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Theory: Hypodermic Needle Model Theorists: The theorist was Harold Laswell and this was created in 1927

. What is the theory? The ‘hypodermic needle model’ is described to have an immediate and powerful effect on its audience. n the 19!"’s and #"’s$ the mass media then were seen as a powerful influence to the chan%e in people’s behaviour. &ne of the factors$ which contributed to this stron% effect theory of communication$ was the rise in television and radio and how fast it was risin%. This theory su%%ests that the media can influence lar%e %roups of people by directly ‘in'ectin%’ messa%es that tri%%er a response. t can also be (nown as the ‘)a%ic *ullet Theory’ and it %ot the name because the messa%e is li(e a bullet and is shot from the media into the viewer’s head. t also su%%ests that the audience will do as they’re told without thin(in% about it. +n e,ample of the hypodermic needle model is when in 19-.$ the broadcast of The /ar of the /orld and how the +merican mass audience had a widespread reaction of panic. +s they couldn’t loo( on the internet to %et the factual information from the media producers$ they had the sense of panic. The audience was believin% that 0arth was bein% invaded by martians and this caused people to be 1panic stric(en2 and only a small proportion en'oyed a 3uiet ni%ht around the radio. Does this theory see the audience as active or passive? Why do you think this? The audience is seen as passive. This is because they don’t en%a%e with the media and they don’t 3uestion the messa%e$ which is bein% put across$ and they accept the messa%e and what is bein% told. +s we have the invention of the internet$ we would be able to find the facts and wouldn’t accept the messa%e that is bein% told and some people may do this but mainly for the hypodermic needle model most of the audience accept the messa%e bein% told because they couldn’t have %one and found the facts for this to help them out. What are the criticisms of this theory? The criticisms of this theory is that not everybody will believe what is bein% said and disa%ree with the points bein% made because there is also the active audience and some people are part of that audience. They will ma(e their own decisions and there are also other theories$ which have been developed$ and they are ta(in% the audiences ability to ma(e their own 'ud%ment into account. +s we are now a %eneration which has %rown up with the media$ we (now that if somethin% is happenin% in a film$ for e,ample when watchin% 4tar Tre($ we (now that we aren’t in space and that it wasn’t set in space$ but bac( then$ they would thin( that it was in space and this would panic the audience.