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5 Forestry 6 See also 7 Notes 8 References 9 External links

Culverts may be used to form a bridge-like structure to carry traffic. Culverts come in many sizes and shapes include round, elliptical, flat-bottomed, pear-shaped, and box-like constructions. Culverts may be made of concrete, galvanized steel, aluminum, orplastic, typically high density polyethylene. [1] Two or more materials may be combined to form composite structures. For example, open-bottom corrugated steel structures are often built on concrete footings. Plastic culvert liners are also inserted into failing concrete or steel structures in order to repair the structure without excavating and closing the road. To prevent the older structure from collapsing, the space between it and the plastic liner is usually filled withgrout.

Accidents due to culvert failures[edit]
Culverts fail due to corrosion of the materials they are made from, or erosion of the soil around or under them. If the failure is sudden and catastrophic, it can result in injury or loss of life. Sudden road collapses are often at poorly designed culvert crossing sites. Water passing through undersized culverts will scour away the surrounding soil over time. This can cause a sudden failure during medium sized rain events. There are more than 5,000,000 culverts currently in use in the United States alone. Continued inspection, maintenance, and replacement of these structures is crucial for infrastructure and safety. Accidents due to culverts can also occur if a flood overwhelms it, such as with the Jacobs Creek Flood of 2003, or disrupts the road or railway above it, such as with the Bethungra accident of 1885, which killed seven people. Soil and sand carried through a culvert can wear away the galvanizing of a steel culvert, allowing it to corrode and eventually collapse, disrupting the road or railway above it. This happened at a culvert near Gosford, New South Wales in 2007, killing five.[2]

Environmental impacts[edit]

[citation needed] This culvert cannot accommodate wildlife passage Poorly designed culverts are also more apt to become jammed with sediment and debris during medium to large scale rain events. Fish are a common victim in the loss of habitat due to poorly designed crossing structures. It can also damage crops and property. Poorly designed culverts can degrade water quality via scour and erosion and also restrict aquatic organisms from being able to move freely between upstream and downstream habitat. The embankment material that is washed away can clog other structures downstream. wildlife and other aquatic life that require instream passage. Culverts that offer adequate aquatic organism passage reduce impediments to movement of fish. . Vermont Safe and stable stream crossings can accommodate wildlife and protect stream health while reducing expensive erosion and structural damage. Undersized and poorly placed culverts can cause problems for water quality and aquatic organisms.This culvert has a natural surface bottom connecting wildlife habitat. causing them to fail as well. These structures are less likely to fail in medium to large scale rain/snow melt events. If the culvert cannot pass the water volume in the stream. the water may overflow over the road embankment. washing out the culvert. A properly sized structure and hard bank armoring can help to alleviate this pressure. This may cause significant erosion.