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# Aspects of Aircraft Design and Control Olivier Cleynen – March 2013 – v1.3.

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Lecture 6 Propulsion

“NNggnniiiaavvrrooooooaaaaaaarrrrooouuummmmm.....” Jacques Darolles

~ foreword ~

The present notes serve as a support for in-class work, not the opposite! Refer to the introductory course notes for explanations. These notes are used as a succinct introduction to selected topics. They are purposefully incomplete and must not be used for real-life applications.

Feedback is always appreciated: olivier.cleynen ariadacapo.net

These course documents can be found at: http://aircraft.ariadacapo.net/

0/ . modify. You are encouraged to copy.org/licenses/by-sa/3. Some photos and illustrations have their author and specific license indicated on the bottom of the page. and re-use this content under specific conditions: http://creativecommons. All other content is © 2011-2013 CC by-sa Olivier Cleynen.This document is published under a Creative Commons license.

1 Generating thrust: Propulsive efficiency .6.

F net d = m V  dt .

Thrust Thrust = m ˙  V out − V in  .

Do 328 CC by-sa W:KS-U92 .

Do 328 GFDL 1.2 Jeff Gilbert .

Do 328 Jet CC by-sa Vincent Edlinger .

What power is required to generate 20 kN of thrust? Do 328 Do 328 Jet .

Stationary Do 328 at full thrust: Air stream velocity: 30 m/s .

Stationary Do 328-Jet at full thrust: Air stream mass flux: 120 kg/s .

Stream tubes at cruise conditions: .

the smaller the required power “Always grab as much air as you can!” Large engines are fundamentally more efficient ● ● .Propulsion fundamentals ● The greater the mass flow.

high for airliners.Propulsive efficiency ˙ received by aircraft E ηP ≡ ˙ spent on air E low for jet fighters. 100% for road vehicles .

Propulsive efficiency for a turbojet: ηP = F V aircraft m ˙ air Δ e K air F V aircraft 1 2 2 m ˙ air  V out − V in  2 P = → these equations need to be adapted for turbofans .

6.2 Engine Thermodynamics ~now augmented with fluid mechanics~ .

6.2.1 Energy accounting within steady flows .

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Steady Flow Energy Equation 1 2 ˙ + W ˙ m ˙ u 1 + p1 ν 1 + C 1 + g z 1 + Q 2 ( ) 1 2 = m ˙ u2 + p2 ν 2 + C 2 + g z 2 2 ( ) .

Steady Flow Energy Equation ˙ 1→2 + W ˙ 1→2 = Q 1 2 m ΔC + g Δz ˙ Δ u + Δ( p ν) + 2 ( ) .

Steady Flow Energy Equation q 1 → 2 + w1 → 2 = Δ u + Δ ( p ν ) + Δ e m q 1 → 2 + w1 → 2 = Δ h + Δ e m .

2 Stagnation properties .2.6.

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Stagnation enthalpy 1 2 h0 ≡ h + C 2 Enthalpy if fluid brought isentropically to zero velocity .

Stagnation values ● Quantifies energy contained in flow. regardless of its speed → changes in cross-section area have no effect on stagnation values ● Stagnation properties cannot be measured (only calculated) “stagnation” = “total” as opposed to real properties (“static”) ● .

SFEE – introducing stagnation enthalpy ˙ 1→2 + W ˙ 1→2 = m m ˙ ( h0 1 ) + Q ˙ ( h0 2 ) q 1 → 2 + w1 → 2 = Δ h0 .

Stagnation temperature 1 2 cpT0 ≡ cpT + C 2 [for a perfect gas – not water/steam!] .

Stagnation pressure and density 1 2 p0 ≡ p + ρC 2 0 = p0 R T0 [for a perfect gas] .

6.3 Jet engine components .2.

Ideal compressors and turbines T 01 T 02 =   p p0 2 − 1  01 w 1  2 = h 0 2 − h 0 1 = c p  T 0 2− T 0 1  For isentropic (frictionless. infinitely slow) processes .

Ideal inlets and nozzles h01 = h0 2 T 01 = T 02 p01 = p02 No external work done on the fluid Ideal case : frictionless (isentropic) process .

