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which are by-products of burning coal. is quite angular. with grain sizes spanning from fine sand to fine gravel. and has a porous surface structure. These water-filled hoppers are used to collect ash and slag. The porous surface structure of bottom ash particles make this material less durable than conventional aggregates and better suited for use in base course and shoulder mixtures or in cold mix applications. and pavement Feed stock in the production of cement Aggregate in lightweight concrete products Snow and ice traction control material The Truth About Wet Bottom Ash Hoppers: A Different Perspective On Refractory By Gary Bases Wet bottom ash hoppers may have a dirty job. coal-fired boiler. bottom ash is typically grey to black in color. Bottom ash is coarse. Physically.Bottom Ash Courtesy of the American Coal Ash Association Bottom ash is agglomerated ash particles. sub-bases. The No. This porous surface structure also makes this material lighter than conventional aggregate and useful in lightweight concrete applications. that are too large to be carried in the flue gases and impinge on the furnace walls or fall through open grates to an ash hopper at the bottom of the furnace. A steam generating boiler simply cannot operate without an ash hopper. 1 reason for ash hopper failure is improper material selection or application. as opposed to wearing surface mixtures. formed in pulverized coal furnaces. Bottom ash applications include its use as a:      Filler material for structural applications and embankments Aggregate in road bases. Bottom ash can be used as a replacement for aggregate and is usually sufficiently well-graded in size to avoid the need for blending with other fine aggregates to meet gradation requirements. A properly Click Photo to Enlarge . but don’t let that fool you when it comes to how important this component is for a steam generating.

a wet bottom ash hopper is a water-filled steel tank with a protective lining used to collect bottom ash and slag from a steam-generating boiler that uses coal as its main source of fuel. The ash-hopper lining is made of brick or refractory. and slurry mix content can be very corrosive to the lining materials because of the surface porosity of the lining material. Each V-shaped section or flat-bottom level usually has a separate discharge to remove the slag and ash collected within the ash hopper. This article provides need-to-know information about this vital component. slag. Furnace vs. General Information As described. Coal ash is the residual product left after burning of the fuel and slag. The number of hoppers required will depend on the size of the boiler and the amount of storage capacity required. It can be in the shape of a V. costing the power industry thousands of dollars in lost revenue. no such frozen layer can exist to protect the refractory from the corrosive action of the combination of slag. biomass. A typical wet bottom ash hopper analysis would involve the steps highlighted in Figure 1. and slurry mix is made up of various-size chunks of ash and slag. The slag. and the thermal conductivity of the refractory material. a wet bottom ash hopper lining must contend with the type of water being used to fill the ash hopper. or it can be a multileveled. The slag. Water is used to fill the ash hopper to make it possible to remove the ash and slag. the average ash hopper lining today lasts only about 5 years. or a combination of the two. ash. flat-bottom type. Unlike the furnace area of a boiler. ash. and water found inside the ash hopper. Unfortunately. ash.installed ash hopper lining should last up to 10 years. This is done by a water curtain arrangement at the top of the ash hopper that allows water to continually run over the surface of the lining material. and slurry mix to flow into another watertight chamber. This thin slag layer is formed by the interaction of several factors—the cooling action of the studded furnace tube walls. and is used to protect the ash-hopper plate. To choose the right material for use inside a wet bottom ash hopper. Hopper Some steam-generating boilers require refractory inside the lower furnace area to protect the furnace water wall tubes from ash and slag created by the burning of fuel (such as coal. This is emptied by opening a gate that allows the slag. which is the formation of molten. a chemical reaction can occur between the water pH and the lining material. The ash hopper is filled to a certain level. however. partially fused. one should consider that the lining material has to withstand the pH in the water and take into account the chemical makeup of the slag and ash that will fall into the ash hopper. it is important to understand . Basic Problems To Consider When designing. Inside wet bottom ash hoppers. It has been found that when the phosphate levels of river water begin to approach 8 percent or greater. and the exposed upper portion of the ash-hopper lining must be water cooled. The refractory material used inside a furnace must be slag resistant and must have proper thermal conductivity to assist in the formation of a “frozen” layer of slag between the refractory surface and the molten slag. ash. and cool the exposed ash-hopper lining from the radiant heat coming from the furnace area above. and slurry can penetrate the surface of the lining and cause its deterioration. Most power plants are located near a river and use river water to fill their ash hoppers. Two types of ash fall into a wet bottom ash hopper: coal ash and slag. the thickness of the refractory material. or re-solidified deposits on the furnace walls inside the boiler. It passes through a grinder or crusher and onto a conveyor belt to be transported to a designated landfill. The ash. relining. and black liquor). The coal ash and slag fall into the water-filled ash hopper from the furnace above. or repairing a wet bottom ash hopper.

