clean combustion of industrial wastes, sludge and biomass. The research wor!s initiated aimed to establish a circulating fluidized bed "#$%& combustion and desulfurisation technology for these wastes. 'n the current paper, the results obtained for two types of residues are presented( a solid waste from the production of electrodes for metallurgic furnaces, and the high)sulfur petroleum co!e, that is a residue from oil crac!ing. Introduction The in$ustrial $evelo%#ent registere$ &orl$&i$e in the last $eca$es has le$, besi$es the gro&th o' energ( $e#an$, to the accu#ulation o' high )uantities o' &astes, &ith a negative environ#ental i#%act. s a conse)uence, the regulations 'or environ#ent %rotection constraine$ the in$ustrial %ro$ucers to neutrali*e their resi$ues or, i' %ossible, to 'in$ an alternative use 'or the#. Such e+a#%les are %a%er #ill &astes, use$ t(res, bio#ass, slu$ge, %etroleu# resi$ues. ,ot long ago, high sul'ur %etroleu# co-e &as also consi$ere$ to be a#ong these, not being suitable 'or use in in$ustr(, &here it shoul$ #eet certain )ualit( con$itions. .nce the $esul'urisation technologies $evelo%e$, its utilisation as

both in the $ense be$ 'ro# the botto# an$ above it.-g an$ => 'uel oil su%%ort. The $ata achieve$ 'ro# several "o#anian re'ineries allo&e$ us to esti#ate the internal %ro$uction o' high sul%hur %etroleu# co-e at about 345. The #ain cooling circuit consists o' the heat trans'er sur'aces locate$ in the 'lui$i*e$ be$ ash cooler. T&o &ater circuits ensure the cooling o' the %lant. si#%li'ie$ sche#e o' the boiler is %resente$ in 'ig. or oil shale &ith 3<55 -:.a 'uel in %o&er %lants beca#e %ossible. the 'urnace an$ the convective channel. no %o&er %lants use %etroleu# co-e as a 'uel. In "o#ania.such as /S an$ Den#ar. 7? its #ain co#%onents are@ • 'urnace? • c(clone? • loo% seal? • e+ternal 'lui$i*e$ be$ heat e+changer 1F!0E2? • convective %ass? • air %reheater. Since their utilisation see#s to be both necessar( an$ cost-e''icient. that &ar#s the 'lui$i*e$ be$ u% to the soli$ 'uel ignition te#%erature. burning as the( are elutriate$ in the u%%er %art o' the 'urnace. nother %otential 'uel &ith no utilisation in "o#ania is the &aste resulting 'ro# the %ro$uction o' electro$es 'or #etallurgic ovens. The start-u% o' the %lant is %er'or#e$ b( #eans o' a 'uel oil burner. 'uel %articles are #i+e$ &ith recirculate$ ash %articles. an$ the %rice coul$ 'urther $ecrease b( the en$ o' the (ear.555 tons annuall(.. in so#e countries . &hen the co#bustion %rocess is initiate$.even being use$ on a large scale. not all $esul'urisation technologies %rovi$e a co#%etitive %rice 'or the energ( %ro$uce$ even 'ro# a lo&-%rice 'uel such as $ela(e$ co-e. #ore attractive solution 'ro# this %oint o' vie& is the circulating 'lui$i*e$ be$ co#bustion 1CF!C2. Description of the test facility The e+%eri#ental %ilot %lant is the 'irst CF!C %lant conceive$ in "o#ania. these &astes are not being use$ because o' the $i''iculties encountere$ at their co#bustion in classical 'urnaces. The 'uel it &as $esigne$ 'or is lignite &ith heating value higher than 9555 -:. &e %er'or#e$ several co#bustion an$ $esul'urisation tests &ith %etroleu# co-e an$ electro$e &aste on a 7 M8t CF!C %ilot %lant to $eter#ine the o%ti#u# o%erating %ara#eters. Most o' it is currentl( e+%orte$ &ith 65 /SD %er ton.-g an$ the granulation 5 . During the 'lui$i*ing %rocess.75 ##. The secon$ar( circuit cools the ash scre& conve(er an$ the 'i+e$ be$ ash cooler. &here the %article $ensit( is lo&er. The soli$ 'uel is intro$uce$ in the 'lui$i*e$ be$ b( #eans o' scre& conve(ers. 0o&ever. that allo&s the in-be$ li#estone $esul'urisation. For a . The co#bustion ta-es %lace in the 'urnace. In s%ite o' their high heating value.

