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D
[1]

2.

B
[1]

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D
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B
[1]

5.

A
[1]

6.

B
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7.

D
[1]

8.

(a)

(i)

(10 % 1000 g =) 100 g ethanol and (90 % 1000 g =) 900 g octane;

(ii)

n(ethanol) = 2.17 mol and n(octane) = 7.88 mol;

(iii)

Ereleased from ethanol = (2.17 1367) = 2966 (kJ);


Ereleased from octane = (7.88 5470) = 43104 (kJ);
total energy released = (2966 + 43104) = 4.61 104 (kJ);
Award [3] for correct final answer.
Accept answers using whole numbers for molar masses and rounding.

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(b)

greater;
fewer intermolecular bonds/forces to break / vaporization is
endothermic / gaseous fuel has greater enthalpy than liquid fuel / OWTTE;
M2 cannot be scored if M1 is incorrect.

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D
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D
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D
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12.

A
[1]

13.

D
[1]

14.

C
[1]

15.

B
[1]

16.

D
[1]

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17.

A
[1]

18.

A
[1]

19.

(a)

(i)

Copper:
0 to +2 / increases by 2 / +2 / 2+;
Allow zero/nought for 0.
Nitrogen:
+5 to +4 / decreases by 1 / 1 / 1;
Penalize missing + sign or incorrect notation such as 2+, 2+
or II, once only.

(ii)

(b)

nitric acid/HNO3 / NO3/nitrate;


Allow nitrogen from nitric acid/nitrate but not just nitrogen.

0.100 0.0285;
2.85 103 (mol);
Award [2] for correct final answer.

(ii)

2.85 103 (mol);

(iii)

(63.55 2.85 103) = 0.181 g;


Allow 63.5.

0.181

100 =

0.456
39.7 %

44.2 39.7

100 =

44.2

10/10.2 %;
Allow 11.3 % i.e. percentage obtained in (iv) is used to
divide instead of 44.2 %.

(i)

(iv)

(v)

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(c)

Brass has:
delocalized electrons / sea of mobile electrons / sea of electrons
free to move;
No mark for just mobile electrons.

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20.

B
[1]

21.

B
[1]

22.

A
[1]

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D
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24.

(a)

n(HCl)(= 0.200 mol dm3 0.02720 dm3) = 0.00544 / 5.44 103 (mol);

(b)

n(HCl) excess (= 0.100 mol dm3 0.02380 dm3) = 0.00238 /


2.38 103 (mol);

Penalize not dividing by 1000 once only in (a) and (b).

(c)

n(HCl) reacted (= 0.00544 0.00238) = 0.00306 / 3.06 103 (mol);

(d)

2HCl(aq) + CaCO3(s) CaCl2(aq) + H2O(l) + CO2(g) /


2H+(aq) + CaCO3(s) Ca2+(aq) + H2O(l) + CO2(g);
Award [1] for correct reactants and products.
Award [1] if this equation correctly balanced.
Award [1 max] for the following equations:
2HCl(aq) + CaCO3(s) CaCl2(aq) + H2CO3(aq)
2H+(aq) + CaCO3(s) Ca2+(aq) + H2CO3(aq)
Ignore state symbols.

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(e)

n(CaCO3) = ( 2 n(HCl)) =

1
2

0.00306;

= 0.00153 / 1.53 103 (mol);


Award [2] for correct final answer.
(f)

Mr(CaCO3) (= 40.08 + 12.01 + 3 16.00) = 100.09 /100.1 /


M = 100.09 /100.1 (g mol1);
Accept 100.
m(CaCO3)(= nM) = 0.00153 (mol) 100.09 (g mol1) = 0.153 (g);

0.153

100
=
0
.
188
= 81.4 % / 81.5 %
%CaCO3
Accept answers in the range 79.8 to 81.5 %.
Award [3] for correct final answer.
(g)

only CaCO3 reacts with acid / impurities are inert/non-basic / impurities


do not react with the acid / nothing else in the eggshell reacts with acid /
no other carbonates;
Do not accept all calcium carbonate reacts with acid.

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D
[1]

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B
[1]

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C
[1]

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30.

C
[1]

31.

(a)

81.7
18.3
nC = 12.01 = 6.80 and nH = 1.01 = 18.1;
ratio of 1: 2.67 /1: 2.7;
C3H8;
No penalty for using 12 and 1.

(b)

C3H8;

(c)

(i)

Br2 /bromine;
UV/ultraviolet light;
Accept hf/hv/sunlight.

(ii)

Cr2O72 /MnO4 and acidified/ H+ /H3O+;


Accept names.
heat / reflux;

(d)

Initiation:
Br2 2Br;
Propagation:
Br + RCH3 HBr + RCH2;
RCH2 + Br2 RCH2Br + Br;
Termination: [1 max]
Br + Br Br2;
RCH2 + Br RCH2Br;
RCH2 + RCH2 RCH2CH2R;
Award [1] for any termination step.
Accept radical with or without throughout.
Do not penalize the use of an incorrect alkane in the mechanism.

(e)

(i)

substitution and nucleophilic and bimolecular/two species in


rate-determining step;
Allow second order in place of bimolecular.

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4 max

(ii)

curly arrow going from lone pair/negative charge on O in OH to C;


Do not allow curly arrow originating on H in OH
curly arrow showing Br leaving;
Accept curly arrow either going from bond between C and Br to Br in
bromoethane or in the transition state.
representation of transition state showing negative charge, square
brackets and partial bonds;
Do not penalize if HO and Br are not at 180 to each other.
Do not award M3 if OH ---- C bond is represented unless already
penalized in M1.
Do not penalize the use of an incorrect alkyl chain in the mechanism.

