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Disgruntled Failure is defined as the stop or termination of proper functioning or performance.

Systems fail for a number of reasons • People - staff involved with the transformation process have the ability to cause failure, either accidentally, through error of judgement, or purposefully, sabotaging the operation deliberately. The way in which customers interact with operations can induce failure, if instructions are not adhered to. Most operations failures, when traced back to their origins, are a result of some form of human error. Humans originally program computers, machinery failure may be as a result of poor design by a human and customers may make mistakes because they have been given poor instructions that again were originally written by a human. • Equipment/machinery - as industrialised countries move increasingly towards the use of automation in both manufacturing and service provision, the reliance on machinery and equipment increases. From time to time these facilities can break down, either partially or totally, causing varying degrees of operational chaos. In many industries, the consequences of failure are exacerbated due to the loss of human skill within the operation. For example, in the apparel manufacturing industry most cloth cutting is undertaken automatically, using either a computer controlled blade, laser or high-pressure water jet. This is an activity which, up until relatively recently, was carried out manually. If the automatic cutting equipment fails, the whole manufacturing process can be stopped. • Supplier failure - when operations are being supplied with goods or services from an external source, poor quality or unreliable delivery has the potential to cause system failure. • Customer failure - results from the misuse of products or services. For example, customers may be incompetent, or may not read operating guidelines. Most organisations accept that they need to educate their customers to use products or services effectively.

7.4 Measuring failure
When measuring failure, we are trying to assess the tendency of an operation to fail in order that we may respond appropriately. Failure is usually measured by: • failure rate (FR); • mean time between failures (MTBF); • reliability; • availability.

There are different measures of failures such as reliability and availability. Reliability is the ability of a operation to perform or be performed in its required function under its stated condition for a certain period of time. for example how many times the bus arrives on time as according to their published schdedule. Each part of the operation will have a
determined reliability, based on the percentage of the time it performs the operation correctly. In this example, in week one the bus has arrived on time at 78 per cent of the time. Therefore the bus has a reliability of 0. 78 In week 2 the bus has a reliability of 0.77 and week 4 the bus has a reliability of 0.975

Blockbuster declined several offers to purchase Netflix and merge with them The management of blockbusters lead to its failure in business as sales plummeted year after year The bath-tub curve The failure rate (and therefore the reliability) of many machines. Installation problems. wear and tear and.availability is the blockbusters failure to innovate their operations. As time goes on and the machinery or equipment nears the end of its working life. to a certain extent. Wear-out stage (aged phase). Normal-life stage (adult phase). Back in 2000. while holding on to a strategy to expand aggressively. Early-life stage (also known as burn in. pieces of equipment and components within an operation is reasonably predictable and displays the characteristics of the bath-tub curve described below. 3. complacency on the part of the operator. or infant phase). improper use by trainees etc are all factors that increase the likelihood of failure occurring at this stage. the probability of failure again increases due to deterioration of parts. then the chances of it going on to enjoy a relatively problem-free existence are high. When a new piece of machinery or equipment is introduced into an operation. the chances of failure in the early stages are relatively high. Failure rate during normal life is low and usually caused by exceptional occurrences (assuming that the machinery or equipment is maintained regularly and is not misused). If the machinery or equipment manages to survive the first stage of ‘life’.” . 1. 2. . settling-in of parts.

First to put right whatever has gone wrong. this is called failure recovery. . emergencies. This is could be cloud storage for information heavy business such as law firms . to deal with the longer term issues of the failure which may include everything from the way in which customer returns are dealt with by a retailer to the way an organisation deals with a mass product recall. the chances of it occurring again are minimal. or recovery plan. change control. failure does occur then the operation has to cope with it in some way. reassuring the public that. Second. suppliers. and other entities that must have access to those functions. Also called business resumption plan. therefore. Some failures depend upon two or more incidents taking place and are linked by an AND node. The recovery process has two objectives. considers the interaction between various components of the operation. system backups. regulators. disaster recovery plan. – and to quantify their contribution to system unreliability in the course of product desig Prevention notwithstanding all the prevention measures taken. Other failures occur for a variety of independent reasons and are linked by an OR node. – its modes and causes. and procedures which enable a business to respond to accidents. and help desk The components of the business continuity methodology required for manifestation into a documented plan include: Set of documents. where in any type of accidents case files where still intact . Business continuity is the activity performed by an organization to ensure that critical business functions will be available to customers. The fault tree demonstrates that it is usually a series of events that cause failure but that there can be more than one root cause of failure. and/or threats without any stoppage or hindrance in its key operations. • Key elements: – Gates represent the outcome – Events represent input to the gates • FTA is used to: – investigate potential faults. This type of analysis recognises that failure in most operations is dependant upon a combination of circumstances and.Origins of failure Fault-tree analysis is a logical procedure for establishing the origins of failure. business continuity management. instructions. as it was a one off failure. These activities include many daily chores such as project management. disasters.

maintenance becomes not only an integral part of the operation but also an integral part of operators’ daily activities. maintenance is still a hugely important part of any operation. • To achieve autonomous maintenance . as should the back-up equipment. maintenance Even if fail-safeing and redundancy are to be used to increase reliability. Goals of total productive maintenance The goals of total productive maintenance have been identified by Nakajima (1988) as: • To improve equipment effectiveness . The fail-safeing devices must be maintained. redundancy and maintenance. relobility can be improve threw improvement methods and is known as PokaYoke ( Poka meaning inadvertent errors and Yoke meaning to prevent).companies can improve threw using fail-safeing. some form of back up or redundancy is introduced.early diagnosis of potential equipment failure should result in increased availability and improved reliability. Examples are: • a hospital which will have a back-up generator in case of a power failure. Whilst direct operators deal with minor faults and repairs. thus increasing the organisation’s overall performance and profit. This is usually because the cost or risk of failure is extremely high. Redundancy Because of the nature of many operations and the consequences of failure. maintenance staff can take responsibility for the .