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Use of Water in Construction

Dr. Amit Kr. Shrivastava B.E., M.E., PhD, IITD
Dr. Amit Kr. Shrivastava, DTU,M:9818162728

Sustainability

Dr. Amit Kr. Shrivastava, DTU,M:9818162728

Sustainability in Construction

Dr. Amit Kr. Shrivastava, DTU,M:9818162728

DTU. Amit Kr.M:9818162728 . Shrivastava.How to achieve Dr.

Amit Kr.M:9818162728 . Shrivastava.Dr. DTU.

How to achieve Reducing use of water Dr.M:9818162728 . DTU. Amit Kr. Shrivastava.

DTU.M:9818162728 .Construction Industry Dr. Shrivastava. Amit Kr.

Shrivastava. DTU.M:9818162728 . Amit Kr.Construction Industry Dr.

Problem in Production of Concrete and Steel Available alternatives? Dr. Amit Kr.M:9818162728 . DTU. Shrivastava.

Water. Tiles. DTU. Electrical fittings  Concrete Manufacture Execution Repair and strengthening Demolishing and recycling Transportation Dr. Aggregates. Steel.M:9818162728 .Source of CO2 emission in Construction Manufacture of raw materials like Cement. Admixture. Plumbing Pipes. Amit Kr. POP. Brick. Shrivastava. Paint.

Curing of PPC. Shrivastava. Preparation of concrete. internal plaster. Preparation of cement mortar for brick work.Use of Water Compaction of foundation soil.M:9818162728 . Amit Kr. POP making. External plaster and water proofing. Brick work. DTU. Dr.  (I) sprinkle (II) impounding. RCC. Preparation of cement mortar for Plaster internal and external side.

Shrivastava. I.M:9818162728 .Use of Water Tile fixing in Dado and floor. Sprinkling on Tile floor. Dr. Amit Kr. Socking of Tile. II. paints according to requirement. Impounding on IPS floor. Preparation of cement mortar. putty. Making of primer. DTU. IV. III.

5 0.35 0.Water  Portable water is generally considered 28 days compressive strength of Concrete in Mpa suitable for mixing Concrete. Shrivastava.55 0.65 Water cement ratio Courtesy Ambuja Cement Dr.  Exception being water containing Sugar.M:9818162728 .45 0. DTU.3 0.4 0.10262 60 50 40 30 53 Grde OPC 43 Grde OPC 33 Grade OPC 20 10 0 0.  Water cement ratio has worst effect on strength as shown in fig similar to I. Amit Kr.6 0.S.

Admixture (I.9103) • Admixture are the material added to the Concrete before or during its mixing.M:9818162728 . Shrivastava. • Generally Admixture are : • Plasticizer • Super plasticizer • Retarder • Accelerator Dr. DTU. with a view to modify one or more of the properties of concrete in the plastic or hardened state. Amit Kr.S.

Amit Kr. DTU.Water Reducing Admixture: (Improve workability) Lignosulphonates Sulphonated melamine formaldehyde (SMF) Sulphonated naphthalene formaldehyde (SNF) Polycarboxylic ether (PCE) Different manufacturer are available Dr.M:9818162728 . Shrivastava.

DTU. (iii) Sulphonated naphthalene formaldehyde (SNF): Good for RMC.Super plasticizer (i) Lignosulphonates : cause excessive retardation and air entrainment in concrete. maximum incompatibility issues arise with Dr.M:9818162728 . Amit Kr. Good for hot weather concreting. (ii) Sulphonated melamine formaldehyde (SMF): High initial slump but poor slump retention (Not used in RMC) but good when concreting time is short like precast member and also good for cold climates. Slump retention characteristics are also improved by blending SNF with lignosulphonates. Shrivastava. which is not possible in the case of SMF.

used to make high and ultra high strength concrete. DTU. 40%.(iV) Polycarboxylic ether (PCE) Most effective of all the chemicals. Shrivastava. exhibit fewer compatibility problems compared to SNF.R.20. Costly but reduction in cement consumption cause overall economy. W.M:9818162728 . Excellent slump retention characteristics and do not cause any delay in the gain of strength of the concrete. Amit Kr. where the w/c may be as low as 0. Dr.

DTU.Function of Plasticizer/Super plasticizer Main Function: I. Amit Kr. Retarding effect Dr. Shrivastava. Mechanism: I. Improve the workability of Concrete.M:9818162728 . Dispersion II. Fluidify the mix II.