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A
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C
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C
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39.

(a)

(b)

(c)

ester;

1013.0
amount of oil = 885.6 = 1.144 mol;
200.0
amount of methanol = 32.05 = 6.240 mol;
since three mol of methanol react with one mol of vegetable oil the
amount of excess methanol = 6.204 (3 1.144) = 2.808 mol;

(i)

rate of the forward reaction is equal to the rate of the reverse reaction /
forward and reverse reactions occur and the concentrations of the
reactants and products do not change / OWTTE;

[glycerol] [biodiesel] 3
(ii)

(iii)

(iv)

(d)

3
Kc = [ vegetable oil] [methanol] ;

to move the position of equilibrium to the right/product side /


increase the yield of biodiesel;

no effect (on position of equilibrium);


increases the rate of the forward and the reverse reactions equally
(so equilibrium reached quicker) / it lowers Ea for both the
forward and reverse reactions by the same amount / OWTTE;
No ECF for explanation.

vegetable oil is mainly non-polar and methanol is polar / OWTTE;


stirring brings them into more contact with each other / increase the
frequency of collisions / OWTTE;
Do not allow simply mixing.

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(e)

(f)

(relative molecular mass of biodiesel, C9H36O2 = 296.55)


maximum yield of biodiesel = 3.432 mol / 1018 g;
811.0
percentage yield = 1018 100 = 79.67 %;
Allow 80 % for percentage yield.

the carbon dioxide was absorbed by plants initially so there is no net


increase / vegetable oil is not a fossil fuel / vegetable oil is formed
from (atmospheric) carbon dioxide / OWTTE;

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40.

(a)

(b)

(i)

Fe2+ Fe3+ + e;

(ii)

MnO4 + 8H+ + 5e Mn2+ + 4H2O;

(iii)

MnO4 + 5Fe2+ + 8H+ Mn2+ + 5Fe3+ 4H2O;


Accept e instead of e.

(i)

11.6
amount of MnO4 = 1000 0.0200 = 2.32 104 mol;

(ii)

amount of Fe2+ = 5 2.32 104 = 1.16 103 mol;

(iii)

mass of Fe2+ = 55.85 1.16 103 = 6.48 102 g;


6.48 10 2
1.43
percentage of Fe2+ in tablet =
100 = 4.53 %;

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D
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C
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B
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D
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45.

(a)

carboxylic acid / carboxyl;


ester;
Do not allow carbonyl / acid / ethanoate / formula(COOH).
aryl group / benzene ring / phenyl;

(b)

(i)

Mr(C7H6O3) = 138.13;

3.15
=

138
.
13

2.28 102 (mol);


n=
Award [2] for the correct final answer.
(ii)

(iii)

(iv)

(v)

Mr(C9H8O4) = 180.17;
m = (180.17 2.28 102 =) 4.11(g);
Accept range 4.104.14
Award [2] for the correct final answer.

2.50
(percentage yield = 4.11 100 =) 60.8 %;
Accept 6061 %.

3;

0.02
(percentage uncertainty = 2.50 100 =) 0.80 %;
Allow 0.8 %

sample contaminated with ethanoic acid / aspirin not dry /


impure sample;
Accept specific example of a systematic error.
Do not accept error in reading balance/weighing scale.
Do not accept yield greater than 100 %.

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46.

C
20.2
12.01
= 1.68
1.68
0.814 = 2

N
11.4
14.01
= 0.814
0.814
0.814 = 1

O
65.9
16.00
= 4.12
4.12
0.814 = 5

H
2.50
1.01
= 2.48
;
2.48
0.814 = 3 ;

C2NO5H3;
No penalty for use of 12, 1 and/or 14.
Award [1 max] if the empirical formula is correct, but no working shown.

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52.

(a)

MnO4(aq) + 5Fe2+(aq) + 8H+(aq) Mn2+(aq) + 5Fe3+(aq) + 4H2O(l)


Award [2] if correctly balanced.
Award [1] for correctly placing H+ and H2O.

(b)

Award [1 max] for correct balanced equation but with electrons shown.
Ignore state symbols.

Fe2+/ iron(II);
Do not accept iron.

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(c)

(d)

(e)

n = 2.152 102 2.250 102;


4.842 104 (mol);
Award [1] for correct volume
Award [1] for correct calculation.

1 mol of MnO4 reacts with 5 mol of Fe2+;


5 4.842 104 = 2.421 103 (mol);
(same number of moles of Fe in the iron ore)
Allow ECF from part (a) and (c) provided some mention of mole ratio
is stated.

2.421 103 55.85 = 0.1352(g);


0.1352
0.3682 100 = 36.72 %;
Allow ECF from part (d).

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58.

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59.

(a)

0.600 mol Al(OH)3 (1.5)(0.600) mol H2SO4/0.900 mol H2SO4


needed, but only 0.600 mol used;
H2SO4 limiting reactant;

Some working must be shown in order to score the second


point.
(b)

0.200 mol Al2(SO4)3;


68.4(g);

2
Penalize incorrect units.

(c)

0.200 mol;

1
Use ECF from (a).

(d)

(e)

A Brnsted-Lowry acid is a proton/H+ donor;


A Lewis base is an electron-pair donor;

H2CO3 and carbonic acid / CH3COOH and ethanoic acid;

Accept any other weak acid and correct formula.


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60.

empirical formula = CN;


Working must be shown to get point.
Mr = 51.9 (g mol1);
:N

CC

N:;

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