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Sanjeewa Tharanga Kariyawasam

Topic-2 China’s Foreign Policy
Diploma course in Diplomacy and World Affairs (IX) – 2013 Module II assignment

Defence policy towards surrounding regional system e. The foreign policy of People’s Republic of China in brief 3. Defence policy implementation for in house matters c. Chinese security policy towards the world beyond Asia 4. Bibliography 1 2 3 4 7 8 9 11 13 . Defence and strategic policy of China as an integral part of Foreign policy a. Defence policy with immediate neighbours d.Table of Contents 1. Introduction 2. Importance of Defence policy b.

China is playing a prominent role even in the current context in the international arena. Foreign policy is the set of guidelines which control the international role of a country because it represents the way a country maintain its relationship other countries. China is a permanent Security Council member and the biggest emerging super power of the world in this century. It is said by various economic and defence analysists that sooner rather than later China will exceed the USA in all capabilities. Therefore. In this research paper.1) Introduction The world is becoming a global village with the boosting and dynamic technology and the international affairs leaving no country alone. international role of a country is a vital point of protecting its sovereignty. the foreign policy of People’s Republic of China is discussed by focusing on defence and strategic policy of China. China has adopted defensive defence policy rather than offensive policy on Five Principles of Peaceful Coexistence. it is interesting and important to discuss the defence policy and strategy of China going through vast store of literature. The objective of this research paper is to analyze the characteristics of defence policy and the strategy of China and the tendency of policy change. In nature. peacekeeping. Therefore. 1|Page . However. humanitarian assistance/disaster relief and regional military operations. leaving some international military challenges due to their non-transparent military modernization . It is witnessed that as much as the China is acquiring the power of international influence their interest is growing beyond their immediate territorial concerns in form of counter-piracy.

China’s rise: Challenges and Opportunities. political stability. observable inherent tenets and implications are portrayed with a significant emphasise. Their main goals of foreign policy are to preserve China’s independence. cultural. (2008). The internal situation of the country is rather controversial than it appears due to the limitations such as freedom of speak. “New Security Concept”. In the china’s foreign policy. former leader of China. sovereignty. achievements of China is remarkable so far with a great leap forward. China’s foreign policy was formed on the doctrine of independent foreign policy of peace according to Deng Xiaoping (politician and reformist leader of the Communist Party of China) .2) The Foreign Policy of Peoples Republic of China in brief. corruption. party governance. Fred Bergsten . 2007).” Since 1978. national interests and territorial integrity and to create a favourable international environment for China’s development reform and modernization. again proclaimed their commitment to peaceful developments and pursue independent foreign policy ensuring strategy for the win-win outcomes with counterparts. Those tenets are revealed in terms of “Five Principles of Peaceful Coexistence”. (October 15. “Peaceful Rise/ Peaceful Development”. social.Hu al. elitism. “Period of Strategic Opportunity” and “Harmonious World” in their foreign policy1 with higher prominence. as all can observe. Since 1980s. abuse of human rights and other arbitrary actions which are not accepted in democratic backgrounds taken by the Chinese 1 C. 2|Page . political and economic interests which they believe to protect and develop. China’s Foreign policy is a set of various polices adopted by the government of China in order to address defence.

The strategic policy provide the countries strategic posture with military doctrines on how and when to deploy national forces against possible threats against its territory. Defence policy identifies threats of hostility and aggression based on intelligence analysis. Retrieved 16:41. and military organisation of national forces and their use of military technology..Later on even other countries. military technology and mobilizing and organizing of national forces. 4 Defence policy. Basically. Not Economic. and defines military scope of national security.2 Thus.3 3) Defence and strategic policy of China as an integral part of Foreign policy Defence policy of a country is framework within which a country identifies threats and aggression of hostility based on intelligence analysis and defines the limits of national security. In Wikipedia. Defence and strategic policy is an important part of foreign policy in Chinese foreign policy. The Wall Street Journal. In addition to that the national defence policy defines the national defence strategy4. environment. The defence strategy and military doctrine are developed through strategic policy and capability development processes. (2013. My intention to brief and analyse the current defence policy and strategic policy of China.php?title=Defence_policy&oldid=542941065 3|Page . Once Japan invaded China in 1932 leaving the country incapacity to defend against such a smaller country less than twenty in times. China was never a super power in history and still they feel how they suffer from marginalization and humiliation. (2012) China's Biggest Problems Are Political. economy and national interests along with options of dealing such threats. 2013. from the beginning. this was codified in the agreement between India and China in 1954. they did not have superpower mentality earlier but reactive thinking and lesser attention to global affairs in 2 Feldstein. defence alliances. the feudalism and colonisation which prevailed in the country gradually fade off. March 9). defence alliances. combat readiness. panch:five. from http://en. Since after the Opium War in 1840. 3 This derived from Indian Panchsheel (from Sanskrit. Because of those impacts. the Chinese foreign polices evolved on bases of those experiences and that is why they strictly adhere to the Five Principles of Peaceful Coexistence. combat readiness. September 1.government. This is also considered as five principles of basis of non-alignment movement. The Free Encyclopedia. sheel:virtues). are a set of principles to govern relations between states.