Shrivastava. such as -COO-.M:9818162728 . The adsorption of the admixture leads to a decrease of the zeta potential. -SO3-. and eventually causes like charges (negative) on the cement particles. DTU. With the progress of hydration. the electrostatic charge diminishes and flocculation of the hydrating product occurs Dr. and the adsorbed polymer keeps the cement particles apart by electrostatic repulsion (The grinding of cement results in the ground particles having a surface charge (zeta potential). The hydrophilic tip is able to reduce the surface tension of water. Amit Kr. -NH4+) attached to a non-polar hydrophobic Mechanism of action organic chain (water-repelling) with some polar groups (-OH).These dispersants are basically surface-active chemicals consisting of longchain organic molecules. having a polar hydrophilic group (waterattracting.

Mechanism of action of Super plasticizer • Portland Cement in fine state have a tendency to flocculate in wet Concrete. This flocculation entraps certain amount of water used in the mix and all the water is not freely available to fluidify the Mix. Shrivastava.M:9818162728 . The quantity of available plasticizer reduce as polymer get entrapped in hydration products and finally there will be no effect of plasticizer. DTU. Amit Kr. The admixture confer –Ve charge to cement particle and cement deflocculates and dispersed. • Cement grain –ve chargeed due to plasrticizer Inter particle repulsive force • • Release water Cement Particle Flock Effect of super palsticizer on cement particle Flock Dr. the water trapped inside is released.

Dr. Shrivastava. DTU.M:9818162728 . Steric hindrance is a more effective mechanism than electrostatic repulsion. and SNF based Superplasticizers work on the mechanism of lowering zeta potential that leads to electrostatic repulsion.Mechanism of action of Super plasticizer SMF. cause dispersion of cement grains by steric hindrance (Uchikawa et al. PCE based Superplasticizer.. Separation of the admixture molecules from each other due to the bulky side chains. 1997). Amit Kr.

Amit Kr. Dr. • Common problems : • Flash setting • Delayed setting • Rapid slump loss • Improper strength gain • Cracking etc. Shrivastava.Incompatibility • Performance when a specific combination of cement and superplasticizer is used. DTU. These effect strength and durability of Concrete.M:9818162728 .

• There are various methods for finding out the compatibility and optimum dose of super plasticizer: 1. Flow table test Dr. Marsh cone test 2. Mini slump test 3.COMPATIBILITY OF SUPERPLASTICIZERS AND CEMENT • All superplasticizers are not showing the same extent of improvement in fluidity with all types of cements.M:9818162728 . Amit Kr. DTU. Shrivastava.

190 170 Flow time in seconds 150 130 Saturation Point 5 min 60 min 110 90 70 50 0 0.4 Super plastcizer doase as a % of cement mass Dr.6 2 2.Marsh cone test to find optimum dosage of super plasticizer • The optimum dosage and compatibilty is calculated from Marsh Cone test. Shrivastava.8 1.4 0. DTU.5%.2 1. Amit Kr. • Dosage: Normally restrict the use of super plasticizer up to 2.M:9818162728 .

• Over dosage have harmful effect on hardening of the concrete. Amit Kr. • Only in case of bad quality lignosulphonate based plasticizer.M:9818162728 . Shrivastava. results in air – entrainment. DTU. shrinkage and Creep. which reduce the strength of concrete. Dr.Effect of Superplasticizer on the Properties of Hardened Concrete • The action of plasticizer on concrete is only physical and it does not participate in any chemical reaction.

DTU. • Proper Method: • Concrete Mixer: 100% of total water is added to the empty drum keeping 1 lt and than material is loaded. • Concrete is mixed for 1 more minute.M:9818162728 . Shrivastava. Amit Kr.Mixing procedure of Plasticizer • 100% of water added with plasticzer doesnot give proper results. Effect of delayed addition of super plasticizer on slump and slump loss Dr. • Exact quantity of super pasticizer is diluted in 1 lt of water and thrown in drum in two or three installments.