are $ischarge$ through the $rain %i%e 'ro# the air $istributor an$ evacuate$ b( the &ater-coole$ scre& conve(er. The coarse %articles that are not carrie$ b( the 'lue gas. Startu! burner estone ho!!er #. Cyclone 3. (ir !reheater 5. Coal ho!!er ". Convective bank &. !( $iverting the soli$s either $irectl( into the o+i$ising *one o' the .% !act se!arator Fig. The si%hon consists o' a #echanical valve an$ t&o co#%art#ents s%lit b( a $ivi$ing &all. secon$ar( an$ tertiar( air is intro$uce$ at t&o $i''erent levels. Secondary cyclones 1'. $i% 12. %art 'ro# its sealing 'unction. this $evice #a-es %ossible the control o' the 'raction o' ash $irecte$ into the e+ternal F!0E. (sh cooler 14. &here the coal an$ ash %articles are centri'ugall( se%arate$ 'ro# the 'lue gas an$ 'all through a $uct into the si%hon. )echanical valve exchanger . b( #o$i'(ing the air 'lo& in the t&o co#%art#ents.co#%lete co#bustion an$ in or$er to achieve the $esire$ gas velocit(. The #ove#ent o' the soli$s in the non-#echanical valve is 'acilitate$ b( air. External FB heat 11. Furnace 2. Le g e nd: 1. Si!hon 4. *eat trans+er sur+aces 13. 1: The 7 M8t CF!C %ilot %lant The test rig is e)ui%%e$ &ith a tangential entr( reverse 'lo& single cell c(clone. . n i#%act se%arator &as 'itte$ bet&een the 'urnace an$ the c(clone 'or evaluation %ur%ose. The hot 'lue gas are evacuate$ at the u%%er %art through a A5° turn an$ sent in the convective %ass. but onl( 'or a short %erio$. that is intro$uce$ through a bar grate si#ilar to that 'ro# the 'urnace.

also #a-ing the boiler #ore 'uel 'le+ible. .5< 9.5B <7.a. !ar grates are %lace$ at the botto# as 'lui$i*ing air $istributors.35 6.=< 3.<5 6. $uring the %reli#inar( co#bustion tests san$ &as intro$uce$ in the 'urnace as inert #aterial.7A 3. The co-e sa#%les are 'ro# t&o $i''erent re'ineries.57 75. &hen li#estone &as a$$e$ 'or $esul'urisation. the san$ &as no longer nee$e$. or into the e+ternal 'lui$i*e$ be$ heat e+changer.5B 3. Since the %etroleu# co-e has %racticall( no ash.<< 7=A9< B79B6 Petroleum Coke E periments The results o' the %etco-e co#bustion e+%eri#ents are %resente$ in table no.35 <<.<9 A.69 5. Table 1: Technical an$ ele#entar( anal(sis o' %etroleu# co-e an$ electro$e &aste Feature 8ti i /nit > > > > > > > -:. In the 'inal tests.35 5.<5 6. but the sa#%les &ere ta-en at $i''erent ti#es. The heat trans'er sur'ace consists o' coils i##erse$ in the bubbling be$.A9 6.<5 5.35 3=.49 =.55 37. It is re'ractor( line$.94 9A.39 <. B.75 9B.-g Ci 0i Sci Ci C 1$.4 =. an$ a &all $ivi$es it in t&o co#%art#ents. The e+ternal 'lui$i*e$ be$ heat e+changer 1F!0E2 is use$ to su%%le#ent the 'urnace heat trans'er sur'aces. a strict control o' the 'urnace te#%erature is obtaine$.2 Dii Petroleu# co-e Sa#%le 7 Sa#%le B 7.9= 5.'.'urnace.== 5. Fuel analysis Technical an$ ele#entar( anal(ses have been %er'or#e$ 'or the selecte$ soli$ 'uels? the results are %resente$ in table 7.<6 7.7= 3633< 37B7A Electro$e &aste Sa#%le 7 Sa#%le B A. &hile the electro$e &aste sa#%les are 'ro# the sa#e location.9= B.

