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Sludge Settling Processes
in SBR-Sewage
Treatment Plants
According to the
Biocos-Method
Dipl.- Ing. Sten Meusel
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Forecast
Peculiarities
of the sludge sedimentation
and
problematic operating conditions
observed in
three-phase-Biocos-plants
Peculiarities
of the sludge sedimentation
and
problematic operating conditions
observed in
three-phase-Biocos-plants
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Outline
1. Motivation of Investigation
2. Methods and Material
3. Results
4. Summary
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1. Motivation of Investigation
Few available
empirical data
about sludge
settling processes
in Biocos-plants
Few available
empirical data
about sludge
settling processes
in Biocos-plants
Improvement of
the Biocos-method
concerning the
operating
efficiency
Improvement of
the Biocos-method
concerning the
operating
efficiency
Bauhaus-
University
Weimar
Bauhaus-
University
Weimar
Company of
Biocos-plant
constructions
Company of
Biocos-plant
constructions
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2. Methods and Material
SU 2
SU 1
Biological reactor
WWTP Buchbach
(Capacity 1,200 PE)
WWTP Buchbach
(Capacity 1,200 PE)
Q
in
= 0...5 L/s or
10 L/s
Design MLSS
B
= 5 g/L
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Q
out
2. Methods and Material
Mixing phase „U“ (15 min)
Mixing phase „U“ (15 min)
Q
in
Longitudinal
Section
Plan View
B SU 1
B
SU 1
SU 2
Q
in
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Q
out
2. Methods and Material
Settling phase „V“ (45 min)
Settling phase „V“ (45 min)
Q
in
Longitudinal
Section
Plan View
B SU 1
B
SU 1
SU 2
Q
in
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Q
out
Q
out
2. Methods and Material
Discharge phase „A“ (60 min)
Discharge phase „A“ (60 min)
Q
in
Longitudinal
Section
Plan View
B SU 1
B
SU 1
SU 2
Q
in
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2. Methods and Material
Focal points of the investigations in the SU-reactor:
• Definition of the sludge level courses
• Definition of the solid distribution
Measuring instrument:
• Infrared light turbidity sensor (CUC 101, Endress
+ Hauser) Total solids (TS) in g/L
Arrangement of measurement points (Units in m):
Length = 8.0 m
Width = 3.5 m
Max water depth = 4.5 m
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3. Results
• Sludge levels during the Settling phase „V“:
Time during V-phase [min]
• Calculated sludge settling rates (SSR):
0
0,5
1
1,5
2
2,5
3
3,5
4
250 300 350 400 450 500 550 600
Vergleichsschlammvolumen VSV [ml/l]
A
b
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[
m
/
h
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Merkel (1971)
Resch (1981)
ATV-M 210 (1997)
Kayser (1995)
Absetzgeschwindigkeiten der Profilläufe
Absetzgeschwindigkeiten der manuellen
Messungen
250 300 350 400 450 500 550 600
Sludge volume SV30(SU) [mL/L]
Merkel (1971)
Resch (1981)
ATV-M 210 (1997)
Kayser (1995)
Measured settling
rates
MLSS
SU
= 5.54 g/L
SV
30,SU
= 510 mL/L
MLSS
SU
= 5.04 g/L
SV
30,SU
= 440 mL/L
MLSS
SU
= 4.79 g/L
SV
30,SU
= 410 mL/L
MLSS
SU
= 4.05 g/L
SV
30,SU
= 370 mL/L
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45
4
3.5
3
2.5
2
1.5
1
0.5
0
S
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[
m
/
h
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0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1.0
1.2
1.4
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[
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3. Results
• Sludge levels during the Discharge phase „A“:
0
0 , 2
0 , 4
0 , 6
0 , 8
1
1 , 2
1 , 4
1 , 6
1 , 8
2
0 5 1 0 1 5 2 0 2 5 3 0 3 5 4 0 4 5 5 0 5 5 6 0
Z e i t d a u e r [ m i n ]
( a b B e g i n n d e r A - P h a s e )
S
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[
m
]
U R 1 ; T S = 5 , 2 5 g / l ; q A = 0 , 5 5 4 m / h
U R 2 ; T S = 5 , 5 4 g / l ; q A = 1 , 2 8 6 m / h
U R 3 ; T S = 5 , 0 4 g / l ; q A = 0 , 3 2 0 m / h
U R 4 ; T S = 4 , 0 5 g / l ; q A = 1 , 2 8 6 m / h
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1.0
1.2
1.4
1.6
1.8
2
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60
Time during A-phase [min]
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[
m
]
SV
30,SU
= 510 mL/L
SOR = 1.286 m/h
SV
30,SU
= 480 mL/L
SOR = 0.554 m/h
SV
30,SU
= 440 mL/L
SOR = 0.320 m/h
SV
30,SU
= 370 mL/L
SOR = 1.286 m/h
The sludge level during the V-phase
is a function of the sludge volume (SV).
The sludge level during the V-phase
is a function of the sludge volume (SV).
The sludge level during the A-phase
is a function of the sludge volume (SV)
and the surface overflow rate (SOR).
The sludge level during the A-phase
is a function of the sludge volume (SV)
and the surface overflow rate (SOR).