6 Dr. Cement 491.8 Shrivastava. Amit Kr. m. DTU.M:9818162728 . Ingredients Remarks (25 to 50mm slump) water content per cu.M35 Grade Concrete without admixture Quanti ty/Cu.6 slump Increase in water 3% for every 25mm increase in slump no use of admixture 0 1 Water required 201.m of 186 concrete increase in water for 130mm Required water content 201.

m of 186 concrete increase in water for 130mm Required water content 201. Ingredients Remarks (25 to 50mm slump) water content per cu.3 Dr.4 Shrivastava. Amit Kr.M35 Grade Concrete with SNF admixture Quanti ty/Cu.2 0.8 Water required 161. m.M:9818162728 . DTU.6 slump Increase in water 3% for every 25mm increase in slump Use of SNF admixture 0. Cement 393.

M:9818162728 . Cement 340.307 0.6 slump Increase in water 3% for every 25mm increase in slump Use of PCE admixture 0.7 Minm 340 as per IS Dr. Amit Kr. m. Ingredients Remarks (25 to 50mm slump) water content per cu.m of 186 concrete increase in water for 130mm Required water content 201.8 456 Shrivastava.693 Water required 139.M35 Grade Concrete with PCE admixture (Following IS456-2000 Codal Restriction) Quanti ty/Cu. DTU.

DTU.m 50mm of concrete 186 slump) increase in water for 130mm Required water content 201. m. Amit Kr.6 Water required 121 Minm 340 as per IS Dr.1 456 Shrivastava.4 0.M:9818162728 .M35 Grade Concrete with PCE admixture (Without IS456-2000 Codal Restriction) Quanti ty/Cu. Ingredients Remarks (25 to water content per cu.6 slump Increase in water 3% for every 25mm increase in slump Use of PCE admixture 0. Cement 295.

4 20.M35 Grade Concrete Savings Savings per cu.6 604 30.4 161.) (Rs.7 151 61.3 Normal Construction site 500 cu.) in Rs 491 201. of Concrete Cement Water Cost Cost Total Cement Water in Admixture Saving in Saving in saving saving Savings in kg kg in kg Cement Water (Rs. Amit Kr.8 634.6 40.m.M:9818162728 .3 390. of concrete daily Dr.15 410.3 824.93 97. Shrivastava.3 3.55 340 140 1.m.6 784 40.8 295 121 2. DTU.06 196 80.6 0 0 0 0 0 0 393.

Mixing Dr.M:9818162728 . DTU. Shrivastava. Amit Kr.

Shrivastava. Amit Kr. DTU.Mixing • Truck mixers : mixing shall continue for not less than 60 revolutions of the truck mixer drum at a rate of not less than 7 revolutions/min.M:9818162728 . • Remixing at site at least for 2 min. Dr.

However. a longer period may be permitted if retarding admixtures are used. Time of Use: The purchaser should plan his arrangements so as to enable a full load of concrete to be discharged within 30 min of arrival on site.Transport of concrete Time in Transport :The general requirement is that concrete shall be discharged from the truck-mixer within 2 h of the time of loading. Dr. Amit Kr. DTU. Shrivastava.M:9818162728 .

DTU.Concrete Pumps Dr. Amit Kr. Shrivastava.M:9818162728 .

Well pumpable concrete Badly pumpable concrete Dr.M:9818162728 . Amit Kr. DTU. Shrivastava.

50 kg cement and 25 kg sand mix of thick consistency is required per 20 m pipe length. Dr. DTU.M:9818162728 . Shrivastava. Amit Kr.Precautions and tips in Field Practice Lubricating the pipeline prior to pumping concrete is important.

Amit Kr.M:9818162728 .Dr. DTU. Shrivastava.

Amit Kr. Shrivastava.Truck Mounted Placer Boom Dr.M:9818162728 . DTU.

• Immersion vibrator is not used for thickness < 100mm.Compaction by Vibration • Immersion vibrators : Suitable to consolidate Plain and R. • Inclination of vibrating needle: Vertical. Amit Kr. DTU. Dr. Shrivastava. • Depth of concrete layer: 2/3 L to L. L is length of Vibrating needle.C.M:9818162728 .C.

DTU.M:9818162728 . Shrivastava. Amit Kr.Systematic Vibration of Each New Lift CORRECT Vertical penetration a few inches into previous lift (which should not yet be rigid) of systematic regular intervals will give adequate consolidation INCORRECT Haphazard random penetration of the vibrator at all angles and spacings without sufficient depth will not assure intimate combination of the two layers Dr.

