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Total Quality Management and employee involvement: Are they compatible?

1. Edward E. Lawler III

Executive Overview
Total Quality Management (TQM) programs are an important and prominent approach to management. With the creation of the Baldrige award and the competitiveness challenges which many corporations face, they have become extremely popular in (he United States during the last decade. Despite the recent Hurry of studies questioning their effectiveness, most large corporations have a program that incorporates some of the practices and principles of total quality management.1 One of the most important principles of TQM concerns employee involvement or, as it is often called, empowerment. It is common for a TQM program to state that employee involvement is very important to its success. There is a long history of research and writing on employee involvement and how it can affect organizational performance.2 It, too, has become increasingly popular. One possibility, as suggested by TQM programs, is that employee involvement is best thought of as an activity which supports these programs. Another possibility is that TQM practices are best used in support of employee involvement programs. Is the difference between TQM as a part of involvement and involvement as a part of TQM more than just a difference in phrasing? Does the choice between these two alternatives have important implications for the way an organization is actually managed and structured? The answers to these two questions contain important clues about when and why TQM programs tail and how they and employee involvement programs can be made effective. To answer them we need to look briefly at the history of both TQM and employee involvement programs.  MANAGEMENT -- Employee participation

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TOTAL quality management EMPLOYEE empowerment

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CORPORATIONS -- United States PERFORMANCE -- Management

ORGANIZATIONAL behavior -- Research

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MANAGEMENT science PROBLEM solving

we lack much of the theory and data necessary to understand how small and emerging firms train their employees. Keywords    Human resource management. promote or handle organizational change. reward. and how the HR decisions made during the formative stages of firm development impact the firm's long-term goals. evidence suggests that new ventures are different and that management of people within them may not clearly map to management within larger.. between the issues important to small firms and the issues important to young ones.  COMPETITIVE advantage BUSINESS intelligence -. and perhaps even motivate their employees.Management  GROUP decision maki Managing human resources in small organizations: What do we know? Abstract While much of our knowledge concerning traditional HR topics (e. Small firms . recruiting. Our review suggests that as scholars. While we have begun to understand how these firms should hire. it is important that we understand how these functional areas of HR (as well as their integration and evolution) affect small and emerging firms.g. or respond to potential labor relations and union organization issues. more established organizations. or performance management) in large firms may also apply in small or emerging organizations. manage their performance. Entrepreneurship. compensation. our understanding of the HR issues important to small and emerging firms is limited. The existing literature presents an often-confounded relationship between size and age. This paper reviews extant research on managing people within small and emerging ventures and highlights additional questions that have not yet been addressed. Given the potential early HR decisions have to impact the organization's downstream success.

1Rutgers University Abstract This study comprehensively evaluated the links between systems of High Performance Work Practices and firm performance.  PERSONNEL management  INDUSTRIAL management   LABOR turnover LABOR productivity  INDUSTRIAL relations -.and long-term measures of corporate financial performance. Productivity.Economic aspects  FINANCIAL performance  STRATEGIC planning  JOB performance . Support for predictions that the impact of High Performance Work Practices on firm performance is in part contingent on their interrelationships and links with competitive strategy was limited. And Corporate Financial Performance 1. Mark A. Huselid1 +Author Affiliations 1.The Impact Of Human Resource Management Practices On Turnover. Results based on a national sample of nearly one thousand firms indicate that these practices have an economically and statistically significant impact on both intermediate employee outcomes (turnover and productivity) and short.

highlights the equifinality of an organization's climate for implementation. describes within. compliance.  INNOVATION adoption   ORGANIZATIONAL change ORGANIZATIONAL behavior . avoidance. Katherine J. 1University of Maryland at College Park Abstract Implementation is the process of gaining targeted organizational members' appropriate and committed use of an innovation. and commitment). and suggests new topics and strategies for implementation research. The model specifies a range of implementation outcomes (including resistance. 2. Our model suggests that implementation effectiveness—the consistency and quality of targeted organizational members' use of an innovation—is a function of (a) the strength of an organization's climate for the implementation of that innovation and (b) the fit of that innovation to targeted users' values. ORGANIZATIONAL behavior  ORGANIZATIONAL sociology  EMPLOYEE motivation  INDUSTRIAL psychology The Challenge of Innovation Implementation 1.and between-organizational differences in innovation-values fit. Klein1 and Joann Speer Sorra1 +Author Affiliations 1.

more participative approaches are now being used to influence certain employees to leave the firm. some are starting to rethink their approach. Instead of forcing certain employees deemed redundant to quit. This article explains how employee separations can be managed through designing and administrating specific pay and benefit policies. The pivotal aspect of these voluntary workforce reductions is the reward system which can provide incentives for workers to quit. 1University of Colorado Executive Overview While executives in many companies find it necessary to reduce the size of their workforces. It also shows that by using the reward system to make employee separations a participative decision. ORGANIZATIONAL effectiveness  EMPLOYEE motivation   EMPLOYEES -. Balkin1 +Author Affiliations 1.Attitudes INDUSTRIAL management  TECHNOLOGICAL innovations  DECISION making  BUSINESS models Managing employee separations with the reward system 1. David B. . management can avoid the potential threat of unwanted litigation.