+ e#ission . C" <55 =55 455 955 655 355 B55 755 5 5.9 3 3. consi$ering the relativel( high Ca.9 6 6. &hen the te#%eratures have been in the o%ti#u# range all along the recirculation loo%@ 'urnace-c(cloneF!0E-'urnace.7B55°C. because o' the lo& te#%eratures 'ro# the u%%er 'urnace an$ c(clone.62. This 'act. the be$ te#%erature &as bet&een 7755 . S. &ith #ean $ia#eters bet&een AB an$ 955 µ#.7B55 7755 7555 A55 Temperature !deg. %articles.95> less than 43 µ#. correlate$ &ith the high air e+cess. the <5> e''icienc( that &as obtaine$ is still lo&.about 355 %%#. &hile the granulation o' the sorbent &as bet&een 5 an$ 7 ##.S #olar ratio 1B. the co#bustion began here too an$ the 'ull loa$ &as reache$. #: Te#%erature variation $uring the startu%. The co#bustion e''icienc( &as over AA>. 0o&ever. because the co#bustion &as ta-ing %lace onl( in the 'urnace. in s%ite o' the lo& air e+cess. has le$ to a high .9 7 7. Fuel@ %etroleu# co-e The %article si*e $istribution o' the %etco-e &as 'or all the e+%eri#ents bet&een 5 an$ 75 ##. This is #ainl( because o' the s#all si*e o' the li#estone %articles . that obstructe$ the sul'ation o' the Ca. 7. The $irect recirculating valve &as then gra$uall( close$. &ith an average $ia#eter o' .9 9 9.9 B B.9 Time !h" !e$ !urner Furnace B Furnace 3 C(clone Convective e+it Si%hon 7 Si%hon B F!0E 7 F!0E B Fig. B. 'ter about an hour. so a larger 'raction o' the soli$s &as recirculate$ through the F!0E. &ith #ean $ia#eters bet&een 7. B. In test no.A an$ 3 ##. better $esul'urisation e''icienc( &as obtaine$ in test no. The be$ te#%erature stabili*e$ at A<5°C. The be$ te#%erature &as above 7555°C as long as the e+ternal 'lui$i*e$ be$ heat e+changer 1F!0E2 &as b(-%asse$. B can be seen in 'ig.. B concentration &as also high. $etaile$ %resentation o' the 'lue gas te#%eratures 'ro# test no.

an$ a co#%lete co#bustion is onl( obtaine$ at A95-C. the onl( %heno#ena that occur have a %h(sical nature.B .that &ere not recirculate$.B Measure$ C. lea$ing conse)uentl( to a ver( short contact ti#e bet&een Ca.AB µ# .66 <95 795 <<.ne o' the $iagra#s is %resente$ in 'ig.B concentrations S. #a$e the ther#ogravi#etric anal(sing essential 'or electro$e &aste.B theoretical concentration . the 'urnace te#%erature shoul$ be increase$ to at least =55 -C using li)ui$ 'uel. so the start-u% %roce$ure &ill last longer..< A95 355 775 93 Test B Sa#%le B 7.S #olar ratio S.= B B5B5 4. .B 935 7=9 <5 <5 Electrode $aste E periments Its %articular characteristics.7B 7B< 39 7.h E FC FC > E %%# > > %%# %%# %%# > Test 7 Sa#%le 7 5. .7 7B. 3.= B. Desul'urisation e''icienc( /nit E M8t -g. Table #: E+%eri#ental results obtaine$ at %etroleu# co-e co#bustion tests on the 7 M8t CF! %ilot %lant Fuel Ther#al %o&er Fuel 'ee$ rate Li#estone 'ee$ rate ir e+cess coe''icient verage 'urnace te#%eratures cooler Global ther#al e''icienc( Ca. an$ the 'act that this 'uel has not been thoroughl( stu$ie$ until no&. %articles an$ the 'lue gas. These conclusions also ca#e out $uring the #an( trials %er'or#e$ on the %ilot %lant 'or the autother#al co#bustion o' the &astes.=A A7 B5 7. The li#ite$ heat a#ount release$ b( the volatile #atters at te#%eratures over 3<5 -C is not su''icient to start the burning o' 'i+e$ carbon. an$ it con'ir#s once #ore the lo& reactivit( o' this 'uel@ u% to 3<5 -C.+ C.6 B95= B. #eaning that in an in$ustrial %lant.h -g.9 7=.76 A95 <55 A5.

The co#bustion e''icienc( achieve$ &as &ith u% to 6> lo&er at the co#bustion o' electro$e &aste an$ lignite #i+ture than in the case o' %etroleu# co-e. 8ith this #i+ture as a 'uel.Fig. %: Ther#ogravi#etric anal(sis o' the electro$e &aste 1Dragos. the o%eration beca#e stea$( an$ the 'irst co#bustion tests have been %er'or#e$. it ca#e out that the co#bustion con$itions are ver( $i''icult to achieve. 'ter #ore atte#%ts to run the CF!C %lant on electro$e &aste onl(.9> . the #aintaining o' the a$e)uate te#%erature con$itions &as thought to be i#%ossible? in this situation. 7AA=2 t the %reli#inar( tests. This can be e+%laine$ b( the non-uni'or# si*e $istribution 1the electro$e &aste having BB. a #i+ture containing 45-=5> electro$e &aste an$ 35-65> lignite &as 'e$.