Curing of Concrete • Keeping Concrete Moist and warm enough so that hydration of cement can continue. Shrivastava. Amit Kr. • Curing Method: • (a) Water • (b) Membrane Dr. DTU. • If curing is neglected in the early period of hydration concrete will suffer irreparable loss.M:9818162728 .

Column curing (RCC Curing) Dr. Amit Kr.M:9818162728 . DTU. Shrivastava.

Amit Kr.Sprinkling curing Sprinkling Curing on RCC slab Dr. Shrivastava. DTU.M:9818162728 .

Shrivastava. Amit Kr. DTU.M:9818162728 .Water using for RCC slab impound curing Dr.

Amit Kr. Dr.Water use for Impound curing on IPS floor. Shrivastava. DTU.M:9818162728 .

DTU. Shrivastava.Water using for RCC slab impound curing Dr.M:9818162728 . Amit Kr.

M:9818162728 .Use of Curing with water Dr. Amit Kr. Shrivastava. DTU.

Shrivastava.8= 95% Dr.Use of Curing with Curing Compound % Difference = 41/38.M:9818162728 . DTU. Amit Kr.

DTU. Amit Kr. Shrivastava.Brick Work Dr.M:9818162728 .

Dr. reference Shrivastava.M:9818162728 . Amit Web Kr. DTU.

M:9818162728 . DTU. reference Shrivastava. Amit Web Kr.Dr.

Amit Web Kr. reference Shrivastava.Dr.M:9818162728 . DTU.

reference Shrivastava. Amit Web Kr.M:9818162728 .Dr. DTU.

DTU.M:9818162728 . Amit Kr. Shrivastava.Socking or Apply the water on Brick’s for Brick work. Dr.

Amit Kr. DTU.M:9818162728 .SOAKING IN WATER BY Impounding Dr. Shrivastava.

Shrivastava.M:9818162728 .Water using in brick cement mortar Dr. DTU. Amit Kr.

Amit Kr.M:9818162728 . DTU. Shrivastava.Water using in brick cement mortar Dr.

Water using in brick cement mortar Dr.M:9818162728 . Amit Kr. Shrivastava. DTU.

M:9818162728 . Shrivastava.Curing After brick work (Brick Masonry) Dr. Amit Kr. DTU.

Dr. Amit Kr. The plaster shall be kept wet for a period of at least 7 days. Shrivastava.Plastering Curing Curing shall be started as soon as the plaster has hardened sufficiently i.e. next day of plastering not to be damaged when watered. DTU.M:9818162728 .

M:9818162728 . Amit Kr.Dr. DTU. Shrivastava.

Curing before wall (Dado) Tile fixing Dr.M:9818162728 . Amit Kr. DTU. Shrivastava.

Amit Kr. Shrivastava.Tile soaking before tile fixing Dr.M:9818162728 . DTU.

Apply cement slurry before plastering.

Dr. Amit Kr. Shrivastava, DTU,M:9818162728

Apply the cement pest on whole tile back side potion

Dr. Amit Kr. Shrivastava, DTU,M:9818162728

Fixing the tile Border According to level.

Dr. Amit Kr. Shrivastava, DTU,M:9818162728

Shrivastava. Amit Kr.Fixing the tile and to be checked level with other tiles.M:9818162728 . DTU. Dr.

Amit Kr.Fixing the tiles with cement slurry and provide th PVC spacer for maintain the Tiles corner or groo and free From to impurities Dr. Shrivastava.M:9818162728 . DTU.

Water using for making the White cement paste For Joint filling.M:9818162728 . Dr. Shrivastava. Amit Kr. DTU.

Amit Kr.M:9818162728 . Shrivastava.Water flooded for water proofing testing Dr. DTU.

M:9818162728 . Amit Kr.Using water for POP making. Shrivastava. Dr. DTU.

Amit Kr. Dr.M:9818162728 . Shrivastava.Using water for POP making. DTU.

M:9818162728 .Recycle the water Dr. Amit Kr. Shrivastava. DTU.

Quality of Water Dr. Shrivastava. DTU. Amit Kr.M:9818162728 .

Amit Kr.Dr. Shrivastava. DTU.M:9818162728 .

Amit Kr.Dr. Shrivastava.M:9818162728 . DTU.

M:9818162728 . Shrivastava. DTU.Dr. Amit Kr.

Thanks Dr. Amit Kr.M:9818162728 . DTU. Shrivastava.