an independent consulting firm specializing in brick. ash-hopper failure requires a boiler to be shut down. and installation procedures can one prevent a lining failure and keep an ash hopper in operation. and lagging systems).com. spaced.x 9-inch staggered centers) with each row of anchors rotated 90 degrees. He is also the author of The Bril Book (a complete guide to brick. . or choosing the wrong materials. 3. one must follow certain steps. The longer a hopper is in operation. which most often cause lining failure in a wet bottom ash hopper: 1. Refractory anchors also should be spaced evenly in a staggered pattern (for example. This is due to rapid temperature changes in the lining materials’ surface. This article appeared in the May 2007 issue of Insulation Outlook. Complete replacement of an ash hopper can cost as much as $500. insulation. the longer a boiler makes money. Anchors should be sized at 2/3 or 3/4 of the total lining thickness. (See steps on page 24 for proper material selection. 4..) Mechanical failure. insulation. An example of this is large slag deposits falling into the ash hopper. Improperly sized. refractory. such as those previously discussed in “Understanding Refractory Failure” (see the August 2006 Insulation Outlook). This will help prevent the creation of a potential shear plane. Only by following proper lining material selection. handling. It clearly pays to pay attention to wet bottom ash hoppers. 5. and does not contribute to a boiler’s efficiency or energy savings. or rotated anchors. 6. (This can include quantity or application.) Improper lining material installation.000 and take a month or more to complete. Loss of water curtain above the water line. and lagging. refractory. To choose a new lining material or understand why a lining failed. This can including improperly installed lining or anchors. Expansion failure.   Subscribe to Insulation Outlook magazine Want to respond to this article? Interested in authoring an article for a future issue of Insulation Outlook? Contact the Editor Author Gary Bases Gary Bases is the president of BRIL Inc. 2. Loss of the water curtain can cause the surface of the refractory (usually about 1 inch thick) to pop off in sheets. and The Bril Book III—the book of bril.the following factors. Conclusions An ash hopper is a collection area for ash and slag. A complete ash-hopper replacement (including the plate and lining material) can be expensive and time-consuming. Improper lining material selection. with one of the two tines or legs of the anchor longer than the other. He may be contacted at 330-665-2931 or brilinc@roadrunner. However. The Bril Book II (a technical manual that includes bril application drawings for the power generating industry). 9.

BOTTOM ASH HANDLING Jet Pumping System BSBK’s product profile includes Jet Pumping System for intermittent removal of bottom ash collected at furnace bottom of PF type boilers. de-ashing is done through operation of the inclined hydropneumatically operated feed gate. Continuous water make-up and overflow system keeps the temperature at 600C in the BAH. Intermittently. allowing free expansion of the furnace without any air ingress. High pressure water supplied to the jet pump acts as motive water to pump the bottom ash slurry to dewatering bins/slurry sump. BSBK’s Jet Pumping Systems are installed upto capacity of 85TPH and for power plants upto 600 MW. System comprises of water impounded refractory lined Bottom Ash Hopper (BAH) of adequate capacity with water seal trough and dip plates. . clinker crusher and jet pump.

