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FLEXIBLE MANUFACTURING SYSTEM

AUTOMATED PROCESSES – FMS {Flexible manufacturing system} A flexible manufacturing system (FMS) is a group of numerically-controlled machine tools. The first FMS was patent in 1965 by Theo Williamson who made numerically controlled equipment. Dedicated machinery results in cost savings but lacks flexibility. and computerized numerical controls brought a controlled environment to the factory floor in the form of numerically-controlled and directnumerically-controlled machines. For the most part. The various machining cells are interconnected. and may not reach full capacity. by an automated transport system. General purpose machines such as lathes. it is an automated production system that produces one or more families of parts in a flexible manner. Flexible manufacturing systems provide the batch manufacturer with another option—one that can make batch manufacturing just as efficient and productive as mass production. Definition―A Flexible Manufacturing System (FMS) is a production system consisting of a set of identical and/or complementary numerically controlled machine which are connected through an automated transportation system‖. Normally. milling machines. interconnected by a central control system. programmable controllers. or drill presses are all costly. Simply stated. Each process in FMS is controlled by a dedicated computer (FMS cell computer). via loading and unloading stations. FMS is limited to firms involved in batch production or job shop environments. The concept of flexible manufacturing systems evolved during the 1960s when robots. 1 . this prospect of automation and flexibility presents the possibility of producing nonstandard parts to create a competitive advantage. Today. batch producers have two kinds of equipment from which to choose: dedicated machinery or unautomated. Operational flexibility is enhanced by the ability to execute all manufacturing tasks on numerous product designs in small quantities and with faster delivery. It has been described as an automated job shop and as a miniature automated factory. general-purpose tools.

AUTOMATED PROCESSES – FMS {Flexible manufacturing system} Equipmentof FMSPrimary equipment Work centers    Universal machining centers (prismatic FMSs) Turning centers (rotational FMSs) Grinding machines Nibbling machines  Process centers    Wash machines Coordinate measuring machines Robotic work stations Manual workstations  Secondary equipment 2 .

A generic FMS is said to consist of the following components: 1. tapping.and medium-lot-size production of a variety of parts. which assemble components into final products and forming systems. and to maintain the flexibility required for small. and grooving operations.RGVs. A material-handling system that is automated and flexible in that it permits jobs to move between any pair of machines so that any job routing can be followed. reaming. drilling. These are assembly systems. boring. turning. 2. (c) passes the instructions for the processing of each operation to each station and ensures that the 3 .AUTOMATED PROCESSES – FMS {Flexible manufacturing system} Support stations   Pallet/fixture load/unload stations Tool commissioning/setting area Support equipment        Robots Pallet/fixture/stillage stores Pallet buffer stations Tools stores Raw material stores Transport system(AGVs.robots) Transport units(pallets/stillages) OBJECTIVES OF FMS Stated formally. the general objectives of an FMS are to approach the efficiencies and economies of scale normally associated with mass production. A set of work stations containing machine tools that do not require significant set-up time or change-over between successive jobs. which actually form components or final products. A network of supervisory computers and microprocessors that perform some or all of the following tasks: (a) directs the routing of jobs through the system. Typically. these machines perform milling. (b) tracks the status of all jobs in progress so it is known where each job is to go next. 3. Two kinds of manufacturing systems fall within the FMS spectrum.

spot). and/or centrally at the system level.AUTOMATED PROCESSES – FMS {Flexible manufacturing system} right tools are available for the job. 4. TYPES OF FMS     Sequential FMS Random FMS Dedicated FMS Engineered FMS Modular FMS APPLICATION OF FMS       Metal-cutting machining Metal forming Assembly Joining-welding (arc . which then downloads the part programs to the cell control or NC controller. locally at the work stations. In operating an FMS. gluing Surface treatment Inspection Testing 4 . the worker enters the job to be run at the supervisory computer. Storage. The jobs to be processed by the system. and (d) provides essential monitoring of the correct performance of operations and signals problems requiring attention.

Flexible Production Systems (FPS). Example: a NC machine. Example: A FMG and a FAC. two AGVs. Flexible Manufacturing Line (FML). a pallet changer and a part buffer. to a Part Unloading Area.AUTOMATED PROCESSES – FMS {Flexible manufacturing system} Different FMSs levels are: Flexible Manufacturing Module (FMM). Example: Four FMMs and an AGV (automated guided vehicle). Example : Two FMCs. Example: multiple stations in a line layout and AGVs 5 . Flexible Manufacturing (Assembly) Cell (F(M/A)C). a FMM and two AGVs which will transport parts from a Part Loading area. an Automated Tool Storage. and an Automated Part/assembly Storage. Flexible Manufacturing Group (FMG). through machines.

400. and stamping machinery reduced downtime better control over quality reduced labor more efficient use of machinery work-in-process inventory reduced increased capacity increased production flexibility The savings from these benefits can be sizable. Richard Truett reports. dies. giving it flexible manufacturing capability. This will allow the factory to add new models in as little as two weeks instead of two months or longer. in Automotive News. Truett also reports that. A review of the literature reveals many tangible and intangible benefits that FMS users extol. Ford will have converted 80 percent of its plants to flexible manufacturing.AUTOMATED PROCESSES – FMS {Flexible manufacturing system} BENEFITS OF FMS The potential benefits from the implementation and utilization of a flexible manufacturing system have been detailed by numerous researchers on the subject. that the flexible manufacturing systems used in five of Ford Motor Company's plants will yield a $2. LIMITATIONS OF FMS- 6 . by the year 2010. Enough so that Ford has poured $4.000 into overhauling its Torrance Avenue plant in Chicago.5 billion savings. These benefits include:           less waste fewer workstations quicker changes of tools.