. a large 'raction &as not recirculate$ an$ ha$ an insu''icient ti#e 'or co#bustion. B e#issions &ere &ith 75-79> lo&er than the theoretical concentration.79 7. 7AA=2@ Fuel Ther#al %o&er Fuel 'ee$ rate Li#estone 'ee$ rate ir e+cess coe''icient verage 'urnace te#%eratures cooler Global ther#al e''icienc( Ca. the #o#ents &hen the $irect recirculating valve &as o%ene$ an$ the air 'lo& &as re$uce$ in the si%hon are clearl( #ar-e$ b( the te#%erature variation . co#%are$ to 75> 'or the lignite 'ro# the #i+ture2. Thus.a $ecrease in the e+ternal F!0E an$ an increase in the si%hon.B5 <95 A<5 395 B55 <6. verage results o' this test are %resente$ in table 3 .7 79.B7 35= B55 E 4.n the te#%erature $iagra#. &ith the 'raction un$er B55 µ# o' onl( 79>. but the #easure$ S. being $etecte$ in the 'lue gas 'or a long %erio$.4 9<= 774 A6 7B4 7<5 5 E =A nother co#bustion test has been %er'or#e$ using a $i''erent si*e $istribution. the short resi$ence ti#e o' the 'ines has again le$ to a high carbon content in the ash. no C.9 74.B theoretical concentration . .< 3. $ue to the sel'-$esul'urisation %rocess. The 'ee$ing &ith electro$e &aste continue$ 'or #ore than three hours? &ith the e+ternal 'lui$i*e$ be$ heat e+changer not being use$.h -g. &aste G Electro$e 65> lignite &aste 7.B Measure$ C. The electro$e &aste &as intro$uce$ in the lignite-'ire$ 'urnace at a te#%erature o' over <55 -C 1see 'ig.< 7.A E B 4<B 943 B. Table %: E+%eri#ental results obtaine$ at electro$e &aste co#bustion tests on the 7 M8t CF! %ilot %lant 1Dragos.un$er B55 µ#. It is to be note$ the co#%lete che#ical co#bustion. the average carbon content 'ro# ash being higher 177.B concentrations S.S #olar ratio S.h E FC FC > E %%# > > %%# %%# %%# > Test 7 Test B El.+ C. Desul'urisation e''icienc( /nit E M8t -g. The high 'urnace te#%erature #a$e the co#bustion ta-e %lace in goo$ con$itions.B .B <9.4>2. but &ith 39> bet&een 75 an$ 79 ##. Li#estone &as not intro$uce$.7= 7. but $ue the 'act that no . 62. the 'urnace te#%erature reache$ 7555-C.test B. 0o&ever.

since in the case o' a higher ca%acit( in$ustrial %lant.S #olar ratio o' B.lignite &as a$$e$. .9 3 Time !h" !e$ Furnace 7 Furnace B Furnace 3 Si%hon F!0E 7 F!0E B Convective e+it Fig. but also since S. the unburne$ carbon content in the 'ines &ill signi'icantl( $ecrease $ue to the longer resi$ence ti#e. it can be consi$ere$ that the electro$e &aste co#bustion e''icienc( is #uch better than in the %revious e+%eri#ents. that are higher than the o%ti#u# te#%erature range o' the %rocess.9 B B.S ratio to 3 $i$ not %rove to be %ractical. obtaining a =A> $esul'urisation. giving thus a lo&er S. C" <55 455 655 B55 5 5 5. but also $ue to the te#%eratures above 7555-C.B %artial %ressure. Increasing the Ca. not onl( because the $esul'urisation e''icienc( i#%rove$ b( just 9>.B e#issions are lo& enough even &ithout li#estone a$$ition. &ith a #uch greater 'urnace height. 7B55 7555 Temperature !deg.9 7 7. The relativel( lo& value o' the $esul'urisation e''icienc( is $ue to the lo&er sul%hur content o' the 'uel. The s#all height o' the %ilot %lant shoul$ also be consi$ere$. 4: .e%!erature levels at the co%bustion o+ electrode /aste 01ragos2 1&&"3 Li#estone &as intro$uce$ at a Ca.

L. PEC. the li#estone si*e range shoul$ be #ostl( bet&een B55 an$ 955 µ#. that the %lant &ill have to ensure? • an in$ustrial %lant using electro$e &aste as 'uel shoul$ have bigger start-u% burners an$ a greater 'urnace height. :oule B . an$ the te#%eratures above <55°C all along the recirculation loo%? • the ver( lo& volatile %ercentage gives the electro$e &aste a ver( lo& reactivit(. Co#%are$ co#bustion researches in CF!C %ilot reactor o' soli$ 'uels range &ith $i''erent volatile #atters. &eferences Dragos. 7AA4 .Final "e%ort. et al. + e#issions can be obtaine$ 'or both 'uel t(%es teste$? • 'or an e''icient $esul'urisation.Conclusions • the e+%eri#ents have %rove$ that the CF!C technolog( is suitable 'or the clean co#bustion o' both the high sul%hur %etroleu# co-e an$ the electro$e &aste? • co#bustion e''iciencies over AA> can be achieve$ in the case o' %etroleu# co-e &ith ver( lo& air e+cess? • b( a %ro%er a$just#ent o' the air staging. in s%ite o' its high heating value? • electro$e &astes can burn autother#all(.. lo& . but at higher te#%eratures..