At regular intervals . After a predetermined time Discharge gate fitted at the bottom of the hopper allows ash/ clinker to pass through specially designed clinker grinder and then pumped by Jet pump to transport the ash slurry to nearby slurry sump or Dewatering bin. To control water wastage the free water from ash pond are pumped back to slurry sump. This System utilizes lean slurry method (concentration about 25% . depending on system in use. The centrifugal Slurry Pump fitted at the ash sump conveys both Bottom Ash & Fly Ash to the ash pond situated at longer distance. the dewatering bin is drained to remove maximum water from stored ash. From there Slurry pump conveys both Bottom ash & Fly ash to its final destination. Product range in bottom Ash Includes :Water Impounded Hopper & Jet Pumping System Submerged Scrapper Conveyor System Dewatering Bin Bed Ash Handling System Water Impounded Hopper & Jet Pumping System Hot Bottom ash from boiler furnace are quenched after falling into water impounded hopper and collect at the bottom of the hopper.30%). Bottom Ash Handling System Through Submerged Scrapper Conveyor . In case of Dewatering bin.Mecgale specializes in complete line of Bottom Ash Handling Systems. the overflow water from the dewatering bin goes to a settling tank and finally to a surge tank where relatively clean water is stored for reuse. The semi-dry ash is then discharged from Dewatering Bins to the truck or wagon for transporting the moist ash for final disposal area/reuse.

The Submerged Scrapper Conveyor placed below bottom ash hopper quenches the hot bottom ash coming from boiler furnace. The biggest advantage of Submerged Scrapper Conveyor is minimal water wastage and avoids water related pollution/problem. Dry Bed Ash Handling System Through Ashcon . The scrapper bar fixed on the high quality scrapper chain continuously moves at slow speed and the slat portion of the conveyor drains the water from the ash. From the Scrapper conveyor the moist ash is feed into a belt conveyor for onward disposal to a storage bin for final loading into trucks/wagons for final disposal or discharged into sluice trench for transferring to the slurry sump. The water trough of the submerged conveyor provides required water sealing to the boiler. Mecgale is having technological association with very reputed foreign manufacturer and can deliver very high quality Submerged Scrapper Conveyor even up-to 800 MW unit.

. Ashcon placed underneath the surge hoppers.AFBC. This system does not require water thereby negates all water related difficulty and problems.. Bed ash is transported in low velocity through enclosed pipeline to storage silo. this reduces pipeline erosion. conveys the material. Clinker grinder breaks larger lump into a small size and continues to deposit ash and broken clinker into the Ashcon for further conveying. Ashcon is designed to convey abrasive and irregular sized material at temperature even up-to 450 C. For Clinker ash.Dry bed ash from the after cooler of CFBC.etc boilers is collected in the watercooled surge hopper.

the ash is transported by pipeline from water impounded hopper through Crusher and Jet Pump into a dewatering tank for storage. This system can also be designed for zero discharge conditions thereby ensuring practically no outflow of the contaminated water from the system except for occasional blow-down. Clinkers are crushed to small pieces by specially designed CRUSHERS and then pumped by Jet Pulsion Pumps through pipelines directly to ash disposal area or to ash slurry sump for onward disposal through ash slurry pumps. De-watering Bins are used for storing the Ash and taking out the conveying water from the stored ash. At predetermined intervals. In this system.BOTTOM ASH AND BED ASH Water Impounded Hopper and Water powered Jet Pumping System Ash and clinkers produced inside boiler furnace are quenched and stored in water impounded hopper having refractory lining. Crusher Bottom Ash Disposal System with De-Watering Bins and Closed Loop Water Recirculation System Submerged Scraper Conveyor / Belt Conveyor Systems These systems employ continuously operating scraper conveyor or submerged belt conveyor . the dewatering tank is drained to remove all the water from stored ash. Where Bottom Ash is required in semi-dry condition for open Truck Transportation. Bottom Ash Hopper Under Construction Bottom Ash Disposal System with Closed Loop Water Recirculation and Zero discharge Pollution free Arrangement DCIPS offers system suitable for generating commercially acceptable dry ash with water recirculation features which enable re-use of the transport water in repeated cycle. Semi-dry ash is then discharged from Dewatering Bins to the truck or wagon for transportation to ash dump area or for any end use. The overflow and the drain water from the dewatering tank is taken to a settling tank and thereafter to a surge tank where relatively clean water is stored for reuse.

The trough containing the conveyor is filled with water for quenching of bottom ash. DCIPS offers systems for Bottom Ash and Bed Ash handling from FBC or CFBC Boilors to be transported pneumatically to Silos. Pneumatic Vacuum and Pressure Conveying Systems Similar to Fly Ash conveying. Plants supplied by DCIPS are working satisfactorily. Control Room for Bottom Ash Handling System . Bottom ash is discharged into a sluice trench for transportation to slurry sump or to a conveyor for storage in silo for subsequent truck transportation.running below boiler furnace.