2012. A. we cannot forget the fact that communists were forefather who led China to modern huge socialist economy. rivalry. the book of “ Art of War” written Chinese general Sun Tzu evidenced how they were proficient in strategic science in military a long time ago and it is still used by even western military academies. political and social system to adopt such defensive policy. Thus. a) Importance of Defence policy 5 Xiaoming. The perspectives in the Western world towards China is not positive even if it is not straightforward because it has identified China is looming threat to Western world. The chines culture is strategic in nature. Sun Tzu's Wisdom behind China's Diplomacy and Defence Policy [speech] (01 02 2012). in immediate neighbour.the past. their defence policies also got the influence of their culture. tradition. 4|Page . Communist leaders adopted superpower mentality after the relinquishment of victimised mentality. The rise of China in economic and military power in Asian region has a significant influence for regional military and economic power. population. global challenges are intensifying.5 Hence. However. This perspectives came in to being due to the misinformation and lack of information available in relation to the chines strategies including the communism. cooperation and harmonization is essential for the better future even if strategic competition. That is the very reason they believes the magnitude of the rights of community higher than the individual’s right. In the current context globalization. they had strategic perspectives. natural resource and its topography.. Shifting from bipolar system to multipolar system was inevitable and China is also playing dominant role in the current system in this period. The geopolitics of China which are very important in the region due to its size. H. are carrying the world into complexity. in surrounding regional system and world beyond the Asia. L. even before 2500 years. information availability. those are in house. The defence policy is formulated on four cornerstones.

Therefore. Following inherent objective are ubiquitous in defence policy as per declarations made Chinese leaders  Protection of motherland from external and internal threats. 5|Page . The innate quality of the defence policy of China is not offensive but defensive.  Safeguard the national and maritime interests and national interests for development. This military modernization has two contradictory view points from current superpowers and China. sovereignty. territorial integrity. The western world view this as imminent threat and China assert that this is their way improve the capabilities to safeguard to themselves on self-reliance. Threatening behaviour of the USA and USSR greatly encouraged China to contemplate comprehensive defence policy beyond the territorial integrity and sovereignty. There are certain and pivotal objectives of defence policy which are supposed to be achieved through pursuing the strategic defence plan. Modernization is streamlining the armed forces in Chinese way. The defence policy framework of china enables them to have their strategic plan to modernize their armed forces and weaponries with new technologies. As result of that situation. and stability. In simple term their defence objectives can described as modernity. which were to be achieved. A country has explicit and implicit defence objectives. It was rather late to China to adopt comprehensive defence policy which addressed issues beyond its territory.Within the period of cold war. even China also did not much concern over the defence policy much in early ages.(including cyber space. But activities and various speeches will act as the guidelines for the national policies. electromagnetic or space)  Consolidating national defence forces and apparatus  Resisting aggression  Protection of country’s sovereignty. the concept of security was evolving with military capabilities and the technology of weaponries. the security of political and military power became the most concerned and important factor of the world politics in recent past. unity.