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3. Results
Longitudinal profiles of the solid matter distribution in the SU-
reactor
V-phase
(after 45 min)
V-phase
(after 45 min)
MLSS
SU
= 5.3 g/L MLSS
SU
= 4.1 g/L
0 0.5 1.5 1 2.5 2 3.5 3 4.5 4 5.5 5 6.5 6 7.5 7 8
5 2 8
1
4.5
4
3
3.5
2.5
1.5
2
0.5
0
Klarwasserzone
TS= 0
Absetzzone
1 2 3 4 5 5.25 6
Eindickzone
7 8 9 11 10 12 13 g/l
0
1
2
3
4
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
[m]
Clear
water
zone
Separation
zone
Compression
zone
TS = 0 1 2 3 4 5 5.25 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 [g/L]
4 0 2 1 0.5 1.5 3 2.5 3.5 5 4.5 5.5 6.5 6 7.5 7 8
2
2.5
4.5
4
3
3.5
1
2
1.5
0.5
0
5 9
TS= 0 1 3 2 4
Klarwasserzone Absetzzone Eindickzone
7 5.28 5 6 8 9 10 13 g/l 12 11
0
1
2
3
4
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
[m]
Clear
water
zone
Separation
zone
Compression
zone
TS = 0 1 2 3 4 5 5.28 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 [g/L]
„Break point“
concentration
„Break point“
concentration
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3. Results
A-phase
(after 55 min)
A-phase
(after 55 min)
MLSS
SU
= 5.3 g/L MLSS
SU
= 4.1 g/L
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5 5.5 6 6.5 7
2 5
4
7.5 8
4.5
2.5
3.5
3
2
1.5
8
0.5
1
0
1 0 0.5
2
8 7.5 7 6.5 6 5.5 5 4.5 4 3.5 3 2 2.5 1.5
0
0.5
1
2
2.5
1.5
3
4
3.5
4.5
5 9
Klarwasserzone
TS= 0
Absetzzone
1 2 3 4 5 5.25 6
Eindickzone
7 8 9 11 10 12 13 g/l
0
1
2
3
4
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
[m]
Clear
water
zone
Separation
zone
Compression
zone
TS = 0 1 2 3 4 5 5.25 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 [g/L]
TS= 0 1 3 2 4
Klarwasserzone Absetzzone Eindickzone
7 5.28 5 6 8 9 10 13 g/l 12 11
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
[m]
Clear
water
zone
Separation
zone
Compression
zone
TS = 0 1 2 3 4 5 5.28 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 [g/L]
0
1
2
3
4
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3. Results
• Concentration interchange of the Mixing phase „U“
Problems of
concentration
equalisation measured
(MLSS
SU
> MLSS
B)
Problems of
concentration
equalisation measured
(MLSS
SU
> MLSS
B)
B S
U
Internal sludge
circulation in the SU-
reactor
Internal sludge
circulation in the SU-
reactor
Interchanging rate of
the recirculation pump
= 1.2 • SU-reactor
content
MLSS
B
» 4 g/L
Difference at
both inflow
types
MLSS
B
» 5 g/L
Difference only
during storm
water inflow
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3. Results
Four-phase-Biocos-method
Mixing phase + Sludge recycle phase
Four-phase-Biocos-method
Mixing phase + Sludge recycle phase
Q
out
Q
in
Longitudinal
Section
Plan View
B SU 1
B
SU 1
SU 2
Q
in
Sludge recycling pump
Sludge recycling pump
According to Ingerle, 2003
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4. Summary
Results of investigation:
Results of investigation:
2. During the Discharge phases:
Sludge levels depending on the difference between
sludge settling rate and surface overflow rate
Solid matter distribution comparable to layer formations in
secondary clarifiers with vertical flow
1. During the Settling phases:
Almost linear sludge level decreases depending on sludge volume
Settling processes analogue to well-known hydraulically
uninterrupted settling processes
Intention of investigation:
Intention of investigation:
Determination of solid matter distribution and sludge level
during the Settling and Discharge phases
3. Problematic concentration interchange during the
Circulation phases Þ Four-phase-Biocos-method
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Backup slide 1
Measuring instrument
Measuring instrument
Micro
processor
with display
Stepper motor
Cable drum
Turbidity sensor
Optoelectronical measuring system CUC 101 (Endress + Hauser)
Sensor in stop-position
Sensor in stop-position
Endress + Hauser, 2004
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Backup slide 2
Measurement arrangement
Measurement arrangement
Measuring No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
Phase V V V V A A A A A
Time after
phase start
8 min 19 min 30 min 40 min 12 min 23 min 34 min 44 min 55 min
Defined measuring intervals of the test series
Measuring platforms with the 10 measurement points
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Backup slide 3
Dimensioning of the Biocos reactors
Dimensioning of the Biocos reactors
Biological reactor
Biological reactor
solids suspended liquor mixed Design
age sludge Design production Sludge loading BOD
Volume
5
× ×
=
SU-reactor
SU-reactor
solids suspended liquor Mixed index volume Sludge
L/m²/h) (675 rate loading surface volume Sludge
rate settling Sludge
×
=
rate settling Sludge
inflow water Storm
area Surface ³