Ideal combustion chambers. afterburners and coolers p01 = p02 q 1  2 = h 0 2 − h 0 1 = c p  T 0 2 −T 0 1  For isentropic (frictionless) flow .

CC by-sa W:Rios .

6.4 Jet engine configurations .2.

The gas generator Useless alone – only produces pressurized air in D .

The turbojet Converting air pressure into air speed .

CC by-sa W: Sanjay Acharya .

Turboprop

Air expanded to ambient pressure in D

CC by-sa Vincent Edlinger

The turbofan

CC by-sa K. Aainsqatsi .

Twin-spool turbofan .

B737) CC by-sa W:David Monniaux .CFM56 (A320 .

CC by-sa Vincent Edlinger .

4.6.5 Jet engine performance and main parameters .

● ● . theoretical thermal efficiency of an engine is very poor (usually 60%) Friction and rapid compression/expansion further reduce this value.Thermodynamics tells us that: ● The thermal efficiency of an engine strongly depends on its maximum temperature The maximum.

Thermal efficiency ηth ˙ received byair E ≡ ˙ engine Q .

Thermal efficiency of a turbojet ηth m ˙ air Δ e K air = m ˙ CC q CC → This equation needs to be adapted for turbofans .

CPR CPR = p0 2 p01 Determines temperature before entry in the combustion chamber → a large CPR increases efficiency Similarly.The compressor [total] pressure ratio. FPR stands for Fan Pressure Ratio .

.Turbine Entry Temperature (TET) ● TET is the highest temperature in the engine → crucial for efficiency Tremendous efforts spent to cool the turbine. ● .. so as to increase TET.

the greater the overall mass flow → leads to increased propulsive efficiency → leads to increased engine weight and diameter .The bypass ratio m ˙ cold BPR = m ˙ hot The greater the BPR.

6.3 Efficiency and Cost .

high TET engines .Overall efficiency  total =  P  th Largest for large BPR. large CPR.

Weight .

-2% SFC ● . 240 kN RR RB-211 4300 kg. 270 kN.Example: power your 747-400 ● GE CF6 4100 kg.

Weight ● Higher compression ratios. larger bypass ratios require heavier machines A 1% decrease in specific fuel consumption will be lost if the weight increases by f × 1% Long-range aircraft most likely to benefit from increased efficiency ● ● .

Cost .

. ● ● .Cost ● The investment required to purchase a product will [needs] always be compared against merely saving money in the bank Not all fuel savings are worth striving for (especially by airlines in need of liquidities) GE Financial Services is more profitable than GE engines..

4 Installation .6.

1 Ducting .6.4.

Duct effect on a free flow (engine-less) .

6.2 Positioning .4.

Engines need to be easily accessible. far away from the cabin. far away from the ground. And: aircraft layout choices have long-lasting impact . far away from the wing.

B-737 .

B-707 CC by-sa W:Mulag .

B737-original CC by-sa W:PhillipC .

B-737 original CC by-sa W:Bryan&altair78 .

B737 classic GFDL 1.2 Konstantin von Wedelstaedt .

737 classic CC by-sa Olivier Cleynen .

B-737 classic PD W:arpingstone .

B737 NG CC by-sa Bill Abbott .

B-737 NG CC by-sa F:Andy_Mitchell_UK .

737 NG CC by F:abdallahh .

A320 CC-0 Olivier Cleynen .

A-320 family CC by-sa Vincent Edlinger .

747-400 #2 pylon CC by-sa Vincent Edlinger .

747 pylons PD [Olivier Cleynen] .

777 pylon (GE version) CC by-sa Vincent Edlinger .

6.3 Accessories .4.

GEnX 2B CC by-sa Olivier Cleynen .

GEnX 2B CC by-sa Olivier Cleynen .

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. ● ● ● ● ● .Engine accessories within the nacelle ● Hydraulic systems Pneumatic circuits (in/out) Lubrication Cooling Mechanical control Monitoring systems..

CC by-sa Vincent Edlinger .

Project 6 Design of a military turbofan .

F-100 PD Shelley Gill/USAF .

Project 6 ● Inlet mass flow is given by aircraft geometry All engine components are off-the-shelf Design a turbofan that is able to produce 70kN thrust with afterburning (wet) Should be as efficient as possible when running dry ● ● ● .