54:5. Survival: Global Politics and Strategy. If the demarcation between military development and national development is vague. 7 Michael Pillsbury (2012). The threat perception may drive a country to take proactive actions before it spoils or go 6 Hu. china.Hu Jintao (2007) stated “To strengthen national defence and the armed forces occupies an important place in the overall arrangements for the cause of socialism with Chinese characteristics. integration national and military development for a flourishing country. htm. (2007). The economic developments is mostly performed through the military powers is vital aspect to see in Chinese context. Bearing in mind the overall strategic interests of national security and development. 2007.In Retrieve from http://www. After a rational analysis. cn/english/congress/229611. On the other hand. Hold High the Great Banner of Socialism with Chinese Characteristics and Strive for New Victories in Building a Moderately Prosperous Society in all: Report to the Seventeenth National Congress of the Communist Party of China on Oct. 6|Page . 149182. The Sixteen Fears: China's Strategic Psychology. They perceived PLA is the only apparatus that can do in that manner. China wants to standardize and to have equal distribution of the benefits of economic developments for the whole country as they adhere to socialist principles. Thereat perceptions of China other than its general threat perceptions are indistinct due to unviability of information from China. The China mostly rely on military power of china in national economic development plan and promote active participation of military in economic construction promotion. a viewer from outside tend to think. China can do a lot of things to military development in name of economic developments. Michael Pillsbury (2012)7 identified sixteen psychological fears that create their threat perceptions. J. Therefore. 15. Even if it is not a complete list of fears of China it has been responsible for formulating the defence and strategic policy to a great extent. org. we must take both economic and national defence development into consideration and make our country prosperous and our armed forces powerful while building a moderately prosperous society in all respects. or to have their understanding regarding chines defence policy get blurred.”6 This statement reflects the spirit of chines position for their military and developments and their strategy towards. This strategy is something like double-edged sword if it is reviewed in objective manner.

civil war or terrorism. China seems to believe internal and external link is so robust even if they restricted their internal affairs and no cushion to protect their internal environment if external environment factors fail. Vietnam and Russia. Fear of the choking-off of sea lines of communication. Fear of escalation and loss of control. 7|Page . in surrounding regional system and world beyond the Asia. Fear of Taiwanese independence. Fear of internal instability. jamming or precision strikes.beyond their control. Fear of major airstrikes. This is also a strategic task for China’s modernization and common expectation of all Chinese ethnic groups. strives to build a harmonious socialist society internally while promoting enjoyment of lasting peace and prosperity of the world. in house.e. b) Defence policy implementation for in house matters The main attribute that we can observe at glance is integration of economic development. Fear of cyber-attack. China intents to show that their intentions are not to be realpolitik oriented due to its socialism background. Anyway. In this research paper. Fear of attacks on pipelines. Reunification over the Taiwan Strait is very important point of the defence policy because the relation between two sides are yet to receive more strong form and mutual understand. All China is doing can be done only in peaceful environment is the core belief in China.g. Fear of aircraft-carrier strikes. Conspiracy theory adopted by westerners). Fear of a land invasion or territorial dismemberment. Therefore. in immediate neighbour. Fear of insufficient forces to ‘liberate’ Taiwan. Japan. Fear of an armoured or airborne attack. China firmly takes the road of peaceful development. Fear of a loss of maritime resources. China hope to have healthy political and military relation will create proper and 8 Fear of an island blockade. these sixteen psychological fears8 are matters to be concerned as issues to be addressed by means of comprehensive defence and strategic policies. I would like to discuss how China’s overall defence policy is formulated on four keystones i. Fear of attacks on strategic missile forces by commandos. Fear of attacks on anti-satellite capabilities and Fear regional neighbours India. and military modernization in order to exploit opportunities to obtain fortified and well equipped military power compatible with its national security. By defence implementations. So this is rather different in western approach (e. riots.

Externally." “ East Turkistan independence". Internally. Mongolia and Vietnam. a great part of defence policy is supposed to cover the problems arising with territorial integrity and sovereignty and oppose and contain separatist parties. China’s Security Challenges: Priorities and Policy implication. In China. a military clash across the Taiwan Strait could end up with a China–US military conflict.n. In: s. adheres to a selfdefensive nuclear strategy. In terms of security. China defence policy asserts that this (peaceful period) is the strategic opportunity to address nation development and modernization of its military power with peaceful environment within and without. Taiwan remains a security challenge to Beijing as strong opposition to and mistrust of Beijing still exists in Taiwan. Kazakhstan. it is crucial to observe the threat perceptions of “Taiwan independence. China utilise their military power not only for defence but also for active participation in national social and economic developments. the mishandling of the Taiwan issue could trigger off social instability and power struggle in China. pp. 8|Page . “Muslim separatists in Xinjiang” and "Tibet independence. 2011. and will never enter into a nuclear arms race with any other country. The border and coastal defence forces of the PLA promote friendly cooperation in joint patrols with neighbour countries such as Russia. Therefore..:s.l. China consistently upholds the policy of no first use of nuclear weapons. 142 o-159. The Taiwan issue is closely related to China’s external security and internal stability.pragmatic integration in to Chinese nation as they think it as the course of Chinese great rejuvenation. air security. 9 Yang. there a pretty amount of protesting were recorded indicating social instability. However.”..9 Safeguarding sovereignty. Later on the Chinese government issued “Temporary Regulations Concerning the Implementation of an Accountability System for Senior Cadres of the Party and Government” for ensuring the accountability of inappropriate mass handling case. protection of Chinese borders and coastal security are vital part of in this region of defence policy. J. territorial integrity.