Equipment utilization for the FMS sometimes is not as high as one would expect. Due to increased complexity and cost. users' attempt to utilize FMS for high-volume production of a few parts rather than for a high-variety production of many parts at a low cost per unit. In addition. an FMS also requires a longer planning and development period than traditional manufacturing equipment. rapidly7 . This is probably a result of U. manufacturers utilizing FMS. it is difficult to give an accurate indication of whether flexible manufacturing is justified. and a stable technology. management incompetence. It is crucial that a firm's technology acquisition decisions be consistent with its manufacturing strategy. an FMS may not be appropriate for some firms. Therefore. U. In this scenario. it may be a candidate for flexible manufacturing. many firms do not possess the necessary resources. problems are inevitable. Other problems can result from a lack of technical literacy. FMS does have certain limitations. Economically justifying an FMS can be a difficult task— especially since cost accounting tends to be designed for mass production of a mature product. This is particularly true if the firm is in an industry where products change rapidly. If the firm misidentifies its objectives and manufacturing mission. Japanese firms tend to have a much higher equipment utilization rate than U. so it must be used for similar parts (family of parts) that require similar processing. In particular.to mid-volume production. However. and does not maintain a manufacturing strategy that is consistent with the firm's overall strategy. If a firm chooses to compete on the basis of flexibility rather than cost or quality. Since new technology is costly and requires several years to install and become productive.S. firms average ten types of parts per machine. compared to ninety-three types of parts per machine in Japan. especially if it is suited for low. The question remains of how to quantify the benefits of flexibility.S. it requires a supportive infrastructure and the allocation of scarce resources for implementation.S. and the ability to introduce new products may be more important than minimizing cost. Frankly. scale is no longer the main concern and size is no longer a barrier to entry. and poor implementation of the FMS process. this type of system can only handle a relatively-narrow range of part varieties.AUTOMATED PROCESSES – FMS {Flexible manufacturing system} Despite these benefits. with known characteristics.

With just a few simple adjustments.AUTOMATED PROCESSES – FMS {Flexible manufacturing system} changing technology and shortened product life cycles can cause capital equipment to quickly become obsolete. that same line and equipment may be used to attach doors to a sport utility vehicle or some other type of vehicle. These customizations. Often. LIVE EXAMPLE OF FMSOne of the most common examples of a flexible manufacturing system can be seen in the manufacturing of automobiles. would take much longer. and be much more expensive for the customer. and may even happen during shifts. their products may not require processes at the technological level of an FMS. In fact. but to make customizations. the machines may not only be used to produce or assemble different parts for different models. the automobile industry can potentially save a substantial amount of money using a flexible manufacturing system. but can improve customer satisfaction by bringing down the price. A report in 2008 indicated that Ford Motor Company saved approximately $2. Practical Implication of ford FMS - 8 . Using machines with the ability to be flexible can not only speed the process up. The company estimated it can save at least half of the cost of manufacturing updated models using the systems. In some cases. the switchover can take place with very little disruption to the line. without a flexible system in place. Certain equipment is used to attach doors to a sedan. For other firms. Potential FMS users should also consider that some of the costs traditionally incurred in manufacturing may actually be higher in a flexible automated system than in conventional manufacturing.5 billion US Dollars by putting flexible systems in at five manufacturing plants. 1. IBM found that a redesigned printer was simple enough for high-quality manual assembly and that the manual assembly could be achieved at a lower cost than automated assembly.

In the final assembly area. There were only a 9 . FMS.an example of technology and an alternative layout The idea of an FMS was proposed in England (1960s) under the name "System 24". They were very automated. consisting of dozens of Computer Numerical Controlled machines (CNC) and sophisticate material handling systems. Paint Shop Body Shop Final Assembly In the body shop. flexibility means more than 80 percent of the tooling is not specific to one model. From the beginning the emphasis was on automation rather than the "reorganization of workflow". In the paint shop. a flexible machining system that could operate without human operators 24 hours a day under computer control. where the sheet metal comes together to form the vehicle’s body. flexibility means the build sequence is the same among multiple models on one or more platforms allowing for efficient utilization of people and equipment. very expensive and controlled by incredibly complex software. Early FMSs were large and very complex. standardized equipment in the paint shop and common build sequence in final assembly. flexibility means robotic applicators are programmed to cover various body styles – as they move through the paint booth – with equal precision. It can be reprogrammed to weld a car or a truck or a crossover of similar size. 2. This results in minimizing waste and environmental impact while maximizing quality.AUTOMATED PROCESSES – FMS {Flexible manufacturing system} Through the use of reprogrammable tooling in the body shop. Ford can build multiple models on one or more platforms in one plant.

Today two or more CNC machines are considered a flexible cell and two or more cells are considered a flexible manufacturing system.AUTOMATED PROCESSES – FMS {Flexible manufacturing system} limited number of industries that could afford investing in a traditional FMS as described above. Thus. called flexible manufacturing cells (FMC). 10 . arranged so that it can handle any family of parts for which it has been designed and developed. Currently. a Flexible Manufacturing System (FMS) consists of several machine tools along with part and tool handling devices such as robots. the trend in FMS is toward small versions of the traditional FMS.