In Chinese ideology. China has linked its strategic influence with overall development in various fields. With the military capabilities and economic power has eminent factors that change the security policy of China form protection sovereignty and territorial integrity to regional hegemony. Meanwhile. By now. China has territorial disputes with a number of countries. the Spratly Islands (Nansha in Chinese) with Malaysia. Anyway. Senkaku (Diaoyu) Islands with Japan. China has taken several measurements to resolve boarder disputes through negotiations after military clashes such as Sino-Indian Bilateral Peace and Tranquillity Accords. As the regional leader. the Philippines. Mainly. China is the military and economic dominator of the Asia Pacific region. it has the power of balance to be 9|Page . Brunei and possibly Indonesia. Vietnam. Japan’s equidistance line in the East China Sea. There are some elemental facts drawn from the defence policy are more persistent for a long duration. and certain islands in the Yalu and Tumen rivers with North Korea. they shifted their policy from offensive confrontation to solid foundation of negotiation. 1991 Sino-Russian border agreement etc. territorial disputes with its neighbouring countries have been a constant challenge to Beijing. they peacefully resolved so far.c) Defence policy with immediate neighbours China has various issues and disputes with its immediate neighbours due to the land and sea borders. Bhutan. is the strategic and economic future of the region. including the dispute over Kashmir with India. The status of regional leader and modernization of PLA is implicitly used as deterrents factor in partisans of territorial disputes in some cases because it is easy understand that military clash doesn’t bring a benefit other than cooperation on strong negotiation foundation. some of the Paracel Islands (Xisha in Chinese) with Vietnam. Even if they had problems in Russia. d) Defence policy towards surrounding regional system. Hence china.

” An upgraded airstrip on Woody Island. and on to the littorals of the Arabian Sea and Persian Gulf. Geopolitics.Port and airfield construction projects. the motivation behind the project is rational because.” The “pearls” extend from the coast of mainland China through the littorals of the South China manager of the region with support of multilateral countries providing an option to region instead of the USA. trading. the Strait of Malacca. is a “pearl. military transportation. strategic advantage and forward presence. market and security resources. and force modernization form the essence of China’s “String of Pearls. it needs to ensure the protection of sea line of communication (SLOC) from Middle East China. But. It is not a forgettable fact that ancient Silk Route had greatly influenced intra-continental economic. mobility are main aspects to upgrade country to a hegemonic country. because the production output and input. is a “pearl. This total projects is directed to exploit the opportunities to maintain military capabilities. China has built up military camps and projects call “pearls” 10 in the region. cultural and religious exchange in oriental world.” A container shipping facility in Chittagong. As nexus of China geopolitical hegemony. resources. Close proximity. with recently upgraded military facilities. ethnic. Myanmar. However. is a “pearl.” as is the construction of a navy base in Gwadar. Hambanthota port and Mattala airport are also some kind of supportive installations for the Chinese concept of String of Pearls. This point in their defence policy imply the power balance of the region in response to the Western. It is no wonder why ASEAN forum wary of regional affairs of China due the level of influence of the region. across the Indian Ocean. political and religious dynamics are important determinants of defence policy of China in the current period. shipping are almost depending on sea routes around the china. Maritime security is a paramount part of this part of their security policy. 10 | P a g e . is a “pearl. diplomatic ties. domestic. Pakistan. The latest issuance of the Chines defence policy has emphasized the close relation with North Korea in spite of western pressure. ASEAN (Association of Southeast Asian Nations) is providing a forum to China to have economic. As anyone can observe. Economic developments. located in the Paracel archipelago 300 nautical miles east of Vietnam. the concept of String Peals is 10 Hainan Island.” Construction of a deep water port in Sittwe. The collection of those pearl is called “String of Pearl”. Bangladesh. the as giant manufacturer.

But there is not any pressure made by China to those governments to do or be inclined to do due to growing security fear within the region and world. But unpredictable possibilities are also available that their course of journey is diverged or hinder.becoming a headache of US policy makers due to resilience of the concept with defence strategy. Up to this point they have strictly adhere to the policy of No-first--use 11 | P a g e . Defence policy for nuclear defence is very important for the whole word since it’s the most tensional factor of the world. Sea Lines of Communications e) Chinese security policy towards the world beyond Asia. It is not a surprise to think or say that China is approaching towards a world superpower. Most of time they have shown their intention to have strategic partnerships such as Russia and China for confidence building measurements and deep multilateral exchange were initiated after the SinoRussia agreement.

and they plan to send more military forces and strengthen their partnerships with neighbouring 2013. This is an indication of Chines preparedness to have the status of Superpower. 2013. The ambiguity over the fact has been still existing without proper reaffirmation. [Online] Available at: ttp://eng. military presence in the Asia-Pacific region causes a lot of tension.S. 12 Karpova. anti-piracy the Chinese government said the increased U. Ministry of National Defence of China.htm [Accessed 16 09 2013].mod. Prvuda. [Online] Available at: http://english.. Taiwan. Formulating the concept of comprehensive security and effectively conducting military operations other than war (MOOTW) has been stressed in the defence policy. China is extending its cooperation with other countries especially including Russia and USA for promoting international peace fulfilling its international obligation. Japan. But the recent issuance of white paper (2013-April-16)11 by the Chinese defence ministry has stirred the western power over the omission of above vital fact. Therefore the PLA is conducting military drills and military preparedness in order to position the PLA in a robust standard.pravda. 12 | P a g e . This is really matter of power balance of the world with multipolarity and mostly the USA concern for losing it world order in place of new world order. More participations in peace operation.[Accessed 10 09 2013].. A recent study found that China increasingly threatens to end the military supremacy of the USA. and international relief project in international arena may imply its willingness to have more comprehensive obligations. 4) Conclusion In mid-April. L.12 The USA is also forming USA ally ring around China to pressure its tension in relation to threat i.(NFU policy). 11 Anon.

Government. 5.l. University of Toronto. H.g. Frolic. especially various resource such as crude oil.: U. China’s rise: challenges and opportunities. Xiaoming. M.C: PETERSON INSTITUTE FOR INTERNATIONAL ECONOMICS. [Online] Available at: http://english. Washington Ministry of National Defence of China. 2008. 9. Threat and coercive powers are not viable tools to exploit opportunities of the real world because the sovereignty of a country is undeniable. J.. July 2006. [Online] Available at: http://eng. String of Pearls: meeting the challenge of china’s rising Power. 2. 7. [Accessed 10 09 2013]. pp. M.n.. FELDSTEIN. M.. C.:s. Ontario. China's Biggest Problems Are Political. L. [Accessed 16 09 2013]. pp. The Wall Street Journal. L. August 2. Sun Tzu's Wisdom Behind China's Diplomacy and Defence Policy [Interview] (01 02 2012). People are willing to have a control unit which people can control easily with high influential power (e. 5) Bibliography 1. Fred Bergsten et al. s. Prvuda. In: Survival: Global Politics and Strategy. B. So the defence policy of China is comprehensively to be reviewed and modified in accordance with the current trends and necessities. 6. London: Routledge..pravda. 142-159. Pillsbury. 2013.. 13 | P a g e . 3. Karpova.. A. Pehrson. The Sixteen Fears: China's Strategic Psychology. 2011. China’s Security Challenges: Priorities and Policy implication. 2013. 2012. Toronto. 2012. In: s. mineral etc. small regional sovereignty). 2009. Most of efforts are existing to have unified nation and integration of regions and ethnic groups in China’s defence policy but is not the real propensity of the world. J. 149-182.The size and the growth of Chines economy is apparent and their peaceful and independent foreign policy has yield opportunities from the world. 2012. 4... c. York University..S.mod.l. Political Change in China